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Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology

Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology
Learning Objectives:
1. Origin, Meaning, Definition and Scope of Sociology
2. Sub-division of Sociology
3. Origin, Meaning, Definition and scope of Anthropology
4. Sub division of Anthropology
5. Similarities and differences between Sociology and anthropology
Factors contributing to the emergence of sociology::
Three factors led to the development of sociology
1. Industrial Revolution
2. Travel
3. Success of Natural Sciences
Scientific and technological advances are applied to agriculture, transportation,
and industry.
The Europeans had been successful in obtaining colonies Their colonial
empires exposed them to radically different cultures Startled by these
contrasting ways of life, they began to ask questions why cultures differed
Success in natural sciences:
Newton’s laws explained the movement of everything visible in the universe
(from planets to buildings) It seemed logical to discover the laws underlying
social phenomena
The Development of Sociology:

followed by a communist society . This was a time of great social upheaval due largely to the French and Industrial Revolutions Several early sociologists shaped the direction of the discipline Pioneering founders of sociology: Auguste Comte: The Father of Sociology: Responsible for coining the term “sociology” Set out to develop the “science of man” that would be based on empirical observation Focused on two aspects of society: Social Statics— forces which produce order and stability Social Dynamics— forces which contribute to social change Harriet Martineau (1802-1876): Authored one of the earliest analyses of culture and life in the United States entitled Theory and Practice of Society in America Translated Comte’s Positive Philosophy into English Harriet Martineau Herbert Spencer (1820-1903): Authored the first sociology text. Principles of Sociology Most well known for proposing a doctrine called “Social Darwinism” Suggested that people who could not compete were poorly adapted to the environment and inferior This is an idea commonly called survival of the fittest Karl Marx (1818-1883): Marx is the father of conflict theory Saw human history in a continual state of conflict between two major classes: Bourgeoisie— owners of the means of production (capitalists) Proletariat— the workers Predicted that revolution would occur producing first a socialist state.Sociology emerged as a separate discipline in the nineteenth century.

Sociology is the study of human social life.” -Auguste Comte Is Sociology a science?: . groups and societies which encompasses elements of other social science.” -Soroka “Sociology is a science of social relationship’” -A.Emile Durkheim (1858-1917): Durkheim moved sociology fully into the realm of an empirical science Most well known empirical study is called Suicide . it looks for levels of reality other than those presented in official interpretations of society and people’s common sense explanations of the social world. where he looks at the social causes of suicide Generally regarded as the founder of functionalist theory Emile Durkheim Max Weber (1864-1920): Much of Weber’s work was a critique or clarification of Marx His most famous work. the discovery of which is the object of investigation. Definition of Sociology: “Sociology is a debunking science. Sociology is not social studies but queen of all science. but views society in a holistic way. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism directly challenged Marx’s ideas on the role of religion in society Weber was also interested in bureaucracies and the process of rationalization in society Meaning of sociology: One of the youngest social science Composed of two word. literal definition of sociology is that it is the word or speaking about society. Sociologists are interested in understanding what is and do not make value judgments. that is. “ Socius” meaning companion or associate and “ logos ” meaning science or study. The etymological.W Small “Sociology as the science of social phenomenon subject to natural and invariable laws.

4. However. 2. 5. 7. sociology seeks find explanation for these basic question: 1.Sociology deserves a scientific character: Society is an open laboratory Experimentation Comparative methods Prediction Predict the future social behaviour with different social problems and social life Generalization Generalization social aspects after a research B. How and why societies emerge? 2. 3. How and why societies change? A general outline of the fields of sociology on which there is considerable agreement among sociologist could be given below: 1. 6. Sociology does not deserves a scientific character: Open laboratory: human society is always changeable and dynamic Experimentation: cannot applied scientific formula and principles in human society Comparative methods: less reliable in natural science Prediction : difficult to predict human behaviour Generalization: In the case of sociology study. How and why societies persist? 3. propositions and theories Specialization in study . Sociological Analysis Studies primary unit of social life Study of basic social institutions Study of social process Method of Research Concepts. this case may not necessary build up the theory Nature of sociology: Independent science A social science and not a physical science A categorical and not a normative discipline A pure science and not a applied science Relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science A generalizing and not a particularizing science Both a Rationale and an Empirical science Enlisted by Robert Biersteadt in his book “The social order” Subject matter of sociology: The subject matter of sociology is complex and varied.

