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Introduction about acoustic physics

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1.2. Simple Harmonic Oscillation (SHO): A mass m moving through a distance x while

attached to a spring serves as a model simple harmonic oscillator.

s

m

x

x=0

Equilibrium: Position of m for which the spring is relaxed and exerts no force on the mass;

convenient to choose origin where x = 0.

Restoring force [N]: When the spring is stretched by an applied force, there is a force that tends

to restore the system to equilibrium.

Mass [kg] has inertia, the property of persisting in whatever state of motion the system already

has.

In the case of a spring, the force exerted on the mass is a function of the displacement.

Expanding in a Taylor series,

df

1 d2 f

f x f 0 x 2 x 2 ...

2 dx x 0

dx x 0

Now, f f 0 at equilibrium, and assuming small displacements, so that nonlinear terms are

negligible, then

df

f x sx (Hookes Law)

dx x 0

Where f is the restoring force [N], s is the stiffness (or spring) constant [N/m], and x is the

displacement [m]. Note the negative sign because f is opposed to x.

Applying Newtons 2nd Law (for constant mass):

d2 x

f m 2 sx

dt

where

d2x

is the acceleration of the mass. Rearranging gives the Equation of Motion (EOM) for

dt 2

d2 x s

x0

dt 2 m

Identifying the natural angular frequency, 0 [rad/s], as 0

s

, the solution for the EOM can

m

be written as

B

A2 B2 and Tan1 . The relationship between the natural frequency, f0

A

2

where C

Intrinsic properties: s, m, 0

These do not depend on how the system is used.

Extrinsic properties: A, B, C,

These are determined by external influences, and are dependent on initial conditions.

1.3. Example 1: If position (x0) and velocity (u0) are specified at one time (usually at t = 0), then A

and B, or C and can be determined. Find A and B.

Sol:

Ans:

x t x0 cos 0 t

u0

sin 0 t

0

1.5. Complex Exponential Method: An alternate approach to solving the EOM is to use the

complex exponential method. Let x Ae t and substitute into the EOM. This yields

d2

s

Ae t Ae t 0

2

m

dt

2 Ae t

s

Ae t 0

m

2

are j

s

0 , and the two roots for the solution

m

s

j0 . Thus the complete solution is

m

x A1 e j0t A2 e j0t

Ans:

A1

dx 0

dt

u 0 u0 to find A1 , A2 .

u0

u0

1

1

x0 j , A2 x0 j . Note that A1 and A2 complex conjugates.

2

0

2

0

Lets compare this to the previously obtained solution. Plugging in A1 , A2 and rearranging

terms gives

u0 j0t 1

u

1

x0 j 0 e j0t

x0 j e

2

0

2

0

x

1 u0 j0t

0 e j0t e j0t j

e

e j0t

2

2 0

e j cos j sin

e j cos j sin

1 j

e e j

2

1 j

sin

e e j

2j

cos

x0 j0t

1 u0 j0t

e

e j0t j

e

e j0t

2

2 0

x0 j0t

1 u0 j0t

e

e j0t

e

e j0t

2

2 j 0

x0 cos 0t

u0

sin 0t

0

1.4. Energy: The total mechanical energy, E [J], is the sum of the potential energy, Ep, and the

kinetic energy, Ek.

Ep is the work done by distorting the spring from its equilibrium position. Force exerted on the

x

1 2

sx .

2

1 2

mu .

2

dx

0 C sin 0 t , and 0

dt

s

. Therefore,

m

1 2 1 2

sx mu

2

2

1 2

1

sC cos 2 0 t m0 2 C 2 sin 2 0 t

2

2

1

1

m0 2 C 2 cos 2 0 t m0 2 C 2 sin 2 0 t

2

2

1

m0 2 C 2

2

E E p Ek

Note that E is constant with time and is equal to the maximum values of both Ep (when Ek = 0)

and Ek (when Ep = 0).

1.6 Damped Harmonic Oscillation: Once set into oscillation, the SHO will continue to oscillate

forever with the same amplitude at the radian frequency.

To make the model more realistic, there should be some friction (dissipative forces) acting on

the moving mass so that the oscillations die down. Schematically, this is represented by a

dashpot (or shock absorber) in parallel with the spring as

Viscous friction: A force proportional to the speed of the mass, and directed opposite to the

motion.

f R Rm

dx

dt

where Rm > 0 and is called mechanical resistance [N*s/m] (= [kg/s]) of the system.

Adding this additional force, the revised equation of motion becomes:

d 2 x Rm dx s

x0

m dt m

dt 2

We can solve this using the complex exponential method. Let x Ae t , and substitute into the

above equation.

Rm d

d2

s

t

t

Ae

Ae

Ae t 0

2

m dt

m

dt

Rm

m

s

0

m

2

Rm

s

R

m

2m

2m m

2 0 2

where

Rm

and 0

2m

s

.

m

1. If 0 , overdamped; does not oscillate

2. If 0 , critically damped

3. If 0 , underdamped; oscillates and decays

Cases 1 and 2 have no oscillations as the mass asymptotically approaches its equilibrium point.

However, case 3 contains damped oscillations.

2

solution is,

x e t A1 e jdt A2 e jdt

The real part of the complex solution is by itself a complete general solution (see Kinsler et al.,

page 6), so we can write

x t Re x Ae t cos d t

The amplitude of the oscillation is Ae t , thus it decays exponentially over time. The time

constant where the amplitude decays to 1/e of its initial value is defined as

1 2m

.

Rm

Example 3: Consider m = 0.01 kg, s = 25 N/m, and Rm = 0.2 kg/s. Find , 0, and d.

Ans: = 10, 0 = 50, and d = 49 (all in [rad/s]).

Graphically, we can observe how changing the mechanical resistance alters the oscillatory

response.

0.8

0.8

m = 0.01 kg

s = 25 N/m

Rm = 0.2 kg/s

0.4

m = 0.01 kg

s = 25 N/m

Rm = 0.1 kg/s

0.4

0.0

0.0

-0.4

-0.4

-0.8

-0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.4

0.6

Now consider the simple oscillator driven by an externally applied force f(t).

d 2 x Rm dx s

x f t

m dt m

dt 2

The total solution for the forced oscillator will be the sum of the transient solution and the

steady state solution if f(t) is harmonic (sinusoidal). The transient solution is found by setting

the amplitude, F, to 0 (i.e. the previously obtained solution).

The steady-state solution is found by assuming that the displacement, x, has the same form (and

same angular frequency) as the driving force, f. Thus, the EOM is

d 2 x Rm dx s

x Fe jt

2

m dt m

dt

And

x Ae jt

Rm d

d2

s

jt

jt

Ae

Ae

Ae jt Fe jt

2

m dt

m

dt

R

s

2 A j m A A F

m

m

F

A

s

j Rm j m

Thus, the equations for complex displacement and complex velocity are

x Ae

jt

Fe jt

s

j Rm j m

j t

dx

Fe

u

j x

dt

s

Rm j m

The actual displacement and speed are found by taking the real part of these.

f

[N*s/m]. (Similar to V/I for circuits, i.e.

u

mechanical ohms).

Substituting in for the force and velocity,

Fe jt

f

s

Zm

Rm j m

u

jt

Fe

Rm j m

There are real and imaginary parts to the mechanical impedance ( Z m Rm jX m ). The real part

is the mechanical resistance and the imaginary part is the mechanical reactance, X m m

s

.

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