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Ocean Engineering 53 (2012) 3847

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Ocean Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

Experimental assessment of interference resistance for a Series 60 catamaran


in free and xed trim-sinkage conditions
Antonio Souto-Iglesias n, David Fernandez-Gutierrez, Luis Perez-Rojas
Model Basin Research Group (CEHINAV), Naval Architecture Department (ETSIN), Technical University of Madrid (UPM), 28040 Madrid, Spain

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 24 February 2012
Accepted 3 June 2012
Editor-in-Chief: A.I. Incecik
Available online 10 July 2012

The interference resistance of multihulls taking into account the test condition (xed or free model) is
experimentally studied. Experiments have been carried out with a commercial catamaran model and
more extensively with a Series 60 catamaran. The inuence of the testing condition (xed or free)
together with the inuence of hull separation has been analysed. The relevance of these experimental
results in the separation optimisation techniques based on slender body ow solvers is discussed.
& 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Interference resistance
Interference factor
Series 60
Catamaran
Free trim
Fixed trim
Fixed sinkage
Free sinkage
Free model
Captive model

1. Introduction
A signicant body of literature analysing multihulls hydrodynamics (Chen et al., 2003; Insel and Molland, 1992; Migali
et al., 2001; Molland et al., 1996; Turner and Taplin, 1968; Yeung
et al., 2004), mainly considers slender body simplications and
focus on moderate and high speed regimes. Broglia et al. (2011)
and Zaghi et al. (2011) use instead a NavierStokes solver to
simulate multihulls, nding a good agreement for the resistance
values and describing complex interference effects at high Froude
numbers regimes.
Most of these analyses assume a xed model condition
consequently reducing the computational effort. This, combined
with the slender body assumption, allows for the simulation of a
wider range of congurations in terms of separation and velocity
for a reasonable computational effort. With these types of codes,
it is therefore feasible to set up a separation optimisation framework in early design phase (Moraes et al., 2007; Yeung and Wan,
2007).
In Souto-Iglesias et al. (2007), the interference resistance of
multihulls was analysed by assessing its relationship with the
n

Corresponding author. Tel.: 34 913367156; fax: 34 915442149.


E-mail addresses: antonio.souto@upm.es (A. Souto-Iglesias),
fg.david@gmail.com (D. Fernandez-Gutierrez),
luis.perezrojas@upm.es (L. Perez-Rojas).
0029-8018/$ - see front matter & 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2012.06.008

shape and amplitude of the wave train between the hulls for a
specic commercial vessel design. The free model condition was
then considered making it more difcult to identify interference
effects due to substantially different dynamic trims and sinkages
between the monohull and the catamaran. This case study is
herein revisited by considering the xed model condition.
In addition to the commercial vessel, a Series-60 (S60) catamaran has been experimentally studied. Its hull shape signicantly changes from the former, expanding the geometry types
analysed. Although the S60 is a well known hull for experimental
and computational analyses (Todd, 1964; Kim and Jenkins, 1981;
Toda et al., 1988, 1992; Nakatake and Takeshi, 1994; Tarafder and
Suzuki, 2008), to the authors knowledge, its behaviour as a
multihull has not yet been experimentally described and such
knowledge may be useful for CFD practitioners working on
multihull hydrodynamics.
In Yeung et al. (2004) the interference resistance of a S60
catamaran was numerically studied neglecting trim and sinkage
inuences. They provided the value of the interference factor for a
wide range of separations and speeds and a signicant insight
into the complexity of the multihull wave interference phenomena. Their predictions have been contrasted with experimental
results in the present paper.
The paper is organised as follows: rst, aiming at presenting
the problem and the notation, the interference resistance is
dened. Second, the commercial vessel case that was studied

A. Souto-Iglesias et al. / Ocean Engineering 53 (2012) 3847

mh

Nomenclature

n
cat
cF
cT
cw
Dzbow
Dzstern
g
Fn
IF
L

catamaran
friction resistance coefcient
total resistance coefcient
wave resistance coefcient
variation of bow draft in free model condition (m)
variation of stern draft in free model condition (m)
gravity (m/s2)
Froude number
interference factor
length between perpendiculars (m)

under the free trim condition in Souto-Iglesias et al. (2007) is


revisited, this time, considering the xed trim condition effect on
interference resistance. Third, a S60 catamaran is analysed comparing the experimental data under xed and free trim test
conditions with the existing data found in the previously mentioned literature. Finally, a summary of the drawn conclusions
together with future works are provided.

