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Metodo de equilibrio

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Equilibrium Method

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Equilibrium

The information on this page applies to the following analysis types except if indicated:

Mechanical Event Simulation (MES)

Static Stress with Nonlinear Material Models

In nonlinear finite element analysis, most iterative solution schemes are based on some

form of the well-known Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm. A detailed description of the

Newton-Raphson scheme may be found in many references, including Hinton, Oden and

Stricklin. The user is also encouraged to review Section 11.5 (pp. 449-452) of Linear and

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis in Engineering Practice by Constantine C. Spyrakos and

John Raftoyiannis for more discussion on iterative solution schemes.

There are a number of nonlinear iterative solution methods available. (Performing a Riks

analysis sets the iterative solution method.) All the methods are based upon the NewtonRaphson iteration scheme. You choose from the following methods that display in the

Nonlinear iterative solution method drop-down box:

Automatic: The processor chooses which iterative solution method based on the other input in

the analysis.

Full Newton-Raphson method

Modified Newton-Raphson method

Combined full-modified Newton-Raphson method

Full Newton-Raphson method with line search

Modified Newton-Raphson method with line search

Combined full-modified Newton-Raphson method with line search

These methods are discussed in more detail below:

The full Newton-Raphson iterative solution scheme, or the tangent stiffness matrix method,

is the basic form of all the schemes. In this solution scheme the effective stiffness matrix

and the right-hand side effective load vector of the system are reformed or updated for

each equilibrium iteration within all the time/load steps. The advantages of this method are

that it is usually more effective for problems with strong nonlinearity, and that it converges

quadratically with respect to the number of iterations. Since in general the major cost per

equilibrium iteration for nonlinear analysis lies in the construction and factorization of the

effective tangent stiffness matrix, the full Newton-Raphson scheme may be more expensive

in turn of solution time, especially for large-scale problems.

Equilibrium Method

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Equilibrium Method

Modified Newton-Raphson Method

The modified Newton-Raphson iterative solution scheme is a procedure that lies in between

the tangent stiffness matrix method (the full Newton-Raphson method) that reforms the

effective stiffness matrix for each equilibrium iteration within all the time/load steps, and

the initial stiffness matrix method (the initial stress method) that constructs and factorizes

the effective stiffness matrix only once. The modified Newton-Raphson method performs the

reformation of the effective stiffness matrix only for the first equilibrium iteration within

each time step, and the rest of the iterations will only involve the updating of the righthand side effective load vectors.

Since the modified Newton-Raphson method involves fewer effective stiffness matrix

reformations and factorizations, the computational cost per iteration for the modified

Newton-Raphson method is usually much less than that for the full Newton-Raphson

method. It has been observed that for problems with mild or moderate nonlinearity, for

example, smooth material property or loading condition changes, the modified NewtonRaphson method is usually more effective. However, for problems with strong nonlinearity,

for example, sudden material property or loading condition changes, this method may

converge very slowly or even diverge.

The combined full and modified Newton-Raphson method is between the full NewtonRaphson method and the modified Newton-Raphson method, and is designed for users who

either have some prior knowledge of the structures at hand or have some advanced

knowledge on nonlinear structural behaviors. You can specify a particular iterative scheme

that may best suit your problem. The full Newton-Raphson and the modified NewtonRaphson methods are special cases of this method. The default scheme for the combined

full-modified Newton-Raphson method is two right-hand side effective load vector updates

for each effective stiffness matrix reformation.

The latest solution method allows the analysis to achieve convergent solutions for problems

involving motion. This solution method damps out common convergence problems such as

high frequencies, because they are just noise within the solution.

Line Searches

All three solution schemes have the option for line search. Line searching usually helps to

stabilize the iterative schemes. It can be particularly useful for problems involving rapid

changes in structural stiffness due to rapid material property and/or geometric

configuration changes. In such situations line searching usually can accelerate the iterative

process, and sometimes provide convergence where none is obtainable without line

searches. The basic idea behind a line search scheme is the following: During each

equilibrium iterative, the Newton-Raphson method generates a search direction for new

Equilibrium Method

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Equilibrium Method

possible solutions, while the line search scheme is used to find a solution in that direction

that minimizes the out-of-balance force error. The convergence tolerance for the line search

can be specified in the Line search convergence tolerance field. This value should be

between 0.4 and 0.6.

Unlike linear problems, in nonlinear analysis there is no solution scheme that is good for

all kinds of problems. The choice of iterative scheme may be more appropriately chosen for

a particular problem based on the degree of nonlinearity of the problem at hand. Problems

with strong material and geometric nonlinear responses usually require more frequent matrix

reformations. The modified Newton-Raphson method is usually more effective for problems

with smooth material property and/or geometrical configuration changes, while the full

Newton-Raphson method, although more expensive in turn of numerical cost per iteration, is

usually more effective than the modified Newton-Raphson method for problems of strong

nonlinearity. Line searching schemes help an iterative process to converge at sensitive time/

load levels but increase the computational cost per iteration. For a nonlinear analysis where

no prior knowledge is available on the behavior of the structure at hand, the following

procedures are recommended:

1. Start the analysis with the material nonlinear only analysis type and a linear material model,

such as constant material properties. If the material model available for the analysis is

nonlinear, then use the initial values derived from the material model/curves as the constant

material properties. The linear analysis results may not only help to check whether the

geometric, loading and boundary conditions of the system are properly set or imposed, but

may also provide some useful information on the initial response or behavior of the structure

since for small displacements all structures behave linearly. Displacement results from the

linear analysis may also provide a criteria for the selection of reasonable time/load step

increments for the on-going nonlinear analysis.

2. If the original material model is nonlinear, perform the analysis using the material nonlinear

only analysis type. Results from this analysis may help to further understand the behavior of

the structure response and identify some sensitive time/load levels. Moreover, the comparison

of the results from this analysis and those from a large displacement analysis will indicate

whether or not the object has entered a large displacement state. For a structure of small

displacement state, the results from all the three analysis types should be more or less the

same. The time/load level where the results from the three analysis types starts to depart from

each other significantly indicates that the structure has entered large displacement state.

3. With the knowledge obtained from (1) and (2), one may perform the analysis with the Total

Lagrangian or Updated Lagrangian analysis types. If the automatic time step option is used,

the time/load step increments must be reasonably small to represent the material property

and/or geometrical configuration changes of the object during its loading process. If the

multiple time step option is used, one may assign different time/load steps and other

parameters for different time/load zones. For those time/load zones where rapid material

Equilibrium Method

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Equilibrium Method

property and geometrical changes may occur, smaller time steps, more frequent matrix

reformations, and line searches are usually required. At some critical time/load levels, such as

bifurcation or collapse time/load levels, it may be necessary to avoid performing matrix

reformations and/or equilibrium iterations or to relax error tolerances near these time/load

levels to observe the pre- or post-buckling/collapse behaviors of the object.

Equilibrium Method

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