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Oculus rift

Seminar Report 2015-2016

GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE


KUNNAMKULAM
KIZHOOR.P.O, THRISSUR (DT), KERALA, PIN-680523

SEMINAR REPORT
2014-2015

Oculus rift
Presented by
MIDHUN.C.M
REGISTER NO.13131422

Directorate of Technical Education


Government of Kerala

GPTC KKM

Computer Engineering

Oculus rift

Seminar Report 2015-2016

GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE


KUNNAMKULAM
KIZHOOR.P.O, THRISSUR (DT), KERALA, PIN-680523

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the seminar report titled OCULUS RIFT was presented by
MIDHUN CM Reg. No: 13131422 in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
award of Diploma in Computer Engineering under the Technical Education
Department during the academic year 2014-2015 at Govt. Polytechnic College,
Kunnamkulam.
Date:
Place:

Guide

Head of the Department

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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Computer Engineering

Oculus rift

Seminar Report 2015-2016

At first, I like to express my indebtedness to the Almighty God who showered


his abundant grace on me to make this project a success.
I wish record my sincere thanks to Sheeba M K, our Principal to provide as all
necessary facilities. I take this opportunity to express my thanks to Mr. Chandrakumar
MK, Head of the department of Computer Engineering for his valuable guidance and
support to shape this seminar in a systematic way.
I am extremely thankful to our respected lecturers for their keen interest and
valuable suggestions in this seminar in addition I would like to all staff members of
Computer Department and all my friends of CT S 6 for their suggestion and
constructive critics.

MIDHUN CM

GPTC KKM

Computer Engineering

Oculus rift

Seminar Report 2015-2016


ABSTRACT

Virtual reality (VR) is a burgeoning field that has the inherent potential of
manipulating peoples mind with a superlative 3D experience. Oculus rift is one
such application that assists in achieving the same.With the fleeting enhancements
in VR it now seems very feasible to provide the user with experiences that were
earlier thought to be merely a dream or a nightmare.Virtual Reality gaming is here
in the form of Oculus Rift. This history- defining 3D headset lets you mentally
feel that you are actually inside a video game. In the Rifts virtual world, you
could turn your head around with ultralow latency to view the world in high
resolution display, Rift wants you to enjoy the experience, and the package even
comes as a development kit. This is the beginning of the revolution for next
generation gaming.
Basically, VR is a theory based on the human desire to escape the real world
boundaries and this is done by embracing the cyber world. It is a new form of
human machine interaction that is beyond keyboard, mouse or even touch screen
for that matter. It is a means by which one can interact with full visual immersion.
Immersion is based on two main components: depth of information and breadth of
information. Depth of information includes resolution, quality and effectiveness
of audio visuals etc. Breadth of information is the number of sensory present at a
time. VR is implemented by using interactive devices like gloves headsets or
helmets. Oculus Rift is a VR Ski-Masked Shaped Goggle device that works along
with computers or mobiles. Other VR headsets have problem of motion sickness
to the user post its usage. But here is a new technology which claims to have
solved this problem of motion sickness and dizziness post the usage. This new
technology is oculus rift.
.

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Computer Engineering

Oculus rift

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CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION......6
2. HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY & OCULUS RIFT ..

3. HOW DOES VIRTUAL REALITY WORKS?...............7


4: HOW DOES THE OCULUS RIFT WORKS.. 8
5. ARCHITECTURE OF VR SYSTEM .....10
6. OCULUS RIFT HARDWARE SETUP......11
7. APPLICATIONS .....13
8. CURRENT USES.....15
9. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES.......18
10. FUTURE.19
11. CONCLUSION ...20
12. REFFERENCE . 21

