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CHAPTER 1

REVIEW

MOBILE ROBOT KINEMATICS

& LOCOMOTION

Dr. Vo Tuong Quan

HCMUT - 2011

Class Rules

1. Class attendance: 10% (if a student absent more than 2

time, the attendance score is zero).

2. Homeworks & Class exercises report: 30% (students will

submit the homework via ELearning system).

3. Teamwork project : 20%

Each team includes 3-4 students, each team will present

their research topic at the 3 final weeks of the semester.

English power point and english presentation in class are

encouraged.

4. Final exam: 40% (Students will allow to use their documents

while doing the exam. Time for final exam: 90 minutes

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2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Kinematics problems

Kinematic model for a mobile robot Consider the robot as a

rigid body on wheels, operating on a horizontal plane

How many dimenssion of this kinematic model of mobile robot?

The total dimensionality of this kinematic model on the plane is

three:

- Two for position in the plane

- One for orientation along the vertical axis, which is

orthogonal to the plane

To specify the position of the robot on the plane we

establish a relationship between the global reference frame

(global coordinate) of the plane and the local reference frame

(local coordinate) of the robot

3

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

YI

The axes XI and YI

define an arbitrary initial

basis on the plane as

the global reference

frame from some origin

O: {XI,YI}

YR

XR

XI

4

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

YI

Define position of the

robot choose a point

P on the robot chassis

as its position reference

point

The basis {XR, YR}

defines

two

axes

relative to P on the

robots chassis.

YR

XR

XI

5

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

YI

YR

XR

global reference frame is

specified by coordinates x

and y, and the angular

difference between the

global and local reference

frame is given by

vector with three elements:

I = [ x y ]

XI

6

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

YI

The

orthogonal

matrix:

YR

XR

cos

R sin

0

sin

cos

0

rotation

0

0

1

map motion in the global

reference frame {XI, YI} to

motion in terms of the local

reference frame {XR, YR}

XI

7

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

This operation is denoted by

R( )I because the computation

of this operation depends on the

value of :

R = R(/2) I

cos

R sin

0

sin

cos

0

0

0

1

0 1 0

R 1 0 0

2

0 0 1

8

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Given some velocity (x, y, ) in the global reference frame

We can compute the components of motion along this

robots local axes XR and YR

In this case, due to the specific angle of the robot, the motion

along XR is equal to y and motion along YR is -x

0 1 0 x y

R R I 1 0 0 y x

2

0 0 1

9

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Robot within an arbitrary initial frame

Initial frame: {XI, YI}

x

Robot frame: {XR, YR}

Robot position:

y

YI

YR

XR

x

R R I R y

XI

cos

R sin

0

sin

cos

0

0

0

1

10

of the wheel speeds i, steering angles i and steering speeds

i and the geometric parameters of the robot (configuration

coordinates)

yI

Forward kinematics

v(t)

s(t)

x

y f ( 1 , n , 1 , m , 1 , m )

Inverse kinematics

1 m

xI

f ( x, y ,)

11

The forward kinematic model of a differential drive robot is

relatively straight-forward. The differential drive robot has two

wheels each of diameter r.

Given a point P centred between the two drive wheels, each

wheel is a distance l from P

Given r, l, and the spinning speed of each wheel, 1 and 2

a forward kinematic model would predict the robots overall

speed in the global reference frame as:

x

I y f l , r , , 1 , 2

12

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Compute a robots motion in the global reference frame from

the motion in its local reference frame

I = R()-1R

The strategy is to first compute the contribution of each of

the two wheels in the local reference frame and then convert

these to the global reference frame

The contribution of each wheels spinning speed to the

translation speed at P in the direction of +XR is given as:

r1

x r1

2

r 2

xr 2

2

x R x r1 x r 2

13

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

The contribution of each wheels spinning speed to the rotation

speed at P is given as:

r

r

2l

2l

R 1 2

r1 r 2

2 2

cos sin 0

1

1

I R

0

R sin cos 0

r r

2

0

0

1

1

2l

2l

14

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Suppose the robot is positioned such that = /2, r = 1, and

l = 1 and the robot engages its wheels unevenly with 1 = 4

and 2 = 2

The velocity in the global reference frame as:

x 0 1 0 3 0

I y 1 0 0 0 3

0 0 1 1 1

15

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Do we need to consider about the dynamics of mobile robot?

16

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Wheels based mobile robot:

- Wheels are the most appropriate solution for most robotic

applications

- There are lots of options for combinations of different kinds

of wheels in different orientations

- Selection of wheels depends on the application

Three key considerations when designing wheel robots:

- Stability

- Maneuverability

- Controllability

17

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Wheels types

a) Standard wheel: Two degrees

of freedom; rotation around the

(motorized) wheel axle and the

contact point

b) Castor wheel: Three degrees

of freedom; rotation around the

wheel axle, the contact point and

the castor axle

a)

b)

18

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

c) Swedish wheel: Three

degrees of freedom;

rotation

around

the

(motorized) wheel axle,

around the rollers and

around the contact point

d) Ball or spherical

wheel:

Suspension

technically not solved

c)

d)

swedish 90

s wedis h 45

19

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Wheels arrangements

Legend

Steered

standard

wheel

Connected

wheels

Motorised

Swedish

wheel

Motorised

standard

wheel

Un-powered

standard

wheel

Un-powered

omnidirectional

wheel

Two wheels

20

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Three wheels

21

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Four wheels

22

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

Six wheels

23

2011 Vo Tuong Quan

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