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Smart City Berlin 2025.

Sector: energy.

I.

Actual situation: Berlin 2015.

Before the year 1990, the Berlin- Brandenburg area owned an old-established
energy sector, based mainly upon brown coal exploitation. The Lausitz area is
historically considered as one of the three biggest deposits of brown coal in
Germany. Consequently, since the reunification of the country, Germany entered
into an economic transformation and hence, a structural change has taken place in
terms of the energy management. The volume extraction of brown coal, diminished
to around 50% of its originally consumption and new climate-friendly resources as
well as renewable energies, emerged and gained great importance in the energy
market.
This was also possible because of the great environmental conditions existing in
the area. Brandenburg is so called an energy state, due to the big amount of wind
and other favorable resources that allow the production of these new alternative
energies.
According to the energy strategy 2030, developed by the Brandenburgs
Government, the share in renewable resources will increase to up to 32 % of the
primary energy consumption until 2030. In fact, regarding the ranking of federal
states in Germany performed by the Agency for Renewable Resources,
Brandenburg has been awarded with the Leitstern, or leading star, in 2008, 2010
and 2012, which is an award given to the state offering the best preconditions for
the extended use of renewable resources as well as the extraction of energy.
Brown coal, wind and big solar parks, bio mass plants, energy crops are in
competition with other requirements for usage and protection and do change the
cultural landscape. Spatial control and spatially friendly arrangements may reduce
conflicts of use.

(Innovation Monitor Berlin - Brandenburg; Cluster Board Energy Technology, 2013)

II.

Energy Industry

Berlin is a leading city in the field of energy technology. The Berlin Brandenburg
area is among the regions in Germany with the highest density of research
institutions, energy technology companies, as well as workers on the field of clean
energy, ranking just behind Bavaria, and competing neck to neck with Hamburg.
Berlin has both energy generation and distribution components and energy
technology issues and services.
According to the Berlin Business Location Center: The database of German
companies involved in environmental technologies and services (Umfis) by the
German Chambers of Commerce and Industry with close to 10,500 energy
technology companies contains 450 companies from Berlin.
(Chamber of Commerce and Industry Berlin, 2013)
The energy technology industry of Berlin includes the following sectors:
1. Energy grids, Storage and Electromobility.
The GSE or grids, storage and electromobility are of particular importance to the
energy technology cluster of Berlin - Brandenburg due to the fact that the main
issues of grid integration with renewable energies have to be solved here.

On the user's side, the region provides common conditions for energy supply
systems, particularly in their cross-state correlation, which are attractive for
development and environmental testing both for local companies and network
operators as well as for actors outside the region.
The Energy Strategy 2030 include the following:

A large variety of renewable energies in the regional transmission and


distribution network compared to other German and European regions.

Coverage of all energy-relevant network divisions (electricity, gas, district


heating) and supply structures:
o City, suburbs as well as smaller towns defined as areas with high
consumption and a big amount of decentralized producers.
o Outskirts with large-scale energy producing and network structure
objects.
o New approaches and concepts for the transport based on
electromobility as well as hydrogen and gas driven vehicles.
o High potential for multi-utility approaches: integrated detection and
steering of energy flows, junction with other infrastructures (e.g.
water).

On the supply-side, the region has the following regional technology focuses and
advantages, mutually covered by companies and network operators in BerlinBrandenburg.
a. Establishment and operation of energy grids (electricity) with a high ratio of
renewable

energies

(predominantly

incorporating

wind

energy

and

photovoltaics) for cross-regional, regional and local supply structures.


b. Storage operation, including the integration of supplementary storage types
of

all

relevant

amounts

of

energy

and

performance

capacities,

manufacturing or contributions to manufacturing of singular storage


technologies (Compressed Air Energy Storage CAES, lead-acid batteries,
thermic underground storage tanks).
c. Controllability of renewable energies via hydrogen (H2).
d. Detection and steering of energy flows across grid levels and divisions
(electricity, gas, heat).
e. Demand side management and smart meter.
f. System security of complex power grids (electricity).

g. Flexibility of conventional power plants (Gas).


h. CO2 separation and transport with conventional energy carriers (coal).