2. Interference resistance

RWcat 2RWmh
2RWmh

Ideally, the value of the interference factor should be kept as


small as possible, negative if achievable (Yeung and Wan, 2007).
To correctly calculate the interference factor, the friction
resistance has to be subtracted from the total resistance obtained
in the experiments. Air drag and correlation allowance are
considered negligible in the present analysis. The wave resistance
is obtained via the Hughes (Lunde et al., 1966) decomposition.
RT RW 1 kRF

where k is the form factor, assumed identical for both the


monohull and the catamaran cases. RF is the friction resistance
of a at plate with equivalent wetted surface, computed from the
friction drag coefcient (CF) obtained via the ITTC 1957 correlation line formula:
cF

0:075
log10 Re22

monohull
kinematic viscosity (m2/s)
at plate friction resistance (N)
total resistance (N)
wave resistance (N)
wave resistance of monohull (N)
wave resistance of catamaran (N)
Reynolds number
Series 60
separation (m)
velocity (m/s)

wave resistance implies changing the denominator of Eq. (1) to


the total resistance, since as aforementioned, friction components
cancel out in the numerator.
The value of the interference factor is investigated in the
present paper by looking at the inuence of the testing condition
for two vessels, namely a commercial vessel and a Series 60 (S60).
The characteristics of both models are presented in Table 1.

3. Commercial vessel

In multihulls, there is usually a strong interference between


the wave systems generated by each hull. This interference can
either be favourable or unfavourable to the global resistance of
the hull. To properly characterise this effect, the interference
factor IF is dened as the ratio of the difference between the wave
resistance of the catamaran, RWcat , and twice the wave resistance
force of a monohull, RWmh :
IF

RF
RT
Rw
RWmh
RWcat
Re
S60
s
V

39

3.1. General
This vessel is commonly used in the transport of goods and sh
to and from a sea farm. The main dimensions of the model are
presented in Table 1. The reference system considered, the
notations describing the hull separation and the vessel geometry
are shown in Fig. 1. The separation (s) is dened as the distance
between each hulls centreline, and is made nondimensional with
the length between perpendiculars (s/L).
The free model condition studied in Souto-Iglesias et al. (2007)
was aimed at nding the relationship between the interference factor
Table 1
Main dimensions of the case studies.
Main features

Commercial vessel

S60

Units

Length between perpendiculars (L)


Beam (mh)
Draft
Wetted surface (mh)
Displacement (mh)
Block coefcient
Lengthbeam ratio
Beamdraft ratio

2.208
0.238
0.120
0.885
84.35
0.653
9.28
1.98

2.500
0.333
0.133
1.062
65.70
0.600
7.51
2.50

m
m
m
m2
kg

There is a strong dependence between the wave resistance and


the value set for the form factor. This signicantly affects the
extrapolation procedure but moderately inuences the value of
the interference factor IF while maintaining its sign, the reason
being that the frictional components of the resistance cancel out
in the numerator of Eq. (1). Therefore, establishing whether the
interference effects are favourable or unfavourable does not
depend on eventual uncertainties of the form factor computation
procedure.
The interference factor is sometimes dened considering the
total resistance (Zaghi et al., 2011). According to the Hughes
resistance decomposition, using the total resistance instead of the

Fig. 1. Commercial vessel model geometry and reference system.

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A. Souto-Iglesias et al. / Ocean Engineering 53 (2012) 3847

and the amplitude of the wave system in between the two hulls.
The present study completes the previously mentioned work by
performing tests in xed model condition using this geometry, thus
eliminating the effects of sinkage and trim movements. A photograph
taken during the tests of this papers experimental campaign is
shown in Fig. 2. Further information about this hull is included in
Souto-Iglesias et al. (2007) including its 3D geometrical denition as
an IGES le, provided as a supplementary material.
The following tests were carried out:






Monohull, free model


Monohull, xed model
Catamaran, s/L 0.388, in free model condition
Catamaran, s/L 0.388, in xed model condition

The separation (s/L0.388) was chosen for having the most


interesting interference effects, as found in Souto-Iglesias et al.
(2007). A test matrix comprising of the speeds shown in Table 2
was initially devised. The speed range of main interest corresponds to Froude numbers between 0.2 and 0.4. For the Froude
number 0.375 the experiment was repeated 5 times in order to
assure that measurement uncertainties remain considerably
smaller than the interference effects to analyse. A collection of
extra velocities was run for the range 0.3 oFno0.4 in order to

Fig. 2. Picture of commercial vessel-model test.

