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2014

2014

01 Contract

Blacks Law Dictionary( Garner, 2009: 365) contract




2003:312

contract

581
645

2003:139

1122
771

1992:94

2003:135
220 589

2014

1995:27 1644 1911

2003:139

o f t h e C h i n e s e L a n g u a g e )

instrument written agreement 2008

(Robert Morrison) 1819 ( A Dictionary

contract

(Chen, 2011:18; Chen, 2003:455)

(Li and Li, 2013:25 26)


Douglas North

(enforcement of contractual rights)


(North and Thomas, 1973)

(Chen, 2011:1 2)
(1901 1911) 513
1
2012:151

1.

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( common law)

01
Contract

( civil law continental law)


kontrakt vertrag contrat pacte
1 9 0 9
9259262003:140

1949

1992:98

(reconcile)

future contingencies
Beatson, Burrows and Cartwright, 2010:3
Poole, 2010:16

(1)

(value of exchange)

(2)

(standard of performance)

(3)

(allocation of economic risks)

(4)

(contract may provide for


what is to happen if things go wrong)(Beatson, Burrows and
Cartwright, 2010:3)

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( stare
decisis )


( precedent) (identical) (similar)

(binding) 2 (Garner,
2009:1295 1296, 1537 Law and Martin, 2009:524)

19 20

2012:14 15

2011a:VI,
VIII2006:67

FrustrationForce Majeure

3.1
( l e g a l l y
binding agreement)

(Law and Martin, 2009:130131)

2. (Court of Final Appeal)


(per incuriam)

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(estoppel)

01
Contract

/ (consideration)

(1)

(intention to create

(2)

legal relations)
(3)

(capacity to contract)

(4)

(compliance with any formal legal


requirements)

(legal)

(6)

(must not be rendered

void either by common law rule or statue)

(5)

(acceptance)

(offer)
Offer Acceptance
C a p a c i t y I l l e g a l i t y

consideration/Denning L. J.
Combe v Combe [1951] 2 KB 215 consideration

(cardinal necessity
of the formation of a contract)

2003:312 313

Thomas v Thomas (1842) 2 QB 851


(promisee)
(promisor) (consideration of
some value)Thomas v Thomas(1842) 2 QB 851

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John Thomas

John Thomas
( in consideration of
such desire )

Patteson J.

(motive)

Combe v Combe [1951] 2 KB 215

Combe v Combe [1951] 2 KB 215


100 maintenance

Court of Appeal
Divorce Court

exchange of promises with value


Denning L. J.

intention

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01

2003:312 313 799

Contract

consideration

2009

666

(intention)
(presumption)
1
(social) (domestic)
(Balfour v Balfour [1919] 2 KB 571)2 (commercial)

Intention

1997:60

3.2
2010:16
( Strict Liability Principle )
( Fault Liability Principle)

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2011b:428 432
2010:16 2011:271

Frustration Force Majeure

2011:40
107

109 111

2011:271

2011b:436 449

118

118

2011:271
3.3

( damages)

Poole, 2010:340Robinson v Harman(1848) 1 Ex 850, Surrey


County Council v Bredero Homes Ltd [1993] WLR 961)

(Malik v BCCI
[1998] 1 AC 20)
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/
(Beatson, Burrows and

01
Contract

(specific performance)

Cartwright, 2010:575)

110 112
Damages Specific Performance

3.4

(formation and interpretation of contract)

( general concept of good faith)

( objective )

Lord Steyn (1991:132)

(enforceable contract)
( reasonable man standard )

( subjective)

2011a:7

2000

2011:231

(exemption clause)
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( Alderslade v Hendon Laundry Ltd [1945] 1 KB 189)

2002:319
(fraudulent misrepresentation)

(Derry v Peek [1889] 14 App Cas 337, 374)

68 93 695

(implied duty

to cooperate) Mitwirkungspflicht

virtue of his obligation to cooperate


(Sims, 2005:297)
( Napoleon Code) ( force majeure)

( Matsoukis v Priestman & Co (1915), 1 KB 681Paulus and


Meeuwig, 1999:314)Force Majeure

26
(Sale of Goods Ordinance, Cap 26) 21(1)
341 (Arbitration Ordinance,
Cap 341)

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01

Contract

2011a

2011b

2003
312313

23

constitutionalcourt/p03_01.asp?expno=666 2013 12

666 2009 www.judicial.gov.tw/

2012

35 1617
2011
Robert Morrison2008Dictionary of the
Chinese Language

2003
6 134148
2012

1997
2 5662
www.cidianwang.com/shuowenjiezi/
yue8055.htm2013 9 15

1995

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2006
7 6467
1992 2
93104

2000

2003 English-Chinese Dictionary of


Anglo-American Law

2011
4 271
2012
2 1415

2011

1 3663
Beatson, J., Burrows, A. and Cartwright, J. (2010). Ansons Law of
Contract. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chen, A. H. Y. (2011). An Introduction to the Legal System of the People's
Republic of China. Hong Kong: LexisNexis.
Chen, Z. (2003). Capital markets and legal development: The China
case, China Economic Review, 14: 451472.
Garner, B. A. (Ed.) (2009). Blacks Law Dictionary (9th Ed.). St. Paul,
MN: West.
Law, J. and Martin, A. E. (2009). Oxford Dictionary of Law. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Li, Y. M. and Li, Y. L. (2013). Is there a positive relationship between
law and economic growth? A paradox in China, Asian Social Science,
9: 1930.

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Paulus, J. R. and Meeuwig, D. J. (1999). Force majeure Beyond

01
Contract

North, D. and Thomas, R. P. (1973). The Rise of the Western World: A New
Economic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

boilerplate, Alberta Law Review, 37: 302315.


Poole, J. (2010). Textbook on Contract Law. New York: Oxford University
Press.
Sims, V. (2005). Good faith in Contract Law: Of triggers and concentric
circles, Kings College Law Journal, 16: 293310.

Steyn, J. (1991). Role of good faith and fair dealing in Contract Law: A
hair-shirt philosophy, Denning Journal, 6:131142.


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