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Managing

Urban Runoff
DRAINAGE HANDBOOK
Managing
Urban Runoff
DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Managing Urban Runoff – Drainage Handbook 1st Edition: June 2013 © PUB, the national water agency.
This handbook is jointly produced by PUB, the national water agency and The Institution of Engineers Singapore (IES).
No reproduction is permitted in whole or in part without written permission from PUB and IES.
Foreword

With our abundant rainfall and relatively low-lying land, flood


management is an ongoing challenge in Singapore. Over the last
30 years, the Government has invested more than $2 billion to
upgrade Singapore’s drainage infrastructure. These measures have
been effective in relieving Singapore of widespread and prolonged
floods, with significant reduction in flood prone areas today.

Moving forth, with the challenges of increasing urbanisation and climate


change effects, we will adopt a holistic and catchment-wide approach
in drainage management. A diverse range of interventions – covering
every spectrum of the drainage system from the source, pathways and
receptors – will help us manage flood risks more effectively.

This handbook explains the concepts behind the Source-Pathway-


Receptor approach in drainage management. It also highlights
innovative “Source” and “Receptor” measures that developments can
implement to reduce peak flows, while creating aesthetic value and
benefits from these measures. The contents of this handbook will be
continually refreshed to showcase more ‘best practices’ and innovative
ideas from the development and engineering communities.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the public agencies


and organisations who have contributed to the development of
the handbook. This collective effort is a critical step to improving
Singapore’s flood resilience and creating a more sustainable
environment.

Chew Men Leong


Chief Executive
PUB
Engineering plays a key role in building Singapore’s resilience against
the impact of climate change.

In the face of intensifying rainfall and growing flood threats, The


Institution of Engineers, Singapore (IES), as the national society for
engineers, will build upon our long-standing relationship with PUB,
as well as various government agencies to increase protection against
floods for Singapore in two major ways.

Firstly, we will continue to represent the engineering community


at large to provide feedback on professional engineering matters
to the government and relevant authorities. Secondly, IES will keep
our members and the engineering community abreast of the latest
technological developments in the industry and policy requirements
from government agencies through courses, seminars and talks.

IES fully supports PUB’s holistic ‘source-pathway-receptor’ stormwater


management approach, as it provides a comprehensive set of
measures to enhance our drainage systems. We believe that the
Handbook on Managing Urban Runoff will become a vital reference
on PUB’s approach when engineers seek to create and implement
engineering solutions to deal with the increasingly challenging
environment.

The fight against climate change is long-term. IES is committed to


work in partnership with PUB, government agencies, the industry,
our members and the engineering community to develop innovative,
sustainable and cost effective strategies and solutions to achieve
desired levels of flood protection for Singapore in the long run.

Chou Siaw Kiang


President
The Institution of Engineers Singapore
Contents

1. INTRODUCTION 2. RESOURCES FOR DESIGNING 3. SOURCE SOLUTIONS TO


1.1 Background 7 STORMWATER DRAINAGE MANAGE STORMWATER
SYSTEMS ON-SITE
1.2 PUB’s Stormwater
Management Strategies 8 2.1 Overview 13 3.1 Where is the Source? 19

1.3 The Need for Holistic 2.2 The Code of Practice on 3.2 The Need for Managing
Stormwater Management 9 Surface Water Drainage 15 Runoff at Source 19

1.4 Benefits of Holistic 2.3 ABC Waters Design 3.3 Strategies for Planning,
Stormwater Management 10 Guidelines 15 Designing and Implementing
2.4 Other Resources 17 Source Solutions 21
1.5 Goals of the Handbook 11
3.4 General Design Considerations
for Stormwater Detention
and Retention 23
3.5 Options for Detention and
Retention within the
Development Site 24
3.6 Interfacing between Source
Elements and Public Drains 31
4. RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS TO 5. SAFETY, OPERATIONS 7. FREQUENTLY ASKED
PROTECT DEVELOPMENTS AND MAINTENANCE QUESTIONS
FROM FLOODS CONSIDERATIONS 7.1 General 75
4.1 Where is the Receptor? 33 5.1 Safety Considerations 51 7.2 Source Solutions: Tools
4.2 The Need for Implementing 5.2 Operations and to Manage Stormwater
Receptor Solutions 33 Maintenance On-site 75
4.3 Planning Receptor Considerations 54 7.3 Receptor Solutions:
Solutions 33 Flood Protection Strategies 76
4.4 Designing Structural 6. CASE STUDIES
Solutions 36 GLOSSARY 77
6.1 Waterway Ridges, 59
4.5 Non-Structural Receptor Singapore
Solutions 48
6.2 Tanglin Mall, Singapore 63 REFERENCES AND RESOURCES 78
6.3 Wisma Atria, Singapore 66
6.4 The Prisma, Germany 70 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 79
06 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Introduction

1
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 07

Rainfall (mm) 1.1 Background


300

250
As a tropical island located 1.5° north of the Equator,
1
Singapore experiences a hot and wet climate, with about

INTRODUCTION
2400 millimetres of precipitation annually. Storms come
200
in the form of monsoon surges, Sumatra Squalls and
150 sea breeze-induced thunderstorms. December is usually
the wettest month of the year in Singapore (Figure 1.1).
100
Singapore is relatively flat, with pockets of low-lying areas
50 located along the southern and eastern coastal fronts,
and some further inland (Figure 1.2). These areas face
0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec higher flood risks, especially when heavy rains coincide
with high tides.
Figure 1.1 Mean monthly rainfall in Singapore.

Low-lying areas

Medium elevation areas

Higher elevation areas

Waterbodies

Figure 1.2 Topography of Singapore.