Table 2
Froude numbers and velocities
considered for the commercial
vessel tests.
Point

Fn

V (m/s)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0.100
0.150
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.400
0.450
0.500
0.550

0.465
0.698
0.931
1.164
1.396
1.629
1.745
1.745
1.745
1.745
1.745
1.862
2.094
2.327
2.560

properly characterise the resistance hump. Videos of these


experiments, provided as supplementary material, can be found
online at http://canal.etsin.upm.es/ftp/2012/S60/
3.2. Results
The resulting experimental curves are presented in Fig. 3.
It can be observed that there is a signicant difference in the
results for the xed and free model conditions, with the free
model resistance being larger than the xed model in all cases, as
in Kim and Jenkins (1981) for a S60 monohull and Moraes et al.
(2004) for the Wigley hull. With regard to the differences
between monohull and catamaran, the tendency in the monohull
resistance is monotonic whilst a clear hump can be appreciated
for the catamaran conguration. Focusing on the hump region,
these characteristics are discussed in detail in what follows next.
In order to adequately estimate the interference factor for a
continuous range of Froude numbers, the resistance curves were
tted with NURBS (Fig. 4 left and right). In these gures, the
markers correspond to the raw experimental data. The interference factor refers to a comparison between wave resistances
which have been obtained from the total resistance following the
procedure described in Section 2 and considering a form factor of
0.24. The form factor has been taken as the same for the
catamaran and the monohull. Fig. 4 left and right show the
differences in wave and total resistance in the hump region
(0.3oFno0.4) between the monohull and the catamaran for
the free and xed model conditions respectively. It can be seen
that the wave resistance and the total resistance follow a similar
trend, although as previously mentioned, the values remain lower
for the xed trim condition. Favourable interference regions
corresponding to those where the catamaran resistance is smaller
than twice that of the monohull can also be observed.
The interference factor is calculated from these data with the
results shown in Fig. 5. While it is apparent that the values are
different for 0.3 oFno0.34, a very similar pattern is obtained for
Fn40.34. Overall, the tendency of the interference factors for the
free and xed model conditions is similar, with some differences
in the IF values for the Froude numbers between 0.3 and 0.34.
This ts with what was expected from analysing the trim angles
of the monohull and catamaran congurations in free model
condition, as discussed in Souto-Iglesias et al. (2007).
Results regarding sinkage and trim are presented in Fig. 6.
They are made nondimensional using the typical length V2/g
(Eqs. (4) and (5)), as in Kim and Jenkins (1981).
Trim Dzbow Dzstern 2g=V 2

Sinkage Dzbow Dzstern g=V 2

Fig. 3. Total resistance of commercial vessel, s/L 0.388.

A. Souto-Iglesias et al. / Ocean Engineering 53 (2012) 3847

41

Fig. 4. Total and wave resistance, commercial vessel, free (left) and xed (right) conditions.

Fig. 5. IF of commercial vessel for test case s/L 0.388.


Fig. 7. S60 catamaran model.

Fig. 6. Sinkage and trim, commercial vessel.

This typical length is the characteristic wave length over 2p.


Although the sinkage is signicant (o10% of the draft), its behaviour
is very similar for both the monohull and the catamaran. If we look at
the trim, absolute trim angles remain small (between  0.31 and 0.31,
equivalent to 70.06 in the nondimensional trim from Fig. 6) with
small variations. The trim angle reduction around Fn0.37 for the
catamaran may help in explaining the favourable interference found
in the free model condition for this velocity.

4. Series 60
4.1. General
The tests have been carried out with a Series 60 (Todd, 1964)
catamaran (g. 7). The model characteristics have been presented
in Table 1 together with those of the commercial vessel test case.
The dimension ratios are fairly similar for these two vessels but

Fig. 8. S60 (Todd, 1964) body plan (black) and present study (red). (For interpretation
of the references to colour in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web
version of this article.)

the hulls are signicantly different:


1. The S60 has no cylindrical section compared to a long one for
the commercial vessel.
2. The S60 has a conventional cruise type aft body and the
commercial vessel has a transom stern.
3. The S60 has no knuckles while the the commercial vessel has a
hard chin.
Prior to the milling of the models, the hull geometry was
computationally redened starting from the IGES denition used

