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Journal of sound and Vibration (1980) 70(2), 221-229

NATURAL

FREQUENCIES

SUPPORTED

CIRCULAR

OF SIMPLY
PLATES

A. W. LEISSA AND Y. NARITA~


Department of Engineering Mechanics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210,
(Received 5 July 1979, and in revised form 4 December

U.S.A.

1979)

Although the problem of finding the natural frequencies of free vibration of a simply
supported circular plate has a straightforward solution, very few numerical results are
available in the literature. In the present work accurate (six significant figure) nondimensional frequency parameters (A) are given for all values of n + s 6 10, where n and s
are the numbers of nodal diameters and internal nodal circles, respectively, and for
Poissons ratios 0,0.1,. . . , 0.5. Simplified formulas for determining additional values of A2
for large s are derived by the use of asymptotic expansions.

1. INTRODUCTION
The free vibrations of circular plates have been of practical and academic interest for at
least a century and a half [ 1,23. A thorough summary of the previously published literature
through the year 1965 [3] revealed that a reasonable number of numerical results had been
obtained for the two cases when the plate boundary is either clamped or free, but that few
results were available for the simply supported boundary. A subsequent literature survey
[4], as well as a further search of the literature by the present authors, turned up only one
other significant publication on the simply supported case, namely, that of Pardoen [5],
wherein 12 frequencies previously given in reference [3] for a Poissons ratio of 0.3 were
compared against results obtained from a finite element method. In contrast is the recent
work by Itao and Crandall[6] who published the lowest 701 eigenvalues (non-dimensional frequency parameters) and corresponding eigenvectors (defining the mode shapes
of free vibration) for the completely free plate having a Poissons ratio of O-33.
The purpose of the present work is to determine accurate and extensive numerical
results for the case of simply supported edges, which are useful to both designers and
researchers, and to examine carefully what forms the solutions take when large numbers of
nodal circles and/or nodal diameters are present.
2.

THE FREQUENCY EQUATION

The solution of the equation of motion of classical plate theory for the case of free
vibrations is well known (cf. [3]):
W,,(r, 0) =

[A,,
J, (kr) + GI,, (kr)] cos no,

(1)

where W,, is the deflected shape of the vibrating plate, generally a function of both polar
co-ordinates, r and 8 (see Figure l), J,(kr) and I,(kr) are ordinary and modified Bessel
functions of the first kind, respectively, n is an integer, and k is related to the radian
t On leave from Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

221
0022-460X/80/100221+ 10 %02.00/O

@ 1980Academic Press Inc. (London) Limited

222

A. W. LEISSA

AND

Y. NARITA

iIlE++c
Figure 1. Simply supported circular plate.

frequency, w, by
k4 = pwID,

(2)

in which p is the mass density per unit area of the plate and D is the flexural rigidity,
D=Eh3/12(1-V2)

(3)

with E the Youngs modulus, h the plate thickness and v Poissons ratio. The ratios of the
constant coefficients A, and C, (amplitude ratios) are determined from the boundary
conditions.
From a physical viewpoint, the simply supported boundary conditions can represent
either circular knife edge supports or hinges. Or they can be closely duplicated by cutting
circular grooves of sufficient depth into both lateral surfaces of a larger plate. Mathematically, the boundary conditions state that the deflection and radial bending moment at a
fixed radius (a) are zero: i.e.,
W(a, 9) = 0,

Wa,8)=--D

a2w

2+v

aw

1 a2w
=o.
>1,=(1

;ar+Tiae

(4)

Substituting equation (1) into equations (4), and using certain well-known relationships
(cf., [3]) which relate the derivatives of Bessel functions to higher order functions, yields
finally the frequency equation

Jn+l(A)I L+dA)_ 2A
I,(A)
l-v
J,(A)
where A = ka.
The amplitude ratios G/A, which are needed to determine the eigenfunctions
shapes) are readily obtained from the first of equations (4):

G/An=-J,(A)/L(A).