Tonnis as its main advocate 2. Sorokin and Ginsberg has been the chief exponent of this school Specific Sub-division of sociology: criminology. rural sociology.Scope of sociology: There are two main schools of thought regarding the scope of sociology: 1. Max Weber & F. sociology of law. political sociology. Specialitic or formalistic school of thought Sociology studies one specified aspect of social relations. socio. sociology of development. Pp. A comparison is drawn between the social relationships and a bottle.and macro. economic sociology. sociology of art. industrial sociology. 564-568 Levels of analysis in sociology: Micro-sociology: Analyzing small scale social phenomena Macro-sociology: analyzing large-scale social phenomena Meso-sociology: analysis of social phenomena in between the micro. George Simmel. sociology of knowledge. sociology of religion. human ecology.W.levels. 18. sociology of science and technology.linguistics. Small. 1994: Vol. Sociology of the family. and urban sociology Most important fields of Sociology: The Field of Social Organization and Theory of Social Order Social Control Social Change Social Processes Social Groups Social Problems World Book Encyclopedia. medical sociology. sociology of education. demography. History of Anthropology: . social psychology. A. sociology of sports. Hob House. Synthetic school of thought The Synthetic school want to make sociology a synthesis of the social science or general science Emile Durkheim.

The most revolutionizing works in anthropology were written by Charles Darwin. as a discipline of study. that appeared in 1859 AD. Johann F. and due to. He asserted that the development of religions from one stage to the next is universal throughout the world’s cultures: ANIMISM: Belief in souls. did not appear until the 16th century. Anthropologists stop focusing on the origins of religions to: How religions spread through DIFFUSION. Aristotle in 400 BC and Strabo in 100 BC.Even though anthropology.” and lived among other cultures for extended periods. Modern-day anthropology has been highly influenced by the works of American cultural anthropologist. the mixing of cultural elements from one society to another through contact over time. and that all things in the world are endowed with a soul. . Most of the early philosophers who carried anthropology related research were Greek. TYLOR “Father of Anthropology”: ” A social evolutionist. They were both emphatically opposed to social evolution. SIR EDWARD B. and On the Origin of Species. Blumenbach. What FUNCTIONS religions serve in society. The term 'anthropology' was coined in 16th century Germany. Margaret Mead. that was published in 1845 AD. Historians of anthropology often claim that anthropology as a discipline originated during. He wrote The Voyage of the Beagle. Anthropology becomes more grounded in cultural relativism. the period in history known as the Renaissance. during the middle of the 20th century. by German university professors. like Herodotus in 500 BC. The German anthropologist. EARLY 20th CENTURY ANTHROPOLOGY: Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942) and Franz Boas (1858-1942) developed the method of “participant observation. played a highly instrumental role in the development of the branch of anthropology known as physical anthropology. 'Histoire Naturelle' written by French naturalist Georges Buffon is an encyclopedia in which 2 of the 44 volumes have been dedicated to anthropology.

“Anthropos” which means man and “logos” means study or science. Anthropology. Krober Characteristics of Anthropology: . “Anthropology is the study of man and his works. Thus. races. or other aspects of the natural world held to be ancestral or closely identified with a group and its individuals. Simply.TOTEMISM: Religious practices centered around animals. or many gods. Tylor is called the father of anthropology. Anthropology is the science of man and his works and behaviour. Meaning of Anthropology : Derived from two Greek word. economic. a uniquely holistic and comparative discipline. "Much light will be shed on the origin of man (sic) and his history” .B. and customs of human life. Anthropology is a historical study which explores the origin of and changes in human biology and culture. and political policies.L. is the scientific and humanistic study of human species.” -EN Hobble “Anthropology is the science of groups of men and their behaviour and production” -A. POLYTHEISM: Belief in more than one. 1859.Darwin’s biological studies of evolution paralleled an interest in social evolution that produced a body of knowledge that supported social. Another British scholar Charles Darwin is also believed to be major contributors in the fields of anthropology. of human biology and cultural diversity and its immediate ancestors. British Anthropologist E. MONOTHEISM: Belief in one god. CHARLES DARWIN 1809 to 1882: The Origin of Species . plants.