Figure 1.3 View of the Marina Reservoir, Singapore’s first reservoir in the heart of the city. With a catchment area of 10,000 hectares,
or one-sixth the size of Singapore, the Marina catchment is the island’s largest and most urbanised catchment.
08 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Post-development
At the same time, like many other Asian cities, Singapore hydrograph

Runoff
has undergone rapid urbanisation over the last few Peak runoff from Pre-development
hydrograph
a developed site
decades, with the population increasing from 1.6 million
people in 1960 to 5.31 million people in 20121. Over
time, the development of high-density satellite towns,
residential and commercial developments, has resulted in
an increase in paved (impervious) areas and a reduction Peak runoff from
pre-development
in green spaces. During a storm event, this results in an site

increase in peak flows where more runoff is generated


and flows faster into the drainage system over a shorter
period of time instead of being regulated by infiltration into
the soil and through evapotranspiration (Figure 1.4).
Time
Time to Peak

Figure 1.4 Storm hydrograph showing the difference in peak


runoff between an urbanised area and a pre-development, or
greenfield site. The greater the degree of urbanisation, the higher
the peak runoff over a shorter period of time.

1.2 PUB’s Stormwater Management Strategies


PUB manages flood risks in the following ways:

Providing adequate drainage Implementing flood protection Improving drainage in


1 ahead of new developments. 2 measures by stipulating
requirements such as
3 flood prone areas continually
by widening or deepening
minimum platform levels drains, and/or by raising
and crest levels in the Code low-lying roads.
of Practice on Surface
Water Drainage.

Figure 1.5 Summary of PUB’s stormwater management strategies.

These strategies have been effective in reducing the extent and duration of floods in Singapore such that floods
experienced today mostly occur in a small locality and subside within an hour.

Note
1
Data from Department of Statistics, Singapore.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 09

1
160
1.3 The Need for Holistic Stormwater Management
140 Rainfall data from 1980 to 2012 has shown a trend towards
higher rainfall intensities (Figure 1.6) and an increasing

INTRODUCTION
frequency of high intensity rain events. In addition, climate
Rainfall (in mm)

120

change effects of sea level rise and increases in rainfall


100
intensities make it necessary for drainage infrastructure to
be upgraded and drainage requirements to be raised in order
to protect developments from flood risks.
80

However, widening drains to increase drainage capacity is


60 challenging in land-scarce Singapore. Rapid urbanisation
1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012
Year
over the last few decades due to population and economic
growth has resulted in competing land uses and limited land
Figure 1.6 Annual maximum hourly rainfall intensities in available for expanding our drainage systems.
Singapore (based on records from 28 stations, from 1980
to 2012).
A wider range of interventions is thus necessary to help
Singapore secure a more adequate drainage system for the
future. This includes implementing higher drainage design
standards and holistic solutions, building new capabilities
and working with stakeholders to improve preparedness.
SOURCE
Detention Tank Green Roof
SOURCE
Porous Pavement
SOURCE
Detention/
Retention Pond

PATHWAY
Diversion Canal

SOURCE
Rain Garden

PATHWAY
Canal Improvement
RECEPTOR
RECEPTOR Minimum Platform
Flood Barrier and Crest Levels

SOURCE PATHWAY RECEPTOR


The location where The means or routes Where stormwater
stormwater runoff through which flows may propagate
is generated, i.e. origin stormwater is to and affect
of the stormwater flows conveyed infrastructure

Figure 1.7 Examples of Source, Pathway and Receptor solutions to slow down and reduce peak runoff and to
protect developments (receptors) from flood hazards.
10 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Recognising that expanding canals and drains will not be sufficient, especially
for areas that are more developed and have site constraints, PUB will go beyond
implementing pathway solutions (e.g. drain capacity improvements, diversion
canals, centralised detention tanks and ponds, etc.) to working with developers
to put in place source solutions (e.g. decentralised detention tanks and ponds,
green roofs, rain gardens, porous pavements, etc.) to better manage stormwater
runoff, and receptor solutions (e.g. urban flood plains, raised platform levels,
flood barriers, etc.) to protect developments from floods. By implementing a
range of appropriate measures that covers every spectrum of the drainage
system, flood risks can be more significantly reduced and effectively managed
(Refer to Figure 1.7)2.

Figure 1.8 Acting both as a pathway and source solution along Kallang River, Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park is an integrated multi-functional
space that provides active recreational spaces for park users during dry conditions, but morphs into a floodplain during rain events,
providing additional drainage capacity for the waterway.

1.4 Benefits of Holistic Stormwater Management


The benefits of holistic stormwater management are manifold. They include:

š Contributing to community safety and financial risk management by


reducing the risk of urban flooding.

š Providing social benefits and improved/enhanced liveability.


Stormwater detention and conveyance elements of high aesthetic
value like green roofs, bioretention swales, rain gardens and
constructed wetlands can be integrated within the development.
Beyond slowing down runoff and improving stormwater quality, these
multi-functional spaces can also present recreational and educational
opportunities by providing a fun and creative platform for people to
interact and learn about water.

Note
2
One of the key recommendations from the Expert Panel Report on Drainage Design and Flood Protection Measures, released by MEWR in
January, 2012.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 11

š Supporting environmental sustainability.


Developers and building owners can demonstrate their commitment
to the environment by incorporating sustainable features and
1
environmental best practices which are aligned with nationwide

INTRODUCTION
schemes like the Building and Construction Authority’s (BCA) Green
Mark Scheme and PUB’s Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters (ABC Waters)
Certification Programme.

Stormwater stored on-site can be used for a wide range of non-


potable uses such as irrigation, general washing, etc. thereby reducing
potable water consumption. As part of PUB’s effort towards water
conservation, developments are encouraged to incorporate water
reuse strategies for non-potable uses.

1.5 Goals of the Handbook


This handbook aims to provide guidance to the development community and
licensed professionals on the planning, design and implementation of source
and receptor strategies to comply with requirements stipulated in PUB’s Code
of Practice on Surface Water Drainage. The handbook highlights the need
for effective design of on-site stormwater management and flood protection
measures. It provides information on applicable concepts and implementation
strategies to facilitate a flexible approach towards the design of stormwater
drainage systems to meet targeted needs of public and private developments
while complying with PUB’s standards and requirements for flood mitigation.
The handbook also showcases innovative architectural and engineering designs
that integrate flood mitigation measures within the development.

SOLUTIONS AT
SOURCE THE SOURCE
The location where refer to the slowing down and
stormwater runoff capturing of urban runoff
is generated, on-site, e.g. via ABC Waters
i.e. origin of the design features, detention
stormwater flows tanks/ponds, etc.

