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Process Dynamics and Control : Chapter 8 Lectures

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Feedback Controllers

system.

Chapter 8

On-Off Controllers

Simple

Cheap

Used In residential heating and domestic refrigerators

Limited use in process control due to continuous

cycling of controlled variable excessive wear

on control valve.

Chapter 8

Synonyms:

two-position or bang-bang controllers.

3

Chapter 8

Next we consider the three basic control modes starting with the

simplest mode, proportional control.

Chapter 8

Proportional Control

In feedback control, the objective is to reduce the error signal to

zero where

e ( t ) = ysp ( t ) ym ( t )

and

e (t )

(8-1)

= error signal

ym ( t ) = measured value of the controlled variable

(or equivalent signal from the sensor/transmitter)

5

Although Eq. 8-1 indicates that the set point can be time-varying,

in many process control problems it is kept constant for long

periods of time.

Chapter 8

the error signal,

p ( t ) = p + Kce ( t )

(8-2)

where:

p ( t ) = controller output

p = bias (steady-state) value

K c = controller gain (usually dimensionless)

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

output changes as sensitive as desired to deviations between

set point and controlled variable;

2. the sign of Kc can be chosed to make the controller output

increase (or decrease) as the error signal increases.

For proportional controllers, bias p can be adjusted, a procedure

referred to as manual reset.

Some controllers have a proportional band setting instead of a

controller gain. The proportional band PB (in %) is defined as

100%

PB =

Kc

(8-3)

controller (without saturation limits), define a deviation variable

p ( t ) as

p ( t ) =

p (t ) p

(8-4)

Chapter 8

p ( t ) = K c e ( t )

(8-5)

P ( s )

E (s)

= Kc

(8-6)

steady-state error occurs after a set-point change or a sustained

disturbance.

9

Integral Control

Chapter 8

integral of the error signal over time,

1

p (t ) = p +

I

0 e ( t *)dt *

t

(8-7)

or reset time, has units of time.

Integral control action is widely used because it provides an

important practical advantage, the elimination of offset.

Consequently, integral control action is normally used in

conjunction with proportional control as the proportional-integral

(PI) controller:

1

p ( t ) = p + Kc e ( t ) +

I

0 e ( t *) dt *

t

(8-8)

10

t

p ( t ) = p + K c e ( t ) + e ( t ) dt

I 0

Chapter 8

unit step change in e(t).

11

Chapter 8

(i.e., offset) Why??? e 0 p is changing with

time until e = 0, where p reaches steady state.

ysp

12

Eq. 8-8 is given by

P ( s )

Chapter 8

I s +1

1

= K c 1 +

= Kc

E (s)

s

s

(8-9)

(repeats per minute) rather than I (minutes, or minutes per

repeat).

Reset Windup

phenomenon known as reset windup or integral windup.

Recall that the integral mode causes the controller output to

change as long as e(t*) 0 in Eq. 8-8.

13

quite large and the controller output eventually saturates.

Chapter 8

saturated is referred to as reset windup or integral windup.

Derivative Control

The function of derivative control action is to anticipate the future

behavior of the error signal by considering its rate of change.

The anticipatory strategy used by the experienced operator can

be incorporated in automatic controllers by making the

controller output proportional to the rate of change of the error

signal or the controlled variable.

14

p (t ) = p + D

de ( t )

dt

(8-10)

Chapter 8

For example, an ideal PD controller has the transfer function:

P ( s )

E (s)

= K c (1 + D s )

(8-11)

tends to stabilize the controlled process.

Unfortunately, the ideal proportional-derivative control

algorithm in Eq. 8-10 is physically unrealizable because it

cannot be implemented exactly.

15

approximated by

P ( s )

Chapter 8

Ds

= K c 1 +

E (s)

s

+

1

D

(8-12)

0.2, with 0.1 being a common choice.

In Eq. 8-12 the derivative term includes a derivative mode

filter (also called a derivative filter) that reduces the sensitivity

of the control calculations to high-frequency noise in the

measurement.

16

Now we consider the combination of the proportional, integral,

and derivative control modes as a PID controller.

Chapter 8

Next, we consider the three most common forms.

Parallel Form of PID Control

derivative filter) is given by

1

p ( t ) = p + K c e ( t ) +

I

de ( t )

0 e ( t *) dt * + D dt

t

(8-13)

17

P ( s )

Chapter 8

1

= K c 1 +

+ Ds

E (s)

I s

(8-14)

controllers (both electronic and pneumatic) so that a PI element

and a PD element operated in series.

