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ECE 473, Spring 2015

Course Notes Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Fundamentals of Vibration


1.2. Simple Harmonic Oscillation (SHO): A mass m moving through a distance x while
attached to a spring serves as a model simple harmonic oscillator.

s
m

x
x=0
Equilibrium: Position of m for which the spring is relaxed and exerts no force on the mass;
convenient to choose origin where x = 0.
Restoring force [N]: When the spring is stretched by an applied force, there is a force that tends
to restore the system to equilibrium.
Mass [kg] has inertia, the property of persisting in whatever state of motion the system already
has.

In the case of a spring, the force exerted on the mass is a function of the displacement.
Expanding in a Taylor series,

df
1 d2 f
f x f 0 x 2 x 2 ...
2 dx x 0
dx x 0
Now, f f 0 at equilibrium, and assuming small displacements, so that nonlinear terms are
negligible, then

df
f x sx (Hookes Law)
dx x 0
Where f is the restoring force [N], s is the stiffness (or spring) constant [N/m], and x is the
displacement [m]. Note the negative sign because f is opposed to x.
Applying Newtons 2nd Law (for constant mass):

d2 x
f m 2 sx
dt

ECE 473, Spring 2015

where

Course Notes Chapter 1

d2x
is the acceleration of the mass. Rearranging gives the Equation of Motion (EOM) for
dt 2

a system with no loss:

d2 x s
x0
dt 2 m
Identifying the natural angular frequency, 0 [rad/s], as 0

s
, the solution for the EOM can
m

be written as

x t A cos 0 t B sin 0 t C cos 0 t

B
A2 B2 and Tan1 . The relationship between the natural frequency, f0
A

[Hz], and natural angular frequency is f0 0 .


2
where C

Intrinsic properties: s, m, 0
These do not depend on how the system is used.
Extrinsic properties: A, B, C,
These are determined by external influences, and are dependent on initial conditions.

1.3. Example 1: If position (x0) and velocity (u0) are specified at one time (usually at t = 0), then A
and B, or C and can be determined. Find A and B.
Sol:

Ans:

x t x0 cos 0 t

u0
sin 0 t
0

ECE 473, Spring 2015

Course Notes Chapter 1

1.5. Complex Exponential Method: An alternate approach to solving the EOM is to use the
complex exponential method. Let x Ae t and substitute into the EOM. This yields

d2
s
Ae t Ae t 0
2
m
dt

2 Ae t

s
Ae t 0
m

For a nontrivial solution ( A 0 ), we must set 2


2

are j

s
0 , and the two roots for the solution
m

s
j0 . Thus the complete solution is
m

x A1 e j0t A2 e j0t

Example 2: Apply the initial conditions x 0 x0 ,

Ans:

A1

dx 0
dt

u 0 u0 to find A1 , A2 .

u0
u0
1
1
x0 j , A2 x0 j . Note that A1 and A2 complex conjugates.
2
0
2
0

Lets compare this to the previously obtained solution. Plugging in A1 , A2 and rearranging
terms gives

u0 j0t 1
u
1
x0 j 0 e j0t
x0 j e
2
0
2
0
x
1 u0 j0t
0 e j0t e j0t j
e
e j0t
2
2 0

Recall Eulers expressions (Appendix A2): MEMORIZE

e j cos j sin
e j cos j sin

1 j
e e j
2
1 j
sin
e e j
2j
cos

ECE 473, Spring 2015

Course Notes Chapter 1

Thus we can write

x0 j0t
1 u0 j0t
e
e j0t j
e
e j0t
2
2 0

x0 j0t
1 u0 j0t
e
e j0t
e
e j0t
2
2 j 0

x0 cos 0t

u0
sin 0t
0

1.4. Energy: The total mechanical energy, E [J], is the sum of the potential energy, Ep, and the
kinetic energy, Ek.
Ep is the work done by distorting the spring from its equilibrium position. Force exerted on the
x

spring is in the direction of the displacement, sx: E p fdx sxdx

The kinetic energy possessed by the mass is given by Ek

Recall that x t C cos 0 t , u t

1 2
sx .
2

1 2
mu .
2

dx
0 C sin 0 t , and 0
dt

s
. Therefore,
m

the total energy is

1 2 1 2
sx mu
2
2
1 2
1
sC cos 2 0 t m0 2 C 2 sin 2 0 t
2
2
1
1
m0 2 C 2 cos 2 0 t m0 2 C 2 sin 2 0 t
2
2
1
m0 2 C 2
2

E E p Ek

Note that E is constant with time and is equal to the maximum values of both Ep (when Ek = 0)
and Ek (when Ep = 0).