(Energy strategy 2030)

2. Turbomachinery and power plant engineering


Turbomachinery and power plant engineering have a great and historic tradition in
the Berlin-Brandenburg region. The first steam turbines were produced at the
beginning of the second half of the 19th century, and all this expertise acquired
was later on transferred to the manufacturing of gas turbines, which enable the
location of the capital city of Germany to generate a great amount of benefits in
terms of manufacturing and development of these type of technologies. Nowadays,
the produced turbines are world leading in terms of performance and efficiency,
and in the field of power plant engineering, the Berlin area is pioneer in flexible
power plants that are operated with conventional fuels.
Nevertheless, the region is a pioneer in renewable energies and key technologies
in the fields of hybrid power plants and brown coal drying technologies. Further
expertise, especially in the field of power plant engineering, accrues from two large
lignite power plants (Jnschwalde and Schwarze Pumpe) in Brandenburg and from
close cooperation with the BTU Cottbus in the field of brown coal drying. The
density of companies and the cooperation projects with research facilities build
unique networks.
(Berlin Business Location Center, 2013)
3. Solar Industry
Currently, the solar sector remains in a phase of transition and consolidation.
However, the solar sector in the capital region is currently represented by more
than 100 companies with around 4,000 employees, some of which are leading

global players. The major part of the employees is involved in photovoltaics, the
rest works in solar thermal energy. Furthermore, there are at least eight university
and 13 non-university research facilities that deal with solar energy.
(Berlin Business Location Center, 2013)

Berlin provides:

A powerful cluster of manufacturers, suppliers and service providers in the


solar industry in Europe

Available highly qualified professionals and managers

High productivity at low labor costs and flexible working time models

Highest funding rates in the European Union

First-class locations for production and research at attractive prices

Individual assistance and non-bureaucratic support of investments

Inspiring mix of urbanity, landscape, history and culture

High quality of life at a low cost of living

4. Energy efficiency
Up to our days, energy efficiency is not only important in terms of saving
resources, but also a reason of cost. This is why the development of new
strategies for the efficient use of technology as well as new technologies, its a
must for both households and companies.
A high level of product innovation is characteristic for the capital region in the field
of energy efficiency. Individual companies from the region are global leaders in
their branch and demonstrate top-level know-how. Particularly light engineering,
energy consumption visualization, lightweight construction, air conditioning, low-

temperature heat technologies and architectural engineering are technological


fields

where

the

companies

identified

potential

for

the

region.

(Berlin Business Location Center, 2013)


The profile of the region as an energy efficiency location includes the following key
subjects:

Energy efficiency technologies for buildings (including energy consumption


visualization, light engineering, air conditioning, low-temperature heat and
architectural engineering)

Energy efficiency technologies for industrial processes (including energy


consumption visualization, light engineering, air conditioning, low-temperature
heat, lightweight construction and architectural engineering)

Energy efficiency technologies for devices

Energy efficiency technologies for public space (including light engineering)

CHP (combined heat and power)


Another important aspect that needs to be considered is the combined heat and
power technology. Berlin is also the nationwide leader in applying this; the largest
district heating grid in Western Europe is located in the area; more than 1,600
kilometers of a long pipe system delivers heat to the consumers, which is
generated in a resource-saving way. Moreover, more 280 combined heat and
power plants at different locations are reliable and eco-friendly. The CHP share of
the local heat market is currently close to 30%.
5. Bio energies
Whether for generating heat, power or even mobility, the bioenergy is playing each
year an increasingly major role in the region Berlin-Brandenburg. A good example

is that Germanys first biogas plant was established here; this plant processes
biogas in the quality of natural gas and feeds it into the natural gas grid. Up to
2012, there were 335 biogas plants with an installed capacity of 182 MW.
The region also holds a strong position in nearly all fields of the energetic use of
biomass. Biomass allocation, mechanical engineering and construction and the
planning and operating of bioenergy plants characterize the energy technology
value added chain of the region. The central location of Berlin-Brandenburg and its
good infrastructure provide optimal conditions for component manufacturers willing
to export to Middle and Eastern Europe.
The 21 biomass combined heat and power stations predominantly use scrap wood
from the woodworking industry. Furthermore, Berlin-Brandenburg is one of the
largest producers of biofuel in Germany.
(Renewable Energies Agency, 2013)
6. Wind Energy
The Berlin region is home to world known manufacturers and suppliers on the wind
energy sector who produce every type of wind technology components (nacelles,
rotor blades, towers, etc). Engineering offices and other service providers with
focus on planning and projection of wind energy projects are prominently
represented in Berlin. There are companies and research facilities in the region
that are involved in innovative technologies such as upper wind, small wind, among
others.
Actors in the wind energy sector benefit from Berlins acknowledged research in
the field of wind energy plants. In order to bundle this scientific power, departments
of the Technische Universitt Berlin (TU), the University of Applied Sciences and
the BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, founded the WIB
(Kompetenzzentrum Windenergie Berlin) which means Center for Expertise for

Wind Energy Berlin, in 2010. The Center conducts wind energy research with
innovative projects in modern, well-equipped areas and test labs.
Wind energy systems in the capital
In late 2012, there were ca. 3,200 wind power facilities in the state of
Brandenburg, with an installed capacity of 4,800 MW. That puts the state
surrounding Berlin in second place in Germany, behind Lower Saxony. About 48
percent of the net electricity consumption in Brandenburg is covered by wind
energy.
(Berlin Business Location Center, 2013)

III.