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Computer Engineering

Oculus rift

Seminar Report 2015-2016

1. INTRODUCTION
You pull a helmet over your head, and suddenly, you're inside
a virtual world that seems completely lifelike. You can run around, fight, race and
fly, doing things gamers have never done before. What was once the stuff of
Hollywood fantasy is now becoming a reality? A startup called Oculus VR is
creating personal virtual-reality goggles called the Oculus Rift for everyone to
use. Virtual reality isn't new. There have been attempts to create virtual
worlds since the '60s, and the idea really took off in the '90s, spawning games that
were clunky and heavy, like Nintendo's 1995 disaster Virtual Boy. But it wasn't
until the Oculus Rift that virtual reality became something attainable and, perhaps
more importantly.
Virtual Reality can be defined as an environment which is simulated by a
computer system. The environment can mimic the real world, or it can be a
simulation of a completely imaginary world. The term Virtual (or Artificial)
Reality is attributed to Myron Krueger, an American computer artist in the 1970s.
It has been recorded as far back as 1938 however, by the French artist Antonin
Arnaud, who coined the phrase while discussing his theatre shows. The first
virtual reality equipment, which attempted to physically realize the concept, was
developed by Morton Heilig in the 1950s. He created the Sensorama machine,
which contained a moving seat, along with 3-D moving images, smell, sound, and
even wind.

Figure 2:

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Figure 1: SENSORAMA

Computer Engineering

Oculus rift

Seminar Report 2015-2016

2: HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY &


OCULUS RIFT

Figure 4: oculus head mounted kit


Nowadays computer graphics is used in many domains of our life. The
thought of virtual reality has been around since 1965, when Ivan Sutherland
expressed his ideas of creating virtual or imaginary worlds. At MIT, he conducted
experiments with three dimensional displays. In 1969, he developed the first
system to surround people in three dimensional displays of information. Between
the '70's and late '80's, the concept of virtual reality was mainly used by the
United States. The military used it as flight simulators to train pilots. The other
countries in the world did not show any interest in this technology until the late
1980's. Since then, virtual reality has developed in many ways to become an
emerging technology of our time.
Palmer Luckey, the founder of Oculus, developed the idea of creating a
new head-mounted display that was both more effective than what is currently on
the market, and inexpensive for gamers. For developers, the Oculus Rift platform
is a playground, allowing them to put themselves into any virtual world they can
imagine, whether it's a favorite game like Sky rim (Warning: NSFW language up
ahead) or simply a situation you'll likely never experience in real life.

3. HOW DOES VIRTUAL REALITY WORKS?


For many of us born during the mind 1980s the first thing that strikes us when we
hear the term VR is Jonny Quest and Quest world. Quest world was the digital world
that could be accessed through a computer program and a special headset. It was a
move on the part of Hanna-Barbera productions to introduce the concept of VR to
children. So how does VR really work? Quest world captured its essence beautifully
but there is much more to it. Today there is a lot of argument on what exactly
constitutes a VR experience with many people coming up with their own points but
the in general it includes Three dimensional images that appear life size from the perspective of the viewer
The ability to track a users movement especially his/her eyes and head movement
and adjust the image on the display to reflect the change in perspective
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Computer Engineering

Oculus rift

Seminar Report 2015-2016

Now the question arises how does virtual reality work for this we have to
trace its origin to the person who opened the Pandoras Box- Ivan Sutherland. In
the year 1968 Sutherland and his student Bob Sprull created the first ever virtual
reality head mounted display (HMD) system. This piece of machinery was known
as the Sword of Damocles given its formidable appearance. Following closely on
the heels of the first ever HMD came the worlds first ever data glove which was
invented by Dan Sandin, Richard Sayfre and Thomas Defanti which allowed
interaction through body movement in the year 1977. Finally in the year 1983
Myron Krueger came up with the first ever virtual environment called the video
space

4: HOW DOES THE OCULUS RIFT WORKS?