SOLUTIONS AT
PATHWAYS
PATHWAY
refer to enhancing the capacity
The means or routes
of conveyance systems and
through which
includes drain widening,
stormwater
deepening, catchment level
is conveyed
detention systems etc.

SOLUTIONS AT
RECEPTORS
RECEPTOR
refer to measures to
Where stormwater
protect areas where the
flows may propagate
storm water flows may
to and affect
end up, e.g. flood barriers
infrastructure
for buildings, etc.

Figure 1.9 Source-Pathway-


Receptor Approach.
12 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Resources For Designing


Stormwater Drainage Systems

2
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 13

2.1 Overview
In accordance with the Sewerage and Drainage Act, PUB has established a
2
Code of Practice on Surface Water Drainage (COP) that specifies the minimum

STORMWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEMS


RESOURCES FOR DESIGNING
engineering requirements for the planning, design and construction of drainage
systems to ensure the adequacy of drainage provisions for developments.

PUB has also developed the Active, Beautiful and Clean Waters (ABC Waters)
Design Guidelines and Engineering Procedures for ABC Waters Design Features
to provide developers and industry professionals with a reference on how to
implement environmentally sustainable green features or ABC Waters design
features in their developments.

This chapter will also briefly introduce other relevant resources pertaining to
the design and implementation of stormwater drainage systems.

The list of resources and regulatory references provided in this Handbook are
not exhaustive. Qualified Persons (QPs) designing these systems are responsible
for verifying all other applicable agency regulations for their developments and
ensuring that their designs comply with other regulatory requirements.

Figure 2.1 PUB’s Code of Practice on Surface Water Drainage and ABC Waters Design Guidelines.
14 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

How does PUB’s Drainage Consultation Process work?


PUB’s drainage consultation process involves reviewing building plans to ensure that all necessary drainage technical
requirements have been met and are consistent with the COP. The following chart shows the sequence of a typical
drainage consultation:

Before proceeding with the design of a proposed development, Qualified Persons (QPs)
1 will approach the Central Building Plan Department of the National Environment Agency
(CBPD/NEA) to obtain drainage information related to the development site, such as
the location and size of drainage reserves, minimum platform level (MPL) and land
safeguarded for future drainage schemes. QPs will also verify drains on-site and MPL
for effectual surface water drainage.

QPs submit Development Control (DC) plans for clearance with CBPD. For drainage
2 consultations, PUB (through CBPD) will check to ensure that:
1. Proposed buildings/structures do not encroach into drainage reserves and common
drains;
2. Platform level of the development complies with the MPL for effective surface water
drainage;
3. Minimum crest level is provided for underground facilities and linkages; and
4. Additional drainage facilities such as pumped drainage systems and detention tanks
are provided where necessary.

QPs submit Building Plans (BPs) and Detailed Plans (DPs) of building works as well as
3 related building services. PUB (through CBPD) will check for compliance with the COP.

During Temporary Occupation Permit (TOP) clearance, QPs are required to declare
4 that their platform and crest levels comply with the COP. This declaration shall be
supported by as-built survey plans prepared by a Registered Surveyor and submitted
to CBPD.

Upon completion of works, the QPs shall certify and submit a Certification of
5 Inspection for Drainage Works to PUB as part of the requirements for Certificate of
Statutory of Completion (CSC) stage. Drainage works to be handed over to PUB shall
have a one year Defects Liability Period. The Defects Liability Period shall commence
from the date PUB gives no objection to the issue of the CSC.

Note
“QP” refers to a Qualified Person who is an Architect or a Professional Engineer or a suitably qualified person registered under relevant
legislation (e.g. Architects Act 1991, Professional Engineers Act 1991)
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 15

2.2 The Code of Practice on Surface Water Drainage


PUB’s drainage design approach is comprehensively documented in the Code
2
of Practice (COP) on Surface Water Drainage which is available on the PUB

STORMWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEMS


RESOURCES FOR DESIGNING
The COP is available on the PUB website: website. The COP is issued under Section 32 of the Sewerage and Drainage
http://www.pub.gov.sg/general/code/ Act (Chapter 294). It specifies the minimum engineering requirements for
surface water drainage. Qualified Persons shall ensure that all aspects of
surface water drainage are effectively taken care of in their planning, design
and implementation of the development proposals.

The COP describes the following for developments:

1 2 3
Planning Design Guidelines to ensure
requirements requirements the integrity of
stormwater drainage
systems

2.3 ABC Waters Design Guidelines


The ABC Waters programme, launched in 2006, is a strategic stormwater
management strategy which aims to enhance environmental aesthetics
and improve the quality of water by harnessing the full potential of our
waterbodies. This is done by integrating the waterways and waterbodies with
the surrounding environment to create community spaces and a sustainable
living environment.

The ABC Waters design guidelines were developed based on the following
principles:

a) Mitigating the impact of urbanisation by retention and/or detention of


runoff and minimising impervious areas through the implementation of
ABC Waters design features.

Figure 2.2 ABC Waters project at


Punggol Reservoir – Sengkang
Floating Wetland.
16 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

b) Improving runoff water quality from the development site into the
receiving environment.

c) Integrating stormwater treatment into the landscape by incorporating


multiple-use corridors that maximise the aesthetics and recreational The ABC Waters Design Guidelines are
amenities of developments. available on the PUB website:
http://www.pub.gov.sg/abcwaters/
d) Protecting and enhancing natural water systems within the development
site.

In its inception phase, the ABC Waters programme focused on public areas
where blue and green elements could be woven into the urban fabric. In this
Handbook, the initiative is now extended to private development parcels where
stormwater begins its course. Source solutions can utilise the ABC Waters
concept by detaining stormwater and treating it closer to the source before it is
discharged into public waterways.

When adopted holistically as part of drainage systems design, ABC Waters


design features would help to introduce additional flexibility within the system
to cope with intense rainfall that exceeds the design storm. In particular, ABC
Waters design features could be coupled with other stormwater detention
systems (i.e. tanks, surface ponds, etc.) to shave off the peak flows generated
by intense rainfall, thereby reducing flood risks to the development and the
larger catchment as well.