(mode

(6)

FREQUENCIES

OF S.S. CIRCULAR

3. NUMERICAL

PLATES

223

RESULTS

The roots of equation (5), A, are the eigenvalues


parameters) of free vibration, where

(or non-dimensional

A2 = wa dp/D.

frequency

(71

A double-precision computer program was written and utilized to extract the roots.
Numerical results are summarized in Tables 1 through 6 for the full range of possible
and O-5. Results are given for all values of n and s
Poissons ratios, v = 0, 0~1,0~2,0~3,0~4
having n +s s 10, where n denotes the number of nodal diameters and s the number of
interior nodal circles. Frequency parameters are given with six significant figures, which
should be accurate due to the double precision (sixteen significant figure) arithmetic used
both to sum the infinite series required for the Bessel functions and to evaluate equation
(5) by the root-finding procedure.
The most complete numerical results available heretofore were those published by
Gontkevich [7] and Wah [8] for v = 0.3, which were reported in reference [3]. These are
presented in Table 7, together with the relevant data taken from Table 4 rounded off to the
same number of significant figures to make comparison easier. It is seen that significant
inaccuracy exists in the previous data, probably due to inaccuracy in computing the Bessel
functions. It should be pointed out, however, that Wahs work was aimed at demonstrating
the effects of in-plane forces upon the vibration frequencies of a simply supported circular
plate, although the frequency equation he presented [8] reduces straightforwardly to
equation (5) when the in-plane force is zero. In a relatively recent work by Pardoen [5] in
the 12 values given in Table 7 were also presented, and these agree exactly with the present
results, not only for the five significant figures listed in Table 7, but for all six significant
figures listed in Table 4 for these 12 values.
Comparison of the results in Tables 1 through 6 shows that the effect of Poissons ratio
upon the frequency parameter A* = wa *&@ is significant only for the lowest frequencies.
This effect can be seen clearly in Table 8 wherein the ratio of A* (0*5)/A*(O) is given for
selected values of n and S, where A*(0.5) and A*(O) are the values of A2 for Y = 0.5 and 0,
respectively. The variation of A* with Y was discussed by Jacquot and Lindsay [9] for the
lowest frequency, axisymmetric mode. However, if the ratios of the frequencies themselves are compared, the effects of v are seen to be more pronounced, as is also evident in
Table 8. The circumferential stiffening is particularly important in the axisymmetric mode
where, as it is seen, the frequency can differas
much as 35% for different Y.
Finally, some additional values of wa*Jp/~ for v = O-3 are given in Table 9 for the
purpose of future measurement of the accuracy of extrapolation of the tables.

4. OTHER

VALUES

OF FREQUENCY

PARAMETERS

Tables 1 through 6 each contain 66 values of A*, which should be sufficient for most
practical needs for vibration frequencies. however, in choosing to present frequency
results for n +s s 10, only the lowest 27 values can be found for each value of Y.
To obtain additional values of frequency parameters not given in Tables 1 through 6,
one may calculate additional roots of the frequency equation (5). The standard computational procedure for obtaining Bessel functions of integer order is to sum their series
representations:
J

(*)=

(-mv2Y+2

r=O

r!(n +r)!

'

L(A)=

* (h/2)n+2r

,=o

r!(n + r)!

(8)

i
10

z
4
5
6
7

0
1

669-980
1035.16
842.701

13*5013
48.1361
102.445
176.481
270.250
516,999
383.755

4.61923
13.6384
48.2522
29.4850
102.556
73.9353
176.588
138.103
222.003
270-356
383.860
325.640
517,103
449.014
670.084
592.126
842,804
754.977
1035.26
937.565
1139.89

1139.79

592.022
754.873
937.462

7
;

