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Objectives

In this section you will learn the following :

The motion of orienting the boundary of an orientable surface.

In the previous section we extended green's theorem to Divergence theorem, which related surface integrals, over

surfaces enclosing closed bounded regions, with triple integrals. One can also extend Green's theorem to surface

integrals over surfaces which have boundaries as closed curves. Recall, we showed Green's theorem can be written as

52.1.1 Definition:

Let

1.

Let

normal on

at

, i.e.,

as follows :

. Consider the orientation on

. Let

relative to the orientation on

2.

positive orientation on

For any point

orientations on

and

on

which meets

only at

then the

with his head in the direction of the orientation of the surface (i.e., that of the unit

normal to the surface). The person will be walking along the positive-direction if the surface lies on his left. The

orientation opposite to the positive orientation is called the negative orientation on

,

52.1.2 Note:

Another way of saying that the curve

on

is the

following:

is said to have positive orientation relative to orientation on

the tangent vector to

and

at

at

, and

52.1.3 Examples:

1.

if at any point

of

at

, then

Let us select the orientation of

to

2.

to

to

to

.

in

i.e.,

Let

as

then

3. Consider

to

to

to

, the paraboloid,

with upward normal orientation, i.e., geometrically the unit normal points upward relative to

Then, the orientation to

viewed from the top of positive

the circle

-plane.

-axis.

Practice Exercises

For the following surface

1.

is the cone

with the given choice of unit normal, find positive orientation on the boundary of

with the orientation given by

2.

is the hemisphere

3.

is the cylinder

4.

plane

5.

closed at

with

parallel to

with

with

Recap

In this section you have learnt the following

The motion of orienting the boundary of an orientable surface.

[Section 52.2]

Objectives

In this section you will learn the following :

The relation between surface integral and the line integral.

We state now the theorem that relates surface-integral with line integral.

52.2.1 Theorem (Stokes'):

Let

be a piecewise smooth oriented surface and let its boundary be a piecewise-smooth simple closed curve

including

. Then

----------(80)

where

is a unit normal on

and

We shall prove the theorem only for simple surfaces, i.e., surface that can be explicitly written as

. Let

or

or

has a parameterizations

Let

. Then

----------(81)

On the other hand

----------(82)

In view of

and

, to prove

----------(83)

----------(84)

and

----------(85)

We shall prove

and

as

Thus,

giving us,

Thus,

----------(86)

, the normal

to

has positive

for

and

we have

then

, traversed in the

Hence

----------(87)

and

prove

Practice Exercises:

1. Let

and

field with domain including

2.

Let

and

and

Let

Let

be a smooth vector

. Show that

and

1.

2.

3.

3. Let

Recap

In this section you have learnt the following

The relation between surface integral and the line integral.

and

Show that

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