Picture a set of ski goggles in which a large cell phone screen replaces the
glass. The screen displays two images side by side, one for each eye. A set of
lenses is placed on top of the screen, focusing and reshaping the picture for each
eye, and creating a stereoscopic 3D image. The goggles have embedded sensors
that monitor the wearer's head motions and adjust the image accordingly. The
latest version of the Oculus Rift is bolstered by an external positional-tracking
accessory, which helps track head movements more accurately. The result is the
sensation that you are looking around a 3D world.

Figure 5: oculus view techniques

Motion parallax has to do with the apparent size of an object. If you put a soda
can in front of you and then move it closer, it will get bigger in your visual field.
Your brain assumes that the can didnt suddenly grow and concludes that its just
got closer to you.

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Computer Engineering

Oculus rift

Seminar Report 2015-2016

Shape-from-shading is a bit trickier. If you stare at a point on an object in


front of you and then move your head around, youll notice that the shading of
that point changes ever so slightly depending on the lighting around you. The
funny thing is that your eyes actually flicker constantly recalculating the tiny
differences in shading and your brain uses that information to judge how far away
the object is.
In the real world, both these cues work together to give you a sense of
depth. But in virtual reality systems, theyre not treated equally.

Figure 6: parts of oculus rift

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Computer Engineering

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5. ARCHITECTURE OF VR SYSTEM

Figure 16: architecture of VR system

Components of VR System:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Input Processor,
Simulation Processor,
Rendering Processor and
World Database

(a) Input Processor


-Control the devices used to input information to the computer. The object is to get the
coordinate data to the rest of the system with minimal lag time.
- Keyboards, mouse, 3D position trackers, a voice recognition system, etc.

(b)Simulation Processor
-Core of a VR system.
-Takes the user inputs along with any tasks programmed into the world and determine the
actions that will take place in the virtual world.

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(c) Rendering Processor

figure17

-Create the sensations that are output to the user.


-Separate rendering processes are used for visual, auditory, haptic and other sensory
Systems. Each renderer takes a description of the world stat from the simulation process
or derives it directly from the World Database for each time step.

(d)World Database:
Store the objects that inhabit the world, scripts that describe actions of those
objects.

6. OCULUS RIFT HARDWARE SETUP


In addition to the Oculus SDK, you will also need the hardware provided
by the Oculus Rift Development Kit (DK). The DK includes an Oculus Rift
development headset (Rift), control box, required cabling, and additional pairs of
lenses for different vision characteristics.

1. Display Specifications

Figure 18: hardware of oculus rift

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_ 7 inch diagonal viewing area


_ 1280 _ 800 resolution (720p). This is split between both eyes, yielding 640 _
800 per eye.
_ 64mm fixed distance between lens centers
_ 60Hz LCD panel
_ DVI-D Single Link
_ HDMI 1.3+
_ USB 2.0 Full Speed+

2.Lenses
Establishing a focal point is critical to perceiving depth. Youre looking at a virtual
image plane in each eye. In essence, the users eyes are staring beyond the display and
into the virtual environment.

3. Display
A high-resolution screen that sits just a few inches from a users eyes projects a
stereoscopic imageor two warped images on each half of the screen. Were just using
the normal way that humans use binocular vision to perceive depth.There are horizontal
offsets between objects visible in the left and right eyes, which the visual cortex can
process to perceive depth. In other words, when the warped 2-D images are viewed in
close proximity, users are tricked into believing theyre standing in a virtual world.

4.Tracking Technology
The headset comes equipped with more than a dozen sensor inputs. For example, a
gyroscope, accelerometer, and compass track the location of a users head. Designers also
added external infrared sensors and a camera to increase positional accuracy and
monitoring. Software running on a nearby host PC analyzes that data and renders images
of a virtual world that adapt to head position. the systems low latency enhances realism.

5. 3D Audio
To be fully immersive, you need great sound, and Oculus has some of the most spatially
accurate. All you need is to simulate two microphones in the game, and you can
simulate audio in the real world. But the truth is that the software is slightly more
sophisticated. We can generate a good approximation of what each ear should hear at its
location in virtual space. which is much better than what you could do with a typical
surround-sound setup.