Commercial versions of the series-form controller have a

derivative filter that is applied to either the derivative term, as in

Eq. 8-12, or to the PD term, as in Eq. 8-15:

P ( s )

I s + 1 D s + 1

= Kc

E (s)

s

s

+

1

I D

(8-15)

18

expanded form of PID control in Eq. 8-16 is sometimes used:

t

de ( t )

dt

Chapter 8

p ( t ) = p + K c e ( t ) + K I e ( t *) dt * + K D

(8-16)

Elimination of Derivative and Proportional Kick

One disadvantage of the previous PID controllers is that a

sudden change in set point (and hence the error, e) will cause the

derivative term momentarily to become very large and thus

provide a derivative kick to the final control element.

19

the derivative action on the measurement, ym, rather than on the

error signal, e.

Chapter 8

the parallel form of PID control in Eq. 8-13.

Replacing de/dt by dym/dt gives

1

p ( t ) = p + K c e ( t ) +

I

dym ( t )

0 e ( t *) dt * D dt

t

(8-17)

The controller gain can be made either negative or positive.

20

increases as its input signal ym(t) decreases, as can be seen by

combining Eqs. 8-2 and 8-1:

Chapter 8

p ( t ) p = K c ysp ( t ) ym ( t )

(8-22)

When Kc < 0, the controller is said to be direct acting because

the controller output increases as the input increases.

Equations 8-2 through 8-16 describe how controllers perform

during the automatic mode of operation.

However, in certain situations the plant operator may decide to

override the automatic mode and adjust the controller output

manually.

21

Chapter 8

and direct-acting

proportional

controllers. (a) reverse

acting (Kc > 0. (b)

direct acting (Kc < 0)

22

Chapter 8

Assume FT is direct-acting.

1. Air-to-open (fail close) valve ==> ?

2. Air-to-close (fail open) valve ==> ?

23

Chapter 8

Automatic Mode

Controller output, p(t), depends on e(t), controller

constants, and type of controller used.

( PI vs. PID etc.)

Manual Mode

Controller output, p(t), is adjusted manually.

Manual Mode is very useful when unusual

conditions exist:

plant start-up

plant shut-down

emergencies

Percentage of controllers "on manual ??

(30% in 2001, Honeywell survey)

24

PID Controller

Ideal controller

Chapter 8

t

1

de

p( t ) = p + K c e( t ) + e( t )dt + D

dt

I 0

P(s)

1

= K c 1 +

+ Ds

E(s)

Is

Is + 1 Ds + 1

P(s)

= K c

E(s)

Is Ds + 1

= small number (0.05 to 0.20)

25

Chapter 8

Controller Comparison

P

- Offset with sustained disturbance or setpoint

change.

PI

Better performance than P

No offset

Most popular FB controller

PID

Better performance than PI

No offset

Derivative action may be affected by noise

26

Chapter 8

Consider response of a controlled system after a

sustained disturbance occurs (e.g., step change in

the disturbance variable)

27

Chapter 8

Figure 8.13.

Proportional control:

effect of controller

gain.

control: effect of

derivative time.

28

Chapter 8

controller gain.

29

Control

Chapter 8

form of the PID controller (Eq. 8-13) is to replace the integral and

derivative terms by finite difference approximations,

k

0 e ( t *) dt e j t

(8-24)

de ek ek 1

t

dt

(8-25)

j =1

where:

measurements of the controlled variable)

ek = error at the kth sampling instant for k = 1, 2,

30

Chapter 8

equation, the position form and the velocity form. Substituting (824) and (8-25) into (8-13), gives the position form,

D

t k

pk = p + K c ek + e j +

( ek ek 1 )

t

1 j =1

(8-26)

other symbols in Eq. 8-26 have the same meaning as in Eq. 8-13.

Equation 8-26 is referred to as the position form of the PID

control algorithm because the actual value of the controller output

is calculated.

31

Chapter 8

calculated. The velocity form can be derived by writing the

position form of (8-26) for the (k-1) sampling instant:

D

t k

pk = p + K c ek + e j +

( ek ek 1 )

t

1 j =1

(8-26)

that the process is at the desired steady state for

j 0 and thus ej = 0 for j 0. Subtracting (8-27) from (8-26)

gives the velocity form of the digital PID algorithm:

D

t

pk = pk pk 1 = K c ( ek ek 1 ) + ek +

( ek 2ek 1 + ek 2 )

t

I

(8-28)

32

The velocity form has three advantages over the position form:

Chapter 8

summation of errors is not explicitly calculated.

2. This output is expressed in a form, pk, that can be utilized

directly by some final control elements, such as a control

valve driven by a pulsed stepping motor.

3. For the velocity algorithm, transferring the controller from

manual to automatic mode does not require any initialization

of the output ( p in Eq. 8-26). However, the control valve (or

other final control element) should be placed in the

appropriate position prior to the transfer.

33

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