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A. Souto-Iglesias et al. / Ocean Engineering 53 (2012) 3847

as benchmark in the Tokyo 1994 CFD Workshop. The reason for


this refairing is that too many surface patches with not enough
quality matching were used in the latter. Furthermore, a vertical
extension of the model was required to cope with the generated
waves from high Froude number tests. The matching of the
updated geometry with the original S60 denition (Todd, 1964)
is good, as can be appreciated in Fig. 8. The IGES le used here is
provided as a supplementary material at http://canal.etsin.upm.
es/ftp/2012/S60/, with the aim to serve as a standard digital
denition for further studies.
The following separations have been tested:
a)
b)
c)
d)

s0.565 m, s/L0.226
s0.768 m, s/L0.307
s0.971 m, s/L0.388
s0.1174 m, s/L0.470

The rationale behind this selection is that, according to the


computational analysis of a Series 60 catamaran by Yeung et al.
(2004), s/L 0.226 was determined as the separation ratio for
which the largest favourable interferences take place. s/L0.388
is the separation ratio with the largest favourable interference
effects for the commercial vessel case studied in the previous
section. s/L0.307 is the mean value of 0.226 and 0.388.
s/L0.470 is larger than 0.388 and chosen to evenly space the
4 separations. Results are presented and discussed for each of
these 4 separations.
The form factor used for the computation of the wave
component of the resistance is taken as 0.0673. This value was
deduced by Min and Kang (2010) who undertook a very thorough
study on the dependence between the form factor and the
Reynolds number. As for the commercial vessel, it is assumed
that the form factor for the monohull and the catamaran is
the same.
The velocities presented in Table 3 were run for the monohull
and for the catamaran with all four separations in both free and
xed model conditions. On top of the points presented in Table 3,
a total of 5 extra runs were done for the regions of convexity
change in the resistance curves. These extra points are shown in
the resistance curves in the next section. Since it was previously

unclear where the strongest interference effects would take place,


the range of Froude numbers is wider than the one used for the
commercial vessel (Table 2). The videos of these experiments,
provided as a supplementary material, can be found online at
http://canal.etsin.upm.es/ftp/2012/S60/. A photograph taken during the experiments is presented in Fig. 9.

4.2. Resistance curves for all separations


The resistance curves for the monohull and the catamaran
with all 4 separations in xed and free model conditions are
presented in Figs. 10 and 11. There is a slight hump in the
resistance curves for both xed and free model conditions for
0.3oFn o0.4. In both conditions and as a general trend, the
resistance diminishes as the separation increases, tending to that
of the monohull. Let us point out that the monohull resistance has
been doubled for the comparison. The translation of these results
in the interference factor is later discussed.

Fig. 9. Picture of S60 model test.

Table 3
Froude numbers and velocities for the S60 catamaran tests.
Point

Fn

V (m/s)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

0.15
0.20
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.39
0.40
0.41
0.42
0.43
0.45
0.50
0.55

0.743
0.990
1.238
1.288
1.337
1.387
1.436
1.486
1.535
1.585
1.634
1.684
1.733
1.783
1.832
1.882
1.931
1.981
2.030
2.080
2.129
2.229
2.476
2.724

Fig. 10. S60, total resistance in free model condition.

Fig. 11. S60, total resistance in xed model condition.

A. Souto-Iglesias et al. / Ocean Engineering 53 (2012) 3847

4.3. Resistance curves in free and xed model conditions


The graphs in Fig. 12 show the resistance curves for each
separation in xed and free model conditions, and compare them

43

with the monohull ones. As a general trend, it can be observed that


the resistance is greater in the free model condition than in the xed
one for each separation. This is best appreciated when comparing the
data for the greatest speed. In Section 3.2, a similar effect is described

Fig. 12. S60, total resistance in xed and free model conditions. Top left: s/L=0.226, Top Right: s/L=0.307, Down left: s/L=0.388, Down Right: s/L=0.470.

Fig. 13. S60, total and wave resistance in free model condition. Top left: s/L=0.226, Top Right: s/L=0.307, Down left: s/L=0.388, Down Right: s/L=0.470.

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A. Souto-Iglesias et al. / Ocean Engineering 53 (2012) 3847

for the commercial vessel. As can be appreciated in Fig. 12, the


differences are larger for the catamaran than for the monohull and
even larger for small separations compared to large ones. This effect
was also described for the Wigley hull by Moraes et al. (2004).

For the catamaran in free model condition, with s/L0.226, the


greatest speeds could not be reached due to the generated waves
entering the model. For s/L0.307 in free model condition,
the planning range for the catamaran conguration is reached.

Fig. 14. S60, total and wave resistance in xed model condition. Top left: s/L=0.226, Top Right: s/L=0.307, Down left: s/L=0.388, Down Right: s/L=0.470.