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7.APPLICATIONS
Real Time Applications of Virtual Reality:

Figure 21: unboxed oculus rift kit

The applications being developed for Virtual Reality run over a wide spectrum
from 3d games to architectural planning of buildings. The applications may be
scientific and technical that cannot be viewed in actual life. The flexibility of the
Virtual Reality makes it use in the scientific applications like architectural planning,
rocket launching, war strategies, cockpit simulation, robotics and medical related
applications.

10.1Virtual Reality in war strategies


SIMNET is the first war related Virtual Reality application. This project is
standardization being pushed by the USA Defense Department to enable diverse
simulators to be interconnected into a vast network. The soldiers can be trained to
the war by developing a Virtual world that looks exactly the war field. This helps
them in knowing how to deal in war fields. Distributed Interactive System (DIS)
protocol has been developed by the Orlando Institute of Training and Simulation,
which is the future of Virtual Reality in war strategies.

10.2Virtual Reality in medical


Virtual Reality is now being used to train physicians to carry out intricate
surgical procedures such as laparoscopies, arthroscopies, endoscopies and other
minimally invasive surgeries.
Nano surgery is another medical application, where the doctors located at a
distinct place guide the robots. They guide the robots with the help of multi-link arms
that we have already seen in the case of booms.
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1. Virtual Reality in designing aspects


Virtual Reality helps in designing the virtual models of the certain objects. By
building the virtual models we can see how the model works, what the defects may be
and how we can overcome the previous defects. These all cannot be seen by actually
developing the model as it includes a lot of cost and laborious time. This concept of
Virtual Reality is being is mostly used in the designing of conceptual cars. Concept cars
are being designed to study new ideas. Most of these designs are never built. Virtual
reality provides a tool for evaluating such designs in full scale without building time
consuming and costly physical prototypes.

2. Virtual Reality in amusement parks


Virtual Reality is also playing a vital role in the amusement parks. The conceptual
cars that we have discussed above and the racing games are being developed to attract
people. With the help of electronic gloves, head-mounted displays and stereo scopic
vision racing games attract the people.

Figure23: a horror ride in Disneyland.

3. Virtual Reality in cockpit simulation.

Figure24: cockpit simulator

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8.CURRENT USES
Virtual Reality is currently in use in a wide variety of different forms. This report
will look at some of these forms.

Medical Training
Historically, medical training and specifically surgery training has been
accomplished by students learning by watching more experienced surgeons
perform. This approach is a satisfactory one, but does have its own inherent
problems; the sporadic nature of having a patient to operate on, the quality of the
surgeons teaching skills. One of the main ways that virtual reality is used in this
context is that of training for laparoscopy surgery, also known as keyhole surgery.
This technique employs a camera on the end of a rod, which is used to view the
surgery on a magnified view screen. This makes the incision smaller, which has
obvious benefits for the patient. This process lends itself wellto simulated
training, as the operation already uses a display screen for the surgeon to view the
magnified procedure they are carrying out. The simulation involves the trainee
surgeon using surgical instruments as normal, and the operation being simulated
onscreen. According to Sophie Leisby, a trainee surgeon, the simulation is very
real, the instruments act as they would in a real life situation, and when a vessel is
accidentally cut in the simulation, it bleeds, and in the example shown, the
surgeon failed the situation. This illustrates the benefits of virtual training; if the
trainee surgeon had made this mistake in a real operation it is likely the patient
would have experienced severe problems as a result. In the example given from
Denmark, each trainee has to attain a certain score in the simulation before they
will be considered for real life surgery.