2.3.1 ABC WATERS CERTIFICATION


ABC Waters Certification is a scheme designed to provide recognition to
public agencies and private developers who embrace the ABC Waters concept
and incorporate ABC Waters design features in their developments. Besides
providing recognition, the scheme also aims to ensure that the design features
incorporated within the developments achieve a minimum design standard.

Green roof Façade


planters

Vegetated
swale

Figure 2.3 An example of how


ABC Waters design features can Surface Underground
be integrated within a building detention detention
development to reduce runoff and (pond)
peak flow.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 17

2.4 Other Resources


2.4.1 CODE OF PRACTICE ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
2
Certain stormwater drainage features such as bioretention swales, detention or

STORMWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEMS


RESOURCES FOR DESIGNING
The COPEH is available on the retention ponds may be subject to the Code of Practice on Environmental Health
NEA website: http://cms.nea.gov.sg/ (COPEH), published by the Environmental Health Department of the National
codeofpractice.aspx Environment Agency (NEA). The COPEH provides guidelines on environmental
health concerns, such as mosquito control, lists the objectives to be met and
stipulates the minimum basic design criteria.

2.4.2 CODE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND BCA’S GREEN MARK


SCHEME
The Code for Environmental Sustainability of Buildings describes the minimum
environmental sustainability standard for buildings and apply to:

All new building works which involve a:

š Gross floor area of 2000 square metres or more;


š Additions or extensions to existing buildings which involve increasing the
gross floor area of the existing buildings by 2000 square metres or more; or

š Building works which involve major retrofitting to existing buildings with


existing gross floor area of 2000 square metres or more;

The BCA Green Mark Scheme is an initiative that aims to drive Singapore’s
construction industry towards more environmentally friendly buildings.
It is intended to promote sustainability in the built environment and raise
environmental awareness among developers, designers and builders when
they start project conceptualisation and design, as well as during construction.
The Code for Environment Sustainability
of Buildings and information on the Under this scheme, stormwater management within development sites
Green Mark Scheme is available on the can be considered for potential Green Mark points under Building Control
BCA website: http://www.bca.gov.sg (Environmental Sustainability) Regulations 2008, RB 3-6, NRB 3-7 Stormwater
Management; RB 2-3 Irrigation System and Landscape.

Private Public

Bioretention
basin

Surface discharge
to public waterway
or canal
Public
waterway
or canal

INTERFACE
Gravel BETWEEN
trench PRIVATE
PROPERTY AND
PUBLIC LAND
18 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Source Solutions to
Manage Stormwater On-site

3
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 19

STORMWATER ON-SITE
SOURCE SOLUTIONS TO MANAGE
Figure 3.1 Example of Source (park and nearby developments) which contributes
runoff to the Pathway (waterway) in Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park.

3.1 Where is the Source?


In the Source-Pathway-Receptor approach, the Source is defined as the
location where stormwater runoff is generated through precipitation that lands
on the development site (Figure 3.1). It is where on-site stormwater controls
can be strategically implemented to mitigate the impact of increased runoff
rates associated with urbanisation.

3.2 The Need for Managing Runoff at Source


In a highly urbanised environment like Singapore, many developments are
largely made up of impervious surfaces such as roofs, parking lots, streets and
sidewalks that do not allow rainwater to infiltrate into the ground, generating
increased runoff that enters the stormwater drainage system. As a result,
during intense storms, peak runoff from the urbanised catchment may exceed
the design capacity of public drains, resulting in flash floods.

Source solutions provide temporary storage of stormwater on-site and


release it at a controlled rate to the downstream drainage system. Retention
and/or detention features, coupled with effective conveyance systems, can
reduce peak runoff rates from development sites, thereby reducing the risk of
excessive flows in the downstream drainage system which can cause flooding.
These solutions build in additional flexibility into the drainage system to cope
with increased weather uncertainties and higher intensity storms, while
contributing to water quality improvement and ecological enhancement in
downstream receiving waters.
20 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

What is Pre-Development and Post-Development Runoff?


Pre-development runoff is a measure of how runoff Post-development runoff is a measure of how runoff
behaves in a site prior to introducing hardscape behaves in a site after urbanisation, which involves
like buildings, roads and other land uses. Without the conversion of green areas into impervious areas
development, a site typically exhibits low runoff (e.g. roads and pavements). These impervious surfaces
values, which means that during a rain event, most of prevent rainwater from infiltrating into the ground,
the rainfall is intercepted by vegetation and infiltrates and as a result, most of the rain that falls within the
into the soil, with a small portion being transformed site is converted into runoff at a much faster rate and
into runoff. higher volume than the naturally occurring rate (pre-
development runoff rate).

Pre-development Post-development

Evapo-
transpiration
Evaporation

Runoff Runoff

Infiltration Infiltration

Figure 3.2 Comparison of runoff behaviour under pre-development and post-


development conditions.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 21

3.3 Strategies for Planning, Designing and Implementing Source


Solutions 3
The following sections provide guidance on the main steps for planning,

STORMWATER ON-SITE
SOURCE SOLUTIONS TO MANAGE
designing and implementing stormwater detention facilities and features.
Although the process is presented as a series of steps, in practice it should
be iterative.

Step 1: Determine the catchment area served by the drainage system

Step 2: Calculate developed runoff coefficients and peak runoff rates

Step 3: Determine maximum allowable peak discharge

Step 4: Determine and design conveyance, detention and/or retention


strategies and discharge outlet

Step 1: Determine the catchment area served by the drainage system


A catchment refers to the area which contributes runoff to a defined drainage
system and discharge point. For developments where runoff from the site is
discharged into the public drainage system through a single discharge point,
the catchment area served by the development’s drainage system is the size
of the development lot. A development can also be made up of different sub-
catchments, depending on the topography and layout of the drainage systems.

Individual development parcels Larger developments can use a Peak flow attenuation at
should implement on-site detention wider range of detention strategies different scales of development
and conveyance measures to (e.g. centralised detention) to slow ensures controlled releases to
reduce discharge rates from down and reduce peak runoff. the public drainage system.
the development.

Figure 3.3 Varying scales of stormwater detention measures implemented on-site help to attenuate peak runoff in the public
drainage system.

