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Objectives

In this lecture you will learn the following

The science of thermodynamics deals with the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one
equilibrium state to another, and makes no reference to how long the process will take. But in engineering, we are often
interested in the rate of heat transfer, which is the topic of the science of heat transfer.

The objective of this lecture is to extend the thermodynamic analysis through study of the modes of heat transfer and through
development of relations to calculate heat transfer rates.

Introduction and Objective:

Introduction:
The science of thermodynamics deals with the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium
state to another, and makes no reference to how long the process will take. But in engineering, we are often interested in the rate
of heat transfer, which is the topic of the science of heat transfer.
Objective:
The objective of this notes is to extend the thermodynamic analysis through study of the modes of heat transfer and through
development of relations to calculate heat transfer rates. In this chapter, we lay the foundation for much of the material treated in
this subject. We do so by appreciating the physical mechanisms that underlie heat transfer processes and the relevance of these
processes to our industrial and environmental problems.

THERMODYNAMICS AND HEAT TRANSFER:

Thermodynamics is concerned with the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to
another, and it gives no indication about how long the process will take. A thermodynamic analysis simply tells us how much heat
must be transferred to realize a specified change of state to satisfy the conservation of energy principle.
In practice, we are concerned with the rate of heat transfer (heat transfer per unit time) than we are with the amount of heat
transfer. For example, we can determine the amount of heat transferred from a thermos flask as the hot milk inside cools from
95oC to 85oC by a thermodynamic analysis alone. But, a designer of the thermos flask is primarily interested in how long it will be
before the hot milk inside cools to 85oC, and a thermodynamic analysis cannot answer this question. Determining the rates of heat
transfer to or from a system and thus the time of cooling or heating, as well as the variation of temperature, is the subject of heat
transfer.
Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states and changes from one equilibrium state to another. Heat transfer, on the other
hand, deals with systems that lack thermal equilibrium, and thus it is a non-equilibrium phenomenon. Therefore, the study of heat
transfer cannot be based on the principles of thermodynamics alone. However, the laws of thermodynamics lay the framework for
the science of heat transfer. The first law requires that the rate of energy transfer into a system be equal to the rate of increase of
the energy of that system. The second lawrequires that heat be transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature. It is
analogous to the electric current flowing in the direction of decreasing voltage or the fluid flowing in the direction of decreasing
pressure.

DEFINITION OF HEAT TRANSFER

Heat transfer is energy in transit due to temperature difference . Whenever there exists a temperature difference in a medium or
between media, heat transfer must occur. The basic requirement for heat transfer is the presence of temperature difference .
There can be no net heat transfer between two mediums that are at the same temperature. The temperature difference is the
driving force for heat transfer, just as the voltage difference is thedriving force for electric current flow and pressure difference is
the driving force for fluid flow. The rate of heat transfer in a certain direction depends on the magnitude of the temperature
gradient (the temperature difference per unit length or the rate of change of temperature) in that direction. The larger the
temperature gradient, the higher the rate of heat transfer.

MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER : There are three modes of heat transfer namely conduction, convection and
Conduction : Conduction refers to the heat transfer that occurs across the medium. Medium can be solid or a fluid.

Convection : Convection refers to the heat transfer that will occur between a surface and a moving fluid when they
are at different temperatures.

Radiation : In radiation, in the absence of intervening medium, there is net heat transfer between two surfaces at
different temperatures in the form of electromagnetic waves.

PHYSICAL ORIGINS AND RATE EQUATIONS:

It is important to understand the physical mechanisms which underlie the heat transfer modes and that we are able
to use the rate equations that quantify the amount of energy being transferred per unit time.
Conduction:
Conduction can be imagined as a atomic or molecular activity which involves the transfer of energy from the more
energetic to the less energetic particles of a substance due to interactions between the particles.

Explanation:
The physical mechanism of conduction is explained as follows:
Consider a gas in which there exists a temperature gradient and assume that there is no bulk motion. The gas may
occupy the space between two surfaces that are maintained at different temperatures, as shown in Figure 1.2. The
temperature at any point is associated with the energy of gas molecules in proximity to the point. This energy is
related to the random translational motion, as well as to the internal rotational and vibrational motions, of the
molecules.

Higher temperatures are associated with higher molecular energies, and when neighboring molecules collide, as they
are constantly doing, a transfer of energy from the more energetic to the less energetic molecules must occur. In the
presence of the temperature gradient, energy transfer by conduction must then occur in the direction of decreasing
temperature. This transfer is evident in the Figure 1.2. The hypothetical plane at xo is constantly being crossed by
molecules from above and below due to their random motion. However, molecules from above are associated with a
larger temperature than those from below, in which case there must be a net transfer of energy in the
positive x- direction. Hence, the net transfer of energy by random molecular motion may be thought of asdiffusion of
energy.
It is possible to quantify heat transfer processes in terms of appropriate rate equations. These equations may be used
to compute the amount of energy being transferred per unit time. The rate equation for heat conduction is known
as Fourier's Law. The rate equation for the one dimensional plane wall shown in Figure below, having a temperature
distribution T(x) is given by

The heat flux

(W/m2) is the heat transfer rate in the x -direction per unit area perpendicular to the direction of
transfer, and it is proportional to the the temperature gradient, dT/dx , in this direction. The proportionality constantk is
a transport property known as the thermal conductivity (W/m.K) and is a characteristic of the wall material. The minus
sign is a consequence of the fact that the heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature.

Under the steady state conditions shown in Figure 1.3, where the temperature distribution is linear, the temperature