Figure25: Sophie Leisby using a Virtual Reality Simulator

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Training
Virtual reality can be used in many other disciplines as a safe alternative to
in-the-field training. One such example is that of coal mine. The example shown
offers a variety of simulated coal mine environments, and users can take part in
courses that will train them in the different situations that could arise in an
environment such as this. Again this allows trainees to experience the real life
dangers to both themselves and expensive equipment without placing themselves
in physical danger. A very relevant point made by this company is that this is a
High impact experience for maximum learning and retention. Learning is
always most successful when the student has a memorable experience to look
back on, and will learn and retain far more from actually doing the tasks they are
learning than from reading about them. Virtual Reality offers students such as
these the opportunity to experience firsthand the realities of the job they are
training for, something that may not have been possible before the advent of this
technology.

Conferencing
Another environment in which virtual reality is currently employed is in
conferencing. There are areas where this approach has many benefits over its real
life equivalent. The primary factor is that of attendance and travel, if great
distances have to be travelled to attend a conference, this obviously costs time and
money to achieve. Using Virtual conferencing, attendees can view and interact in
proceedings without leaving their office or home. One of the main proponents of
this facility is the virtual world Second Life, which offers businesses the facility
to hold meetings, conferences. The idea is that each participant has an avatar, who
sits at the virtual table (or similar), and contributes with the meeting through text
using audio technology to chat in real time with their colleagues. One interesting
innovation mentioned is the Frustration Orb. This allows attendees to click it
anonymously if they are unhappy with the direction of the meeting. The more
clicks it receives, the orb turns red, intimating that the group are unhappy. This
illustrates features of Virtual Conferencing that would enhance the experience.
The ideas used behind this can be expanded to cover a wide range of scenarios.
Education is an example; distance learning, or programs such as the Open
University would benefit hugely from having virtual lectures. Such facilities
already exist in various forms;

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FIGURE26: VIRTUAL CONFRENSING IN NEWS CHANNAL

Military
Virtual Reality has been around for a long time in military training, before
the term was coined. In the 1920s and 30s, primitive flight simulators were
employed to train pilots. Sawed off coffins were placed on a pedestal, with
realistic instruments placed inside. The darkness inside, the movement and the
instruments made this an effective method of training pilots to fly at night. Later
on, more sophisticated flight simulators were used, not just for military training.
Cockpits surrounded by projected images to simulate flight can train all pilots, not
just military. For military purposes though, this approach offers a way to train for
and develop tactical situations, without risking expensive equipment and
personnel in the field. These techniques are used in military training apart from
that of flight training. Increasingly, soldiers can be trained using laptops
connected through a network to others, which allows large numbers of personnel
to interact in a simulated face-to-face environment with other distant military
units through the Internet (or through the classified network known as SIPRNET),
and with first-responder units, civilians, and even medical personnel units,
providing a training experience that is increasingly effective, but at a much lower
cost than would be required for assembling these personnel for a real-life face-tofacet raining exercise. This technique also allows virtually any scenario or
environment to be played out for the purposes of training. The influence of this
kind of technology can be seen in the current gaming world, the likes of Call of
Duty: Modern Warfare is clearly inspired by these kinds of training simulations.
The blending of these worlds is apparent as the US army have used XBOX
controllers to control remote devices, including robots (some with guns), and spy
planes.

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9.ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


ADVANTAGE OF OCULUS RIFT
From environment, Oculus VR does have a big effect on the environment;
the materials that use to make oculus VR are small in size. It does not produce
any waste produce that will be harmful to the environment. The parts are small so
it is easy to dispose. It is also not life threaten to the homes of wildlife, Oculus
VRs materials are not made from animals.
From rate of change, Oculus VR change the communication around the world,
because Oculus VR have a screen almost as big as the field of view of a human
being. Communication with people will now be able to see face to face.
From perception of reality, Oculus VR change the whole market for games and
many other fields. Oculus VR bring user closer to the games they play, they can
see clearer using Oculus VR. If a user plays a horror game using a monitor, it may
not scare them but with Oculus VR they will almost as clear as what a normal
human seeing view, so it may scare the user because they are closer to the screen.
Hospital Universities also can use Oculus VR to have a simulation for dangerous
surgeries; the screen is big enough to provide a clear view for the operations.
In economy, Oculus VR will most probably cause decline in other companies
profits that develops television platform. Oculus VR has a screen as big as 90 inch
screen and it save space. It is smaller than a 90 inch screen television but same as
it has the same performances as the 90 inch screen television.