Fig. 15. IF for the S60. Top left: s/L=0.226, Top Right: s/L=0.307, Down left: s/L=0.388, Down Right: s/L=0.470.

A. Souto-Iglesias et al. / Ocean Engineering 53 (2012) 3847

This can be deduced by looking at the attening of the resistance


curve for Fn0.55. For s/L0.388, the difference in resistance
values between the monohull and the catamaran grows smaller
for large Froude numbers both in xed and free model conditions.
This tendency is made clearer with the largest separation
(s/L0.470).
4.4. Wave resistance
In order to calculate the interference factor for a continuous
range of Froude numbers, the resistance curves have been tted
with NURBS. For each case, wave resistances have been obtained
from the total resistance following the procedure described in
Section 2. The curves representing these results are shown in
Figs. 13 and 14 for free and xed model conditions respectively.
In these gures, the markers correspond to the raw experimental
data. Data are presented for Fn4 0.3, where the rst behaviour
differences between the monohull and the catamaran start to take
place. We can conclude that for the free model condition and
smallest separation, there is no favourable interference region.
For the largest Froude numbers the catamaran and the monohull
resistances tend to converge. In the mid part of the graphs the
trends are more intricate and described through the IF in the next
section.
4.5. Interference factor
Using the wave resistance curves presented in the previous
section, the interference factors for both xed and free model
conditions and for all separations are presented in this section.

45

Results are compared with Yeung et al. (2004) and Yeung (2005),
who considered a thin-ship potential approximation to model the
problem, with a xed model hypothesis.
Interference factors for free and xed model conditions are
presented for all separations in Fig. 15. Focusing on s/L0.226, it
can be appreciated that the free model and xed model interference factors are signicantly different. Although according to
Yeung et al. (2004), where this last separation with Fn0.33
produces the most favourable interference effects, this does not
occur in the present experiments. For Fn 0.33 the interference is
unfavourable and the minimum is shifted to around Fn0.38. The
free model condition presents overall a more unfavourable
behaviour than both xed condition and theoretical model. This
is relevant since in real applications, the free model condition
applies. For the largest velocities there is a convergence between
the xed model condition results and those of Yeung et al. (2004).
For s/L 0.307, it can be appreciated that the free model
interference factor signicantly differs from the xed model one
in the range 0.35oFno0.4. With regards to the comparison with
Yeung et al. (2004), it is noticeable that the peak value of the
interference coefcient is shifted to 0.05 (from 0.38 to 0.43 in the
experimental results). This shift is also present in the minimum
value of the interference factor. For the largest velocities there is a
convergence between the experimental results and those from
Yeung et al. (2004) in free and xed model conditions. Furthermore, the interference effects diminish and the IF tends to zero, as
is the case in Zaghi et al. (2011).
Analogously to what happened for the commercial vessel, in
the S60 case, the strongest favourable interference effects are
found for s/L0.388. With regards to the comparison with Yeung

Fig. 16. Contour plot as function of Fn and s/L of the IF for the S60. Top: Yeung et al., (2004), Down left: Free model, Down right: Fixed model.

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A. Souto-Iglesias et al. / Ocean Engineering 53 (2012) 3847

et al. (2004), the peaks and valleys in the experiments are delayed
with respect to the model. For the largest velocities, the convergence of the experimental results found in this paper to those of
Yeung et al. (2004) is clearly appreciated. More attenuated trends
are observed for the largest separation, s/L 0.470.
An interesting global representation of these effects across the
different separations is given. To do this, a contour projection of
the 3D graph for the IF is presented in Fig. 16. The tendencies
observed in the individual graphs for each separation (Fig. 15) are
now clearer. The colour scale in each graph is individualised due
to the range of the interference factor data from Yeung et al.
(2004) being signicantly shorter than the one found experimentally. Globally there are some similitudes in the interference
patterns but some differences can be appreciated.
Comparing the free model experimental data (which is the
realistic conguration to be found in full scale) with those of
Yeung et al. (2004) shows that the most favourable interference
takes place at a similar Fn (0.33) and with a similar IF (around
0.2) but at a larger separation (0.4 instead of 0.226). This Fn is
similar to that found by Zaghi et al. (2011) with a slenderer
model. The unfavourable interferences are stronger in the experimental case with a maximum of the order of 0.7 instead of the
theoretically calculated 0.3. It is signicant that this maximum
does not take place for the smallest separation, as is the case in
Zaghi et al. (2011). Also, in experiments, there is a smoother
transition between the favourable and unfavourable regions
compared to the theoretical model.
Now comparing free and xed model condition tests, other
differences can be appreciated:
1. The transition between favourable and unfavourable regions is
sharper for the xed model case. Such a sharp transition in the
xed model case is predicted by the theoretical model.
2. For the smallest separations and contrary to what happens in
the free model condition, there are favourable, although quite
mild, interference regions in the xed model condition results.
3. Although the unfavourable interference regions are similar in
size, the free model ones are more intense.
4. The most favourable interference factor in xed model condition is smaller than the free model one.