Step 2: Calculate developed runoff coefficients and peak runoff rates


Rational Method Equation
The Rational Method is used to compute the peak runoff from the catchment
1 that the drainage system should cater for to reduce flood risks within the
Q= CIA development. Depending on the proposed land use types, the overall runoff
360 coefficient for a developed area can range between 0.45, for parks with lush
greenery and ponds, and close to 1, for developments consisting almost solely
where
Q = Peak runoff at the of impervious surfaces like airports and commercial developments in highly
point of design (m3/s) urbanised areas.
C = Runoff coefficient
I = Rainfall intensity (mm/hr)
A = Catchment area (hectares)
22 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Step 3: Determine maximum allowable peak discharge


New developments can do their part to reduce the impact of urbanisation on
peak flows in the drainage systems by implementing measures to reduce their
post-development runoff rates. To this end, PUB has imposed a mandatory
requirement in the Code of Practice on Surface Water Drainage (Clause 7.1.5)
for new developments and redevelopments to control peak runoff from the
development sites into the public drainage system.

Step 4: Determine and design conveyance, detention and/or retention


strategies and discharge outlet
Peak runoff reduction can be achieved through the implementation of ABC
Waters design features and structural detention and retention features. The
Engineering Procedures for ABC Waters Design Features provides specific
guidance on the selection, sizing, construction and maintenance of ABC Waters
design features, and should be referred to for the design of such features.
Conveyance systems within the site should also be designed to effectively
transport runoff from one location to the other and finally to the public drainage
system. As PUB regulates the maximum allowable peak discharge from
the site, the design of the discharge point from the development site to the
public drain is crucial. Discharge by gravity flow is preferred since it reduces
operational costs. However, discharge via other structures like pumps, orifices
and overflow weirs can also be considered, depending on the design of the
stormwater drainage system used on-site.

Inflow
Runoff

hydrograph
Outflow
hydrograph
Peak inflow

Post-development peak runoff

Peak outflow = Maximum Allowable


Peak Discharge

Pre-development peak runoff

Time

Time to Peak

Figure 3.4 The inflow hydrograph depicts post-development runoff without runoff
control. The outflow hydrograph is determined by the design of the outflow structure.
The red line indicates the maximum allowable peak discharge to the public drains.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 23

What is the Difference between Detention and Retention? 3


The main difference between a detention and retention of water for aesthetic or water quality treatment

STORMWATER ON-SITE
SOURCE SOLUTIONS TO MANAGE
basin is whether or not it has a permanent pool of objectives. Both detention and retention basins are
water. Detention basins are also known as “dry” basins important for storing and slowing (attenuating) the
where the water is drained out in between storms, peak runoff from impervious surfaces.
while retention basins usually retain a certain amount

Figure 3.5 Detention pond in the Arkadien Winnenden Figure 3.6 Yishun Pond, a stormwater retention pond
residential development in Germany. adjoining Khoo Teck Puat Hospital.

3.4 General Design Considerations for Stormwater Detention and


Retention
Other than determining the volume of runoff to be detained or retained
on-site to meet the requirements stipulated in the COP, designing a stormwater
drainage system requires careful analysis of the space availability, topography,
site obstructions as well as other considerations like maintenance and safety
(which will be covered in Chapter 5).

3.4.1 SPACE AVAILABILITY FOR STORMWATER DETENTION ELEMENTS


If open space for detention or retention on the ground level is limited, space-
efficient alternatives such as green roofs, planter boxes and other façade
conveyance systems can be used. Another viable alternative to surface
detention is underground detention. Surface runoff can be channelled to an
underground tank or tanks, to detain and reduce peak runoff from the site.
Underground detention tanks are ideal for sites with larger proportions of
impermeable surfaces. This is because runoff that is quickly generated from
Programmatic constraints pavement and other impermeable surfaces can be effectively channelled and
stored in underground detention tanks.

The space available within a development parcel will also determine the type
of conveyance system that is most appropriate. If there is adequate open space
between buildings within a development site, surface detention systems like
vegetated swales or bioretention swales can be implemented as alternatives
to conventional drains. Where space permits, these systems can be linked to
each other to form a treatment train for water quality improvement functions.
24 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

3.4.2 TOPOGRAPHY
Topography determines how fast water moves from Point A to Point B. On steep
topography, runoff will have higher flow rates compared with runoff on a gentle
slope. Topography also determines how runoff will travel within and eventually
out of the site. Runoff will naturally travel towards indentations in the terrain. As
such, site topography can be adjusted to create favourable zones for conveyance
and detention of runoff. For example, topographical adjustments can be made Topographical characteristics
to direct runoff to a central location such as a detention or retention pond, or an
indentation in the land can be a site for a swale that will transport water from
Point A to Point B.

3.4.3 SITE OBSTRUCTIONS


The design of the stormwater drainage system needs to take into consideration
obstructions and constructed givens on-site, which may be above ground or
below ground. Underground obstructions like pipes and services could create
potential space constraints for the implementation of subsurface detention
elements. If these obstructions create space constraints, they can be relocated
and/or re-designed so that a balance can be achieved. If not, the stormwater
drainage system would have to work around these barriers, making the most Site obstructions
of the available space to effectively convey runoff from the site, whilst reducing
peak flows.

If the site has existing stormwater drains, they can be retrofitted or substituted
with more naturalised conveyance elements like vegetated swales or
bioretention swales. If the site constraints are too significant, other detention or
retention options can be introduced or intensified. Stormwater management
is a composite system and a combination of elements can be developed to
address the opportunities and constraints of each site.

3.5 Options for Detention and Retention within the Development


Site
The detention concept is most often employed in urban stormwater discharge
systems to limit peak flow rates from the development site by the temporary
and gradual release of stormwater runoff. Detention elements can be connected
in a series to form a stormwater treatment train. A treatment train is a series
of stormwater management features that work together to slow down water
by reducing peak flows and/or improve water quality through a natural
cleansing process.
Green roof Planter box

Vegetated and
bioretention
swales Bioretention
basins

Detention tank Non-potable water reuse Gravel trench Waterway


(e.g. irrigation, toilet flushing)

Figure 3.7 Options for on-site detention and retention of stormwater runoff within the development site.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 25

Detention and retention elements can be sited on buildings, on ground level


or even underground (Figure 3.7). When determining the size and types of
detention and retention options to use, factors like the availability of space, site
3
characteristics (e.g. topography and existing structures), the type and amount

STORMWATER ON-SITE
SOURCE SOLUTIONS TO MANAGE
of maintenance required, and costs (e.g. capital, operational and maintenance
costs) have to be considered.