Cultural anthropology: Which investigate the cultural remains of early man and of the living cultures of some of the primitives contemporaries. . biology. It systematically compares data from different populations and time periods. simple and complex. It is a comparative field that examines all societies. Anthropology is “Holistic”. However. It is also the study of human’s immediate ancestors (person from whom one is descended). sociology. 2. present. ‘Holism’ refers to the study of the whole of the human condition: past. B. It is divided into various subdivision they are: 1.ancient and modern. And for an appropriate and scientific study of these aspects. these are: 1. language and culture. political) patterns by studying material remains. economic. usually of prehistoric populations. Human genetic: In which we compare inherited genetic character as well as the pattern of the change in the human gene. religious. death etc and analyses statistically. Archaeology: Describes past human behavior. Human paleontology: Study the human fossils both inside and outside the surface of the earth which are found in different parts. Short description on division and sub-division of Anthropology: A.1. cultural (social. future. 4. Biometry: study the biological aspects like birth. 2. growth. 3. Anthropology is also “Comparative” and “Cross-Cultural”. physical anthropology is divided into various branches. Anthropometry : It is the comparative study of physical body. the other social sciences tend to focus on a single society whereas the anthropology offers a unique cross-cultural perspective by constantly comparing the customs of one society with those of others. Physical Anthropology: Deals with bodily characteristics of early man and our primitive contemporaries.

variations among species & the change Study of human fossils Genetic effect and the state of change in man Biological study of birth. politics are also the scopes of anthropological study Similarities and differences between anthropology and other sociology : . Scope of Anthropology: The scope of anthropology consists the origin of human evolution. and methods to identify. racial variation. Applied anthropology : application of anthropologic data. analyzes. working procedure etc of a society Marriage. assess. kinship. cultural collapses racial differentiation and poverty those appeared in the changing society. family. System. growth. Social anthropology: concerned with the cultures and ways of life of all the world’s societies in both the present and recent past . perspectives. theory. Subject matter of racial variation Subject matter of physical variation. Physical variations among human species & primates and between animals and human. Ethnology: Ethnology examines. how they shifted to other places and how they collapsed etc. tradition . Linguistics: studies language in its social and cultural context. and how variation occurred during a span of life. variation and changes in language Tendencies like conflicts. and compares the results of Ethnography– the data gathered from different societies. interprets. across space and over time 4. ethnic and political organization and institutions Subjects related to development.from remote tribal communities to industrial societies. diseases and death of man Culture those developed in various periods evolution and change etc Subjects related to the origin and developments of social cultural. 3. laws. and solve contemporary social problems 5. How the physical structure is made.2. What kind of ancestors of man was emerged in places.

.behavior. Similarities : Cultural anthropology and sociology share an interest in social relations. Also. . sociologists do research in 3rd world countries. For many years. anthropologists on nonindustrial societies. engaging in the daily life of another culture. . To study large-scale.race. power relations in modern nations. as industrialization spreads. and analyzing). records. gender. Difference : Initially sociologists focused on the industrial class. . complex nations. writing accounts of this culture. many anthropologists work in industrial nations. emphasizing descriptive details and participant observation (taking part in the events one is observing.1. describing. where as statistical training has been less common in anthropology. 2. sociologists came to rely on questionnaires and other means of gathering masses of quantifiable data. Different methods on data collection and analysis emerged to deal with these different kinds of societies. close observation. ethnicity. . As the modern system grows. Traditional ethnographers studied small and non-literate populations and relied on methods appropriate to that context – such as.organizations. sampling and Statistical techniques have been basic to sociology.