10

4.44361
29.3638
73.8229
137.995
221.897
448,909
325.534

0
1
2
3
4
ii

25.3707
69.8949
134.083
217.991
321-631
445.007
588-121
750.972
933.562

750.869
933.459

25.2446
69.7816
133.973
217.884
321.526
444,903
588,017

39.7236
94.3298
168.461
262.274
375.803
509.061
662.052
834.778

Frequency

834.675

39.6031
94.2183
168.353
262.168
375.698
661.948
508.956

Frequency

5
75.8642
151.194
245.460
359,217
492.607
645.681

56.6134
121.485
205.639
309.397
432.841
575.996
738.875

97-6602
183.625
288.097
411.908
555.281

for v = 0

97.7731
183.734
288.203
412.013
555.385

for v = 0.1

75.9788
151.303
245.567
359.322
492.711
645.786

parameter wa CD

TABLE 2

56.4964
121.375
205.531
309.291
432.735
738.77 1
575.892

parameter wa TD

TABLE 1

121.960
218,737
333.511
467.436

121.848
218-630
333.405
467.331

148.510
256.280
381.456

148.399
256.173
381.351

177.398
296.332

177.288
269.225

208.603

10

208.494

10

4.93515
29:7200
138,318
74.1560

222.215
449.222
325,849

592.332
755.182

937.771
1140*10

4
iz

9
10

103-s-47

670.290
843.009

270.566
384.069
517.310

13.8982
48.4789
176.801
102,773

933.768
751.179

321.841
445.215
588.328

25.6133
70.1170
218.202
134.298

0
1
32

321,736
445,112
588.225
751.076
933.665

25.4935
70.0067
218,097
134.191

270.461
383.965
5 17.207
670.188
842.907
1035.37

13-7705
48.3665
176.695
102665

222.110
325.745
449.118
592.230
755.079
937.668
1140*00

4.78258
29.6037
138.211
74.0464

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

0
1
i

492.815
645.889

76-0918
151.411
359.427
245.673

TABLE 4

432.945
576.099
738.978

56.7284
121-594
309.503
205.745

834.984

376.012
662.258
509.268

39.9573
94.5490
262.485
168.675

433.048
739.081
576.202

56.8416
121.702
309.608
205,851

492.919
645.992

76.203 1
151.518
359.532
245.778

tl

Frequency parameter wadp/D

375.908
509.165
662,155
834.882

39.8416
94.4400
262.380
168.568

555.592

97.9945
183.948
412.221
288.414

for v = O-3

555.488

97.8845
183.841
412.117
288.309

Frequency parameter wa 2J;;Tis for v = 0.2

TABLE 3

122.179
218.950
467.644
333.721

122.070
218.844
467.540
333.616

148.727
256.492
381.666

148.619
2.56386
381.561

177.614
296.543

177.506
296.438

208.818

10

208.711

10

14.1407
102.986
48.6985

5.21265
29.9456
74.3713

0
:

670.495
843.214

755.386
592.538

937.975
1140.30

;:

9
10

1035.67

177,011
270.774
384.275
517.516

138,529
222.423
449.428
326.056

3
4
ii

:
6
7
8
9
10

751.386
933.972

218-411
322-048
445.42
588.533 1

25.8441
134.509
70.3334

25.7301
70.2259
134.404
218.307
321.944
4453 19
588.431
751.281
933.870

14.0215
48.5896
102.880
176.906
270.670
384.172
517.413
670.393
843.112
1035*57

5.07817
29.8339
74.2644
138.424
222.3 19
325.953
449.325
592.435
755,284
937.873
1140.20

:
3

s
56-9528
121.809
205.956
309.711
433,152
576.305
739.183

40-0707
94.6566
168.780
262.589
376.116
509.371
662.361
835.086
98.1030
184,053
288.5 18
412.325
555695

76.3128
151.624
245.883
359.635
493.022
646.095

57.0622
206.060
121.915
309.814
433-255
576.408
739.285

40.1819
168-885
94.7631
262-693
376.218
662.463
509,473
835.188

6
98.2102
288.622
184.158
412.428
555.798

5
76.4209
245.987
151.729
359.738
493.125
646.185

Frequency parameter wa dz

for Y = 0.5

for v = O-4

TABLET

Frequency parameter wa&@

TABLE 5

467.850

122.393
333.928
219.160

122.287
219.056
333.825
467.748

9
177.825
296.75 1

148.940
256.701
381.872

177.720
296.647

148.834
256.597
381.770

209.029

10

208.924

10

FREQUENCIES

OF S.S. CIRCULAR
TABLE

227

PLATES

Comparison of frequency parameters wa2JrD with those of


Gontkeuich [7] and Wah [S] for v = O-3
II

Reference

[7]

Reference

Present work

[8]

4.94
29.72
74.15
-

4.935
29.72
74.16
138.32

1
2
3

4.977
29.76
74.20
138.34

0
1
2
3

13.94
48.51
102.80
176.84

13.47
47.89
103.43
-

13.90
48.48
102.77
176.80

0
1
2
3

25.65
70.14
134.33
218.24

25.60
68.89
134.56
-

25.61
70.12
134.30
218.20

TABLE

Ratios of frequency parameters and


frequencies having Y = 0.5 and v = 0
A 2(o*5)

w(O*5)

1.17307

1.35454

0
0
0

1
2
10

1.01981
1.00743
1.00045

1.17758
1.16328
1.15522

1
2
10

0
0
0

1.04736
1.02375
1.00257

1.20934
1.18212
1.15470

A W)

TABLE

43

Some additional values of A2 = oa2Jp/D for Y = 0.3


n

s
0
5
10
;i

10

15

20

1707.16

1036.90
2346.42

399.061
-

645.319
-

4249.03
2447.82

A. W. LEISSA

228

AND

Y. NARITA

However, for large A these series converge slowly. In this case it may be desirable to
represent the Bessel functions by their asymptotic expansions [lo, 111:
J,(A) = J2/?rA(P,, cos C&-Q,
I,(A) = {eAlJ2d}(P?i

sin &),

- Qfi 1

(94

where
p,=l_R',2'+~lf)_R(n6'+...,p~=l+Rlf)+Rlf)+R(n6)+...,
Q,=R',"_RIT'+R',5'-...,Qg=R(,)+R(,3)+RJIS)+...,
with O), (3,

Pb)

(3),. . . being superscripts, and where


(lOa, b)

4 = A - (n/4)(2n + l), R, = (4n2- 1)/8A,


R(i+)

[4n2-(2i+ l>'l

R(i)

8A(i+l)

, i = 1,2,3

(1Od

....