Fig. 17. Sinkage for the S60.

Fig. 18. Trim for the S60.

Looking at the trim (Fig. 18) and in all cases, the differences are
more patent for larger Fn. Between Fn0.38 and Fn0.45 a
signicant trim increase is appreciated. This shift requires further
investigation in order to evaluate a possible relation between
differences in the IF in free and xed model condition.

5. Conclusions
Summarizing, the free model condition tends to enhance the
favourable and unfavourable interference effects.
4.6. Sinkage and trim
The object of this section is to analyse the relationship
between the IF differences in free and xed model conditions
and the dynamic position (sinkage and trim) in free model
condition. It is also relevant to analyse differences in sinkage
and trim in free model condition between the monohull and the
catamaran; such values are presented in nondimensional form in
Figs. 17 and 18, following the denitions by Kim and Jenkins
(1981) presented in Eqs. (4) and (5).
When comparing the S60 data with those of the commercial
vessel (Fig. 6), sinkage seems to be of the same order but trim is
signicantly larger for the S60. Pending future work, we believe
this may have an inuence on the IF behaviour change between
xed and free model conditions.
When comparing the S60 monohull and the S60 catamaran in
free model condition, large differences in sinkage can be appreciated for 0.3 oFno0.42 (Fig. 17). For the shortest separation
(s/L0.226) the sinkage for the catamaran is around 50% greater.
Also for s/L0.226, as can be seen in Fig. 15, the differences in the
IF between free and xed model are signicant but not monotonic, unlike the sinkage differences, which are monotonic.

The interference resistance of multihulls taking into account


the testing condition (xed model or free model) has been
experimentally studied. Experiments have been carried out with
a commercial catamaran model and more extensively with a
Series 60 catamaran. For the commercial vessel, the inuence of
the model condition has been analysed for the separation in
which the strongest interference effects take place. In this case it
has been shown that the inuence of the model condition (freexed) is not substantial. This is consistent with the experiments
presenting moderate dynamic trim-sinkage values and small
differences in dynamic trim and sinkage between the monohull
and the multihull conguration in free model condition.
For the Series 60 model a range of separations has been studied
and compared with the xed model slender body theoretical results.
The differences between the free and xed condition experimental
results are signicant, with the free condition providing more
extreme cases in the favourable and unfavourable interference
regimes. The optimum interference factor ( 0.2) appears at a Froude
number of 0.33, agreeing with theoretical results. Nonetheless, this
optimum interference occurs for a substantially larger separation
ratio (0.40) than the theoretically predicted (0.226). The transition
between favourable and unfavourable regions is sharper for the xed
model case. Such a sharp transition is in accordance with the
theoretical model predictions. For the smallest separation and

A. Souto-Iglesias et al. / Ocean Engineering 53 (2012) 3847

contrary to what happens in the free model condition, there are


favourable, although quite mild, interference regions in the xed
model condition. It has been described that for each separation there
is a shift in the maximum favourable and unfavourable interference
Froude numbers as compared to the theoretical model. In general, the
free model condition tends to enhance the favourable and unfavourable interference effects.
As a nal conclusion, we believe that the differences described
in this paper between experimental results and theoretical predictions and between the wave resistance in xed and free sinktrim conditions may be relevant at the decision-making level in
early multihull hydrodynamic design. In addition, and since the
hulls that have been treated are a standard and a fully dened
one, we hope this paper will be useful as benchmark data for
numerical analysis of multihull hydrodynamics.

Acknowledgements
The research leading to these results has received funding from
the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation with the Programa
de Acceso y Mejora de las ICTS, which provided funding for carrying
out the experimental campaign in CEHIPAR model basin. We thank
Elkin Mauricio Botia-Vera, Luise Draheim, David Feijoo de Azevedo,
Carlos Ariel Garrido Mendoza, Francisco Perez-Arribas, Roque
Velasco-Sopranis, Hugo Gee all from our research group, and Libor
Lobovsky from University of West Bohemia for their support in
different tasks during the research that has led to this paper.
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