3.5.1 ON BUILDINGS

Figure 3.8 Landscaped green roof and rooftop garden area on top of Orchard Central
Mall.

GREEN ROOFS
The rooftop is where rainwater usually lands first and begins its journey
towards the public waterways. Rooftop systems allow for maximised building
footprints and are an ideal place to harvest rainwater for reuse. Green roofs
are typically constructed with a waterproof membrane, drainage material, a
lightweight layer of soil and a cover of plants. The rooftop vegetation captures
rainwater allowing evaporation and evapotranspiration processes to reduce
the amount of runoff entering downstream systems, effectively reducing
stormwater runoff volumes and attenuating peak flows. The amount of storage
provided by green roofs is limited by the drainage layers and the controlling
weir elevation of the roof drain.

ROOF GARDENS
A roof garden (refer to Figure 3.9) is usually designed to be accessible and
utilised as a communal rooftop space, with other features such as pathways,
lighting and benches. The soil layer in roof gardens can be deeper to support
a diverse range of vegetation, which serve the same functions as a green roof.
However, it is important to check the loading capacity of the rooftop to ensure
that it can cater to the heavier loads. The main difference between a rooftop
garden and a green roof system is the former’s more substantial thickness of
the substrate and media layer.
26 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Figure 3.9 Roof garden at Central Horizon HDB development in Toa Payoh.

PLANTER BOXES
Planter boxes (Figure 3.10) can also be implemented on building façades or
roofs as additional surface area for stormwater management. Apart from
being space-efficient systems that can help reduce peak runoff from the
building during rain events, stormwater treatment benefits can also be
achieved by incorporating a cleansing biotope or bioretention system into the
planter boxes.

Figure 3.10 Planter boxes on the sides of the building and along pedestrian bridges at Khoo Teck Puat Hospital.

Green roof Planter boxes

Figure 3.11 On-site stormwater detention and retention options on buildings.


MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 27

3.5.2 ON GROUND LEVEL


3

STORMWATER ON-SITE
SOURCE SOLUTIONS TO MANAGE
Detention
tank Bioretention
basins

Figure 3.12 On-site stormwater detention and retention options on ground level.

STORMWATER DETENTION OR RETENTION BASINS (PONDS)


Providing storage at source via detention or retention basins can be an effective
means of slowing down peak flows for short, high intensity rainstorms.
Detention ponds are systems that temporarily store stormwater runoff during
the rain event and release it later at a controlled rate to the drainage system.
Retention ponds (which hold a permanent pool of water) can also be designed
for both peak runoff control and pre-treatment as part of a treatment train with
downstream ABC Waters design features. Detention or retention basins can be
configured to capture overflows from the internal conveyance system (i.e. off-
line storage) or inflows from the conveyance system (i.e. on-line storage).

Figure 3.13 Dry pond at Greenwood Sanctuary - During rain events, stormwater runoff flows from the surrounding ground to the dry
pond and filters to underground percolation tanks encased in a permeable membrane layer. During dry weather, the lawn area in the
dry pond can also be used for recreational activities.

BIORETENTION BASINS OR RAIN GARDENS


Bioretention basins are vegetated land depressions designed to detain and
treat stormwater runoff. The runoff is first filtered through densely planted
surface vegetation and then through an engineered filter media (soil layer). A
perforated pipe within the drainage layer collects and transports the filtered
runoff to a downstream detention system or to a designated discharge point.
28 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

To allow for maximum runoff reduction, bioretention basins can be integrated


with underground storage in the form of gravel layers or detention tanks,
whereby excess runoff beyond the surface detention volume of the bioretention
basin can be channelled directly into the underground storage detention via
an overflow pit. Developments looking to harvest stormwater runoff for reuse
may also install an underground detention tank where the filtered stormwater
can be stored for reuse.

Figure 3.14 A bioretention basin at Balam Estate with an overflow pit.

Functional planting Retention zone to


capture stormwater

Overflow pit

Treated water
and outflow Infiltration

Perforated pipe

Figure 3.15 A typical section of a bioretention basin.


MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 29

CONVEYANCE FEATURES THAT PROVIDE DETENTION


AND RETENTION
SIZING CONVEYANCE SYSTEMS
In addition to catering for flows within the catchment,
3
Conveyance systems serve two fundamental functions the size of conveyance elements also depends on

STORMWATER ON-SITE
SOURCE SOLUTIONS TO MANAGE
within a catchment: firstly, to collect runoff and deliver it the secondary system(s) they are connected to. This
to detention areas and secondly to channel water from means that if a conveyance swale receives water
detention areas towards discharge points. They are the from a surface detention system, it needs to be sized
most commonly used tools to manage runoff in urban so that it can receive or discharge the desired flows
areas as they can be designed to slow down and reduce without creating problems upstream or downstream.
peak flows. A well-designed stormwater management The regulation of flow volumes can be achieved by
system could utilise conveyance elements that are understanding the operating rules of the detention
linked to detention and retention zones in order to system and designing the appropriate conveyance
achieve the required targets for peak flow reduction. element to support its drainage.

Figure 3.16 Illustration showing the reduction in peak flows and flow volumes as runoff flows through a conveyance system
that connects detention and retention features.

VEGETATED AND BIORETENTION SWALES


Vegetated swales are open conveyance channels that are designed to convey
stormwater via overland flow while providing green space amenities for a
development. As stormwater runoff flows through a vegetated swale, the
vegetation in the swale slows down the stormwater flow, promoting the
settling of sediments and other pollutants. Swales can reduce the number
and cost of storm drains and piping required within the development site
and can look like a typical landscaped area. Vegetated swales alone cannot
provide sufficient stormwater treatment to meet water quality objectives,
but are particularly good at removing coarse sediments and can provide the
necessary pre-treatment when combined with downstream treatment such
as bioretention systems.
30 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Figure 3.17 Bioretention swales along


Margaret Drive.