It is seen that the terms R, in the asymptotic expansions should be terminated when
(2i + 1) becomes greater than 2n in equation (10~).
To utilize equations (9) and (10) in the frequency equation (5), one observes that
P,+i sin (A - 7r/4) + Qntl cos (A - 7r/4)
n even
P,, cos (A - 7r/4) - Q, sin (A - r/4)

J&=
J,(A)

-P,+I cos (A - r/4) + Qn+i sin (A - 7r/4)


,
P, sin (A -n/4) + Q, cos (A -v/4)

I,+i(A)/I,(A)

= (P;+i - Q:+I)/@:

n odd

- QXL

so that equation (5) can be written in the form


tan (A - 1rj4) = S,/ T,,,

(11)

where
PC+, -Q:+,
p _Q*
n

T, =Pn+i-On
2AQ,+p
S*=1_

P,*+I - a:+~+ 2AQ,


P:-Q;
l-v
_Q
?I+1

Tn = Q,+i+Pn

n even

P:+,-Q:+I
n

P:-Q;

P,*,I - Q:+I -- 2APn


P:-Q;
l-v i

n odd

For very large A and relatively small values of n, equations (9) and (10) yield
P,=PX
Q ?I+1= a;+,

=Pnsl=P;+l

= 1, Q, = Qt = (4n2 - 1)/U

={4(n+1)2-1)/8A,(P~+i-Q~+~)l(P~-Q~)=1,

and the frequency equation (11) then simplifies to


8~/(3-4~+4n*),

(3-4v+4n2)/8A,n

n even
odd

(12)

FREQUENCIESOF S.S. CIRCULAR PLATES

229

TABLE 10

Percent error in using equation (12) to calculate


frequency parameters A 2 = wa 2dp/D for Y = 0.3
n
s

3.204
0.044
0.004
0.001

0.966
0.045
0,006
-

7.84
-

2
5
10

10
-11*210
3.626
0.990

Equations (12) are relatively simple transcendental forms for the frequency equation.
For fixed values of Y and n, the right-hand sides are a straight line and a hyperbola which
intersect the tangent function at values of A separated by w as A increases. Examples
showing the percent error in using the approximate frequency equations (12) to determine
A2, compared with the accurate values listed in Tables 4 and 9, are presented in Table 10
for v = 0.3. In this table a positive error indicates that the approximate values are too large.
It is seen that equation (12) is useful only for the smaller values of n and larger values of s.
Crequency parameters for larger n can be obtained from the tables by extrapolation.
1

REFERENCES
1. E. F. F. CHLADNI 1803 Die Akustik. Leipzig.

2. S. D. POISSQN1829 Memoires de IAcademie Royales des Sciences de llnstitutde la France, ser.


2 8, 357. LEquilibre et le mouvementdes corps Clastiques.
3. A. W. LEISSA 1969 NASA SP- 1960. Vibration of plates.
4. A. W. LEISSA 1977 Shock and Vibration Digest 9, 13-24. Recent researchin plate vibrations:

classical theory.
5. G. C. PARDOEN 1978 Computers and Structures 9, 89-85. Asymmetric vibrationand stability
of circularplates.
6. K. ITAO and S. H. CRANDALL (to appear)Journal ofApplied Mechanics. Natural modes and

natural frequencies of uniform, circular, free-free plates.


7. V. S. GONTKEVICH 1964 Natural Vibrations of Plates and Shells (in Russian, A. P. Filippov,

editor). Kiev: Naukova Dumka.


8. T. WAH 1962 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 34,275281.

Vibration of circular
plates.
9. R. G. JACQUOT and J. E. LINDSAY 1977 Journal of Sound and Vibration 52,603-605.
On the
influence of Poissons ratio on circular plate natural frequencies.
10. N. MCLACHLAN 1948 Bessel Functions for Engineers. London: Oxford University Presss.
11. M. ABRAMOWITZ and I. A. STEGUN 1964 Handbook of Mathematical Functions. National
Bureau of Standards, Applied Mathematics Series 55.