2030 EU Energy Strategy

EU countries have agreed on a new 2030 Framework for climate and energy,
including EU-wide targets and policy objectives for the period between 2020 and
2030. These targets aim to help the EU achieve a more competitive, secure and
sustainable energy system and to meet its long-term 2050 greenhouse gas
reductions target.
The strategy sends a strong signal to the market, encouraging private investment
in new pipelines, electricity networks, and low-carbon technology. The targets are
based on a thorough economic analysis that measures how to cost-effectively
achieve de-carbonization by 2050.
The cost of meeting the targets does not substantially differ from the price we need
to pay anyway to replace our ageing energy system. The main financial effect of
de-carbonization will be to shift our spending away from fuel sources and towards
low-carbon technologies.

Targets for 2030

40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels.


At least a 27% share of renewable energy consumption.
30% improvement in energy efficiency (compared to projections).

Policies for 2030

In order to meet the targets, the European Commission has proposed:

A reformed EU emissions trading scheme (ETS).


New indicators for the competitiveness and security of the energy system,
such as price differences with major trading partners, diversification of

supply, and interconnection capacity between EU countries.


First ideas on a new governance system based on national plans for
competitive, secure, and sustainable energy. These plans will follow a
common EU approach. They will ensure stronger investor certainty, greater
transparency, enhanced policy coherence and improved coordination across
the EU.

(European Commission, 2014)

IV.

CO2 Reduction in Berlin

Berlin has not only managed to reduce its CO2 emissions, but also its primary
energy consumption: from 356,208 TJ in 1990 to 306,372 TJ in 2010. Of this, a
significant percentage is still generated from fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural
gas as shown in figure 1.
In 2010, only 3 % of the primary energy consumption (9.8 TJ) and around 1 % of
the supplied final energy was derived from renewable energy sources, mainly from
biomass, but also from solar energy and one wind turbine. However, figure 2

shows that the renewable energy sector has been very dynamic in recent years, a
development that needs acceleration in order to reach the climate neutrality goal.
The CO2 reduction potential of the Berlin energy supply lies in various areas:

Emission-intensive energy carriers such as coal and oil need to be rapidly

removed from the conversion sector and heat supply.


Natural gas as a less emission-intensive energy carrier can fill the resulting
gaps to a large extent, but it must also be made less CO2-intensive through
increasing the share of renewable gas by feeding-in renewable gas from

excess renewable electricity or from biological origins.


The share of combined heat and power generation (CHP) can still be
increased, while pure electricity production without heat extraction should be
reduced. Grid-bound thermal power (e.g. district heating) continues to be
important for the city. Decentralized sub-networks, however, will have to
complement it more and more. The increasing intelligence of the energy
system as a whole, including its networks, makes an ever more efficient
interconnection of the various energy markets, from consumers to producers

(smart city), possible.


Solar energy offers the most promising potential of the entire renewable
portfolio, fitting well with the urban load curve and the urban distribution
network. Berlins 320,000 residential houses not only the roofs, but also
the facades offer a space-efficient basis for a massive rollout of
photovoltaics as well as solar heating systems. Studies find that Berlin can

generate 300 times the amount of solar energy it produced in 2010.


With biomass, Berlin needs to utilize its own potential systematically, but
sustainably. Biomass imports are possible, but they must satisfy strict
sustainability criteria. Due to the global scarcity of biomass, imports can
hardly deliver a significant contribution to Berlins energy demand.

Figure 1

Figure 2

(Climate-Neutral Berlin 2050, 2014)

V.

Energy Concept 2020 for Berlin.

Under the headwords "Efficient - Renewable - Sustainable", the Energy


Concept 2020 develops a future strategy for energy supply in the federal state
of Berlin that is based on the principles of security of supply, economic
efficiency and environmental and social compatibility. The protection of the
climate plays a central role. The concept drawn up by Berliner Energieagentur
(BEA) on behalf of the Senate Department for Economics, Technology and
Women's Issues is to be a guideline for a long-term energy, environmental and
climate protection policy. With regard to this, the increase of decentralized
energy production plays a leading pact.
Multiplication of electricity production from renewable energies
To achieve the 40-percent goal, it is necessary to reduce final energy
consumption by ten percent in 2020. The major part of the saving will be
provided by the private households and the trade, commerce and service
sectors. The energy industry's share in the CO2 reduction is 44.5 and the
consumers' share 55.5 percent. In the next years, the share of renewable
energies in power generation is to rise from 1.2 percent (2005) to 17.8 percent
(2020).
There will be shifts in the heat mix also. The share of biomass used both in
district heating and local heat production will rise until 2020. A considerable
CO2 reduction is achieved by a change of energy sources from coal and fuel oil
to natural gas and bio-natural gas and by an extension of the highly efficient
local combined heat and power generation (CHP).
(Senate Department for Economics, Technology and Women's Issues, 20092011).