Bioretention swales provide additional stormwater quality improvements via


infiltration through a filter media, with the cleansed runoff being collected via
a subsoil perforated pipe. By providing temporary surface detention of runoff,
bioretention swales also help to reduce peak flows from the development.

Figure 3.18 Example of a gravel


trench serving as a conveyance
channel for stormwater runoff.

GRAVEL TRENCHES
A gravel trench (Figure 3.18) is a non-vegetated trench usually filled with
stone to create an underground reservoir for stormwater runoff. The runoff
volume gradually exfiltrates through the bottom and sides of the trench into the
subsoil. The gravel trench is usually part of a conveyance network and is
designed with an overflow pipe so that excess flows can be conveyed through
the pipe to the drainage system if the detention capacity of the trench is reached.
Gravel trenches are not intended to trap sediment and should be designed with
a sediment forebay and grass channel or filter strip or other appropriate pre-
treatment measures to prevent clogging and failure.

3.5.3 UNDERGROUND SYSTEMS


In addition to surface ponds, detention tanks (refer to Figure 3.19) can also
be placed underground to capture runoff and reduce peak flows into the
drainage system. Underground detention systems can be valuable stormwater
management tools when properly sized, sited and maintained. The design of
underground detention systems depends on several factors, such as available
space. Detention tanks can be constructed from pre-cast concrete structures,
pre-fabricated systems from vendors, or cast-in-place concrete.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 31

STORMWATER ON-SITE
SOURCE SOLUTIONS TO MANAGE
Figure 3.19 Schematic of an
underground detention tank.

In addition to reducing peak runoff, a detention tank can also be combined


with a rainwater harvesting system to provide storage for non-potable reuse.
Developments have the flexibility to design and optimize combination systems
to the extent that they do not compromise the maximum allowable peak runoff
requirement. In order for the detention tank to be effective in reducing peak
runoff from the development site, the runoff that is detained has to be removed
within the period stipulated in the COP to ensure sufficient capacity for the
next storm. Additional capacity would have to be set aside to store the volume
required for reuse.

3.6 Interfacing between Source Elements and Public Drains


The interface between the stormwater drainage system within the development
site and the public drainage system is crucial because it is the point where the
discharge of runoff from the site has to comply with the maximum discharge
rate required by the COP. Outlet configurations should be designed in relation to
surrounding levels of the external drainage to determine the discharge method
(i.e. by gravity or pumped drainage).

Conveyance elements like swales are typically connected to public drains via
outflow channels that discharge runoff at a controlled rate. They should be
designed to ensure that the discharge of peak runoff from the site does not
exceed the maximum allowable rate.

Similarly, detention systems hold back water only to be released slowly after
the rain subsides. The outlet structure must be designed to allow for a release
rate that does not exceed the maximum allowable peak flow. Detention zones
should also be equipped with emergency overflow outlets that can release
water in a controlled way to the public drains.

All remaining ABC Waters elements such as green roofs, façade planters and
other detention or retention systems sited on buildings must be connected
to public drains via drainage downpipes that transport water to designated
outflow channels.
32 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Receptor Solutions to Protect


Developments from Floods

4
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 33

4.1 Where is the Receptor?


Receptors are where stormwater flows may propagate to and affect
4
infrastructure (e.g. basements or underground parking areas).

DEVELOPMENTS FROM FLOODS


RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS TO PROTECT
4.2 The Need for Implementing Receptor Solutions
While PUB continues to improve overall flood resilience by implementing
pathway solutions such as providing adequate drainage ahead of new
developments and upgrading existing drainage infrastructure, flooding can
still occur. This can be due to more intense rainfall than what the drainage
system is designed to cater for, or localised issues such as depressions
in topography. Thus, in view of increasing rainfall intensities and weather
uncertainties, both existing and new developments – especially those in
areas that remain more susceptible to flooding – must do their part to protect
their premises from flooding. Developments will need to implement receptor
solutions that include appropriate building design and on-site flood protection
measures to minimise flood risk to people and property.

4.3 Planning Receptor Solutions


Receptor solutions come in two broad categories, structural and non-structural
measures. Structural measures include platform levels for the ground levels of
developments, crest levels for entrances to basements, and mechanical flood
protection measures like manual or automatic flood barriers. Non-structural
measures include pre-emptive flood monitoring such as subscribing to SMS
alerts and getting updates on water levels in the waterways.

Figure 4.1 Minimum platform levels for developments and crest levels for entrances to basements are some examples of structural
receptor solutions.

The following sections provide guidance on the main planning considerations


for the successful implementation of receptor solutions.

4.3.1 EVALUATING FLOOD RISK


As part of the development design process, designers or building owners need
to evaluate the flood risk for the development site. This involves understanding
the surrounding topography of the site, the site’s flood history, and the potential
impact to users of the site.
34 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

PUB’s website provides a map and table


showing flood prone areas and hotspots
in Singapore: http://www.pub.gov.sg/
managingflashfloods

Figure 4.2 Map of flood prone areas in Singapore.

PUB’s website provides a map (Figure 4.2) and table showing flood prone areas
and hotspots in Singapore.

4.3.2 UNDERSTANDING MINIMUM PLATFORM LEVELS AND MINIMUM CREST


LEVELS
The COP describes requirements for structural flood protection measures,
i.e. minimum platform levels and crest levels. The minimum platform level
of a development site is the required minimum ground level of the proposed
development. For developments with underground facilities like underpasses
or basements, an additional minimum crest level is required for any entrance,
exit or opening to the basement or underground structure (e.g. tunnel,
underground facility, etc.) (refer to Figure 4.3).

MINIMUM PLATFORM LEVELS


The minimum platform level is derived from a combination of factors:
1. Location (Northern or Southern coast);
2. Type of development;
3. Flood history; and
4. Adjacent road/ground levels

The highest level of the four will determine the minimum platform level of the
development.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 35

DEVELOPMENTS FROM FLOODS


RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS TO PROTECT
Figure 4.3 Steps and ramps are some of options to achieve the minimum platform levels for developments with entrances to
underground facilities.