ECE 473, Spring 2015

Course Notes Chapter 1

1.6 Damped Harmonic Oscillation: Once set into oscillation, the SHO will continue to oscillate
forever with the same amplitude at the radian frequency.
To make the model more realistic, there should be some friction (dissipative forces) acting on
the moving mass so that the oscillations die down. Schematically, this is represented by a
dashpot (or shock absorber) in parallel with the spring as

Viscous friction: A force proportional to the speed of the mass, and directed opposite to the
motion.

f R Rm

dx
dt

where Rm > 0 and is called mechanical resistance [N*s/m] (= [kg/s]) of the system.
Adding this additional force, the revised equation of motion becomes:

d 2 x Rm dx s

x0
m dt m
dt 2
We can solve this using the complex exponential method. Let x Ae t , and substitute into the
above equation.

Rm d
d2
s
t
t
Ae

Ae

Ae t 0
2
m dt
m
dt

Rm
m

s
0
m
2

Rm
s
R
m
2m
2m m

2 0 2
where

Rm
and 0
2m

s
.
m

ECE 473, Spring 2015

Course Notes Chapter 1

There are three possible cases for this solution.


1. If 0 , overdamped; does not oscillate
2. If 0 , critically damped
3. If 0 , underdamped; oscillates and decays
Cases 1 and 2 have no oscillations as the mass asymptotically approaches its equilibrium point.
However, case 3 contains damped oscillations.
2

Define d 0 as the damped angular frequency. Then jd , and the complete


solution is,

x e t A1 e jdt A2 e jdt

The real part of the complex solution is by itself a complete general solution (see Kinsler et al.,
page 6), so we can write

x t Re x Ae t cos d t
The amplitude of the oscillation is Ae t , thus it decays exponentially over time. The time
constant where the amplitude decays to 1/e of its initial value is defined as

1 2m
.

Rm

Example 3: Consider m = 0.01 kg, s = 25 N/m, and Rm = 0.2 kg/s. Find , 0, and d.
Ans: = 10, 0 = 50, and d = 49 (all in [rad/s]).

Graphically, we can observe how changing the mechanical resistance alters the oscillatory
response.
0.8

0.8

m = 0.01 kg
s = 25 N/m
Rm = 0.2 kg/s

0.4

m = 0.01 kg
s = 25 N/m
Rm = 0.1 kg/s

0.4

0.0

0.0

-0.4

-0.4

-0.8

-0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.4

0.6

ECE 473, Spring 2015

Course Notes Chapter 1

1.7 Forced Oscillations


Now consider the simple oscillator driven by an externally applied force f(t).

The EOM becomes

d 2 x Rm dx s

x f t
m dt m
dt 2
The total solution for the forced oscillator will be the sum of the transient solution and the
steady state solution if f(t) is harmonic (sinusoidal). The transient solution is found by setting
the amplitude, F, to 0 (i.e. the previously obtained solution).
The steady-state solution is found by assuming that the displacement, x, has the same form (and
same angular frequency) as the driving force, f. Thus, the EOM is

d 2 x Rm dx s

x Fe jt
2
m dt m
dt
And

x Ae jt
Rm d
d2
s
jt
jt
Ae

Ae

Ae jt Fe jt
2
m dt
m
dt
R
s
2 A j m A A F
m
m
F
A

s
j Rm j m

ECE 473, Spring 2015

Course Notes Chapter 1

Thus, the equations for complex displacement and complex velocity are

x Ae

jt

Fe jt

s
j Rm j m

j t
dx
Fe
u
j x
dt

s
Rm j m

The actual displacement and speed are found by taking the real part of these.

We define the complex mechanical impedance Z m

f
[N*s/m]. (Similar to V/I for circuits, i.e.
u

mechanical ohms).
Substituting in for the force and velocity,

Fe jt

f
s

Zm
Rm j m
u

jt
Fe

Rm j m

There are real and imaginary parts to the mechanical impedance ( Z m Rm jX m ). The real part
is the mechanical resistance and the imaginary part is the mechanical reactance, X m m

s
.