VI.

Smart City Berlin 2025

The city of Berlin, due to his location and it political and economical importance, its
not only one of the most attractive business locations in Germany, but also a huge
lab for new technologies development such as efficient infrastructure, informational
networking, sustainable mobility and creativity all of this in combination with a high
productivity range and a high quality of life.
The term Smart City considers all future affairs with which we deal in a large city
in the upcoming decades. The idea includes the anticipation of trends and
developments in all areas that affect the life and interaction of the people who
inhabit a big city. With the help of ICT (Information and Communications
Technology), it is possible to develop concrete solutions to make the city of Berlin
more efficient, healthier, more sustainable, more livable and clean. Furthermore,
the civil benefits of climate protection, resource conservation and sustainability are
of particular importance.
The creation of an organizational framework and networking of decision-making
processes in the cities are a prerequisite for the establishment of smart
technologies. This includes production processes, services and technologies as
well as infrastructure that will collaborate with the integration of the new "intelligent"
information and communication technologies, cross-linked, and mutually supported
which have to be implemented in the first place.
In Berlin there are already many projects existing, which have arisen across
government and Institutions, which generate and exploit synergies from
administration, science and research as well as business. Thanks to the excellent
research landscape and the large number of innovative companies, the capital city
is already a huge potential site.
An example of this is the EREF-Campus, which is an innovative project, still under
construction, but that since the end of 2011 has played a huge roll on the
development of the Smart City Berlin with the integration of a Micro Smart Grid in

combination with a clean green renewable energy supply. The EUREF-Campus is


continuously developing system supplies for all the buildings on the campus with
largely carbon-neutral energy. A wide range of renewable energy sources,
intelligent geared to the current needs of load management and proven local
networking of the "Micro smart grids" with stationed on the premises electric
vehicles make the city quarter at a showroom and a "Real laboratory" for the
energy transition.

Smart Grid

A smart grid is an electricity grid, intelligently linked with the different energy
sources, consumers and storage. The network management is to bring the
fluctuating supply of renewable energy with the current power consumption
ecologically and economically compatible. Since this is done on the spatially
delimited EUREF-Campus, it is defined as a "Micro" Smart Grid. It persists
connection to the electricity grid. On the EUREF Campus small wind turbines, solar
panels, a cogeneration plant, and two large batteries were constructed as a power
buffer, to explore the integration of renewable energy and electric mobility into the
power grid. This is possible thanks to the support of the Federation, the State of
Berlin, the district Tempelhof-Schneberg, and other partners from industry and
science. The aim is to reduce the electricity purchased from the public network
step by step.
(EUREF-Campus, 2014)
The development of Smart Grids, storage concepts and innovative solutions to
synchronize energy supply and demand are the key factors to the success of
energy transition. The ICT networking, that is no other than the unification of
communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and

wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware,


storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit,
and manipulate information, in addition to the energy and resource efficiency play a
big role for the future of Berlin as a Smart City.
Within this, all households in a city can transmit signals over the electricity grid, the
water supply, the sanitation, the gas supply and even via the central heating
network with supply and disposal facility of urban infrastructure and in some cases,
also networked together. When existing in all networked areas of local services
capabilities, the developing smart solutions using ICT applications could work on
both parts of the supply-demand chain. On individual households; such as smart
metering in electricity and water consumption, as on the part of the respective
service provider; such as remote reading of electricity and heat consumption of
households.

VII.

Conclusions

Smart-city Berlin 2025 should be conceived as a system that integrates cuttingedge technologies to optimize energy production and intelligent use in a urbanlaboratory functions such as lighting, power distribution, public safety and
communications system.

Energy efficiency contributes to improve the quality of

life of people, optimizing production processes at the same time, allows a greater
number of activities with the lowest possible power consumption.
In a world where we grow exponentially, instances must be implemented jointly by
shaped governments (central and local), universities and citizens themselves, who
through awareness of the role playing as agents of change must allow, based on
the experience, these urban laboratories to achieve success and make it massive
or in instance be incorporated as public policy.

The implementation of a Smart Grid is one of the central aspects to design a future
urban project that can operate in an integrated manner. Through smart grids,
electric power can be managed remotely and more efficiently.

This allows the

operator to make quick decisions with real-time information and online contact with
the provider of the services.
The development of a project of this magnitude is oriented to optimize energy
efficiency and encourage the use of non-conventional renewable energy.
The efficient and sustainable use of energy is the main point and shaft proposed
for Smart City Berlin 2025, designed to increase the quality of life for people,
encouraging the user to experience the technological innovations that ensure a
harmonious relationship with the environment model atmosphere. This is thanks to
the use of various utility implements as well as decorative, contributing to energy
efficiency, and hence being responsible for our planet.

VIII.

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