DISADVANTAGE OF OCULUS RIFT


From environment, the only effect Oculus VR cause are the parts to make it
maybe unrecyclable and the waste to produce it may be harmful to the
environment. From rate of change, Oculus VR change the lifestyle of the user; it
makes them to lost track of time. After using it for a long hour, it may be harmful
to the users health. Oculus VR is still a device same as a smartphone, television
and many device that are harmful to users if they use it for a long hours. Users
will be restless, always tired, lack of concentration and activeness to work. Users
that get addicted to Oculus VR will start neglect their friends and families, and
finally they will forget all about anything a living human being should do in their
daily life and in will harm their health that may even lead to death. From
perception of reality, the negative effect may start to confuse the user about reality
and virtual, because it is like they live inside the game, so it may have effect the
user brain to think they are still inside the game so may cause problem around
him. Laws will also be made to restrict users to prevent any crime to be done. It
may have negative and positive effects, but it is mostly a need to prevent crime
for happening. Users may not be satisfied about the laws implement by the
countries but it is needed so people will not use it to commit crime and spoil it
reputation.
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10. FUTURE
As can be seen from the preceding report, the technology behind Virtual Reality
continues to be developed, and, impressive as some of it is at this time, we are still some
way off from having systems that will provide fully immersive virtual reality. It can be
mimicked however.

Figure28: Homemade Virtual Reality Goggles

As this video shows, easily accessible technology can be used and modified to
create a form on immersive virtual reality. In this example, an HTC Android phone is
attached to a homemade headset, which blocks out all other vision for the user. The
phone has a digital compass application installed on it, which allows in this case the user
to turn his head and body, and the viewpoint on the phone will dynamically react to this
movement. It is not difficult to see how this concept could be improved on, to offer users
fully immersive views of any location on the planet (and possibly off it) that is desired.

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10. CONCLUSION
The most impressive thing about the Rift isnt even the hardware, but the great
platform for virtual reality Oculus VR has created. The SDK allows any developer to
easily integrate Oculus Rift into their projects, with no or little knowledge about VR. And
its even easier for developers using Unity or UDK, where it's as easy as drag and drop.
Of course there is more to a good integration than this, but it shows that Oculus VR has
the attention of developers already and this may very well be the key to succeeding.
Oculus VR also managed to hire some of the most skilled people in the business and
combined with support from developers like Valve, id Software, Dice and Epic, great
things is bound to happen. Thats why I think there is every reason to believe in a bright
future for Oculus Rift and VR in general. All technologies go through the various stages
of development and if we look at virtual technology then it is just about to hit its growth
phase. The world today stands on the brink of a tidal wave which will not only wash
away many of our conventionally held norms but will usher in an era that will make all
the technological innovations that have occurred in the so called age of information
technology as those made in the stone ages. All this depends on how fast and how
effectively virtual reality is integrated into our lives.

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11. REFERENCE
Web reference
1. http://developer.oculusvr.com/best-practices
2. http://www.tomsguide.com/us/what-is-oculus-rift,news-18026.html
3. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/25/oculus-rift-facebook-

_n_5031342.html
4. http://static.oculusvr.com/sdk-downloads/documents/OculusBestPractices.pdf
5. http://www.tomsguide.com/us/what-is-oculus-rift,news-18026.html
6. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/gadgets/other-gadgets/virtual-reality.htm
7. http://www.bilawchuk.com/mark/index.html
8. http://www.lockheedmartin.com/aeronautics/labs/human_immersive.html

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