FACTOR MINIMUM PLATFORM LEVEL REQUIREMENTS FOR:

Developments in catchments discharging to the:


š Northern Coast: 104.5 mRL
Northern Coast š Southern Coast: 104.0 mRL
location

Southern Coast

š General developments:
300 mm above the adjacent road/ground level
development

š Commercial/Multi-Unit Residential developments


typology

with basements:
600 mm above the adjacent road/ground level

š Special facilities and developments with linkages


General Commercial/Multi-Unit Special to special underground facilities:
developments Residential developments Facilities
with Basements 1 m above the adjacent road/ground level

Areas with Flood History


š General developments:
Admiralty
600 mm above the highest recorded flood level
flood history

Meng Suan

Hong Kah
Buangkok
Upper
Halus Changi
š Commercial/Multi-Unit Residential developments
Serangoon
Lor Chuan with basements:
MacPherson Tanah Merah
Jurong Industrial
Bt Timah
Farrer Pk Upp East Coast 600 mm above the highest recorded flood level
Commonwealth Jln Besar Telok Kurau
Tg Katong
Alexandra

š Special facilities and developments with linkages to


special underground facilities:
1 m above the highest recorded flood level
36 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

MINIMUM CREST LEVELS

Figure 4.4 Additional crest protection levels are required for developments with underground linkages to MRT stations
(e.g. Ion Orchard Link) and for all openings to basement facilities, including ventilation ducts (e.g. Wisma Atria)

For developments with basements or underground facilities, additional crest


protection has to be provided. Crest protection can be in the form of steps,
ramps, humps as well as flood barriers. The minimum crest level is at least
150 mm above the minimum platform level for general developments, and
300 mm above the minimum platform level for commercial, multi-unit
residential developments and special underground facilities including Mass
Rapid Transit (MRT) stations and developments with direct or indirect links
to special underground facilities. This requirement applies to all openings to
basement facilities, including ventilation ducts and windows.

4.4 Designing Structural Solutions


There are many creative design solutions to achieve minimum platform and
crest level requirements without compromising the attractiveness of the
development. In order to develop effective structural receptor solutions for
flood protection, designers need to:

1. Understand the proposed building typologies for the site and the amount
of space available between minimum platform requirements and adjacent
road/ground levels;

2. Review the design options suitable for migitating level differences, taking
into consideration requirements from various government agencies
concerning slope gradients, barrier-free accessibility, pedestrian access,
etc.; and

3. Determine the type of tools to be used for minimum platform and crest
level requirements to be met through structural means, which could
include raising the platform level of the development site, adding ramps
or stairs, or by installing mechanical flood barriers.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 37

DEVELOPMENTS FROM FLOODS


RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS TO PROTECT
POSSIBLE DESIGN OPTIONS TO INTEGRATE WITHIN LANDSCAPE

DESIGN TOOLBOX

Figure 4.5 There are various design options for different building types to meet minimum platform and crest levels.

4.4.1 DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS


The different development parameters for each site affects the method of
mitigating between adjacent levels and required minimum platform levels. The
following table characterises the general building types in Singapore and the
challenges and opportunities for integrating the required platform level of the
new development with existing adjacent levels.

Standalone development with setback from boundary line


(e.g. most condominiums, schools, bungalows)
š 7KHVHWEDFNZLWKLQWKHGHYHORSPHQWFDQEHXVHGWRPLWLJDWHEHWZHHQOHYHOGLijHUHQFHV

Standalone development with no setback


(e.g. some commercial developments in densely built up areas)
š $VWKHERXQGDU\OLQHLVDGMDFHQWWRWKHSXEOLFDFFHVVZD\WKHUHPD\EHOLPLWHGVSDFH
within the side table to mitigate level differences.

Development with common setback and common access way


(e.g. shophouses with five-foot way, shop units, terraces)
š 7KHFRPPRQDFFHVVZD\OLPLWVWKHVSDFHDYDLODEOHIRUPLWLJDWLQJOHYHOGLijHUHQFHV
38 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Restored conservation buildings


(e.g. conservation shophouses, heritage buildings)

š 7KHUHLVOLPLWHGVSDFHDYDLODEOHIRUPLWLJDWLQJOHYHOGLijHUHQFHVDVWKHID×DGHDQGIJRRU
levels of the conserved building cannot be altered.

New rear extension behind conservation building


(e.g. building extension behind conserved main building)

š $OWKRXJKWKHUHLVDFRPPRQDFFHVVZD\DQGID×DGHIRUWKHIURQWDJHLWLVSRVVLEOHWR
mitigate level differences internally.

4.4.2 DESIGN OPTIONS FOR FLOOD PROTECTION


The following examples show different design options that provide flood
protection for the building while maintaining connectivity to the street and
adjacent buildings.

SEGREGATING THE DEVELOPMENT PARCEL BASED ON DIFFERENT


MINIMUM PLATFORM AND CREST LEVEL REQUIREMENTS

If the development has direct or indirect links to special underground facilities


such as underground MRT stations, higher minimum platform and crest level
RL 104.8m

MRT Access Point


Shop/Retail Shop/Retail

Shop/Retail

RL 103.5m RL 104.5m Figure 4.6


Shop/Retail
Example
illustration
of how a
development
Shop/Retail can be
partitioned
Additional
300mm crest to provide for
RL 104.8m
an additional
crest level of
300 mm for
the entrance
to a MRT
MRT Entrance/ station while
Exit Point
Road RL 104.5m the rest of the
RL 103.5m site is subject
to an MPL of
104.5 mRL.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 39

requirements must be met to ensure that floodwaters does not enter these
facilities through their connecting basements or ground level entrances, exits
and openings. The development may have different platform and crest levels
4
based on the locations of points of access to the different parts of the building

DEVELOPMENTS FROM FLOODS


RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS TO PROTECT
i.e. ground level or basement entrances (refer to Figure 4.6).

CHANGING LEVELS ON
COMMON ACCESS WAYS

In cases where the building shares a common access way with other buildings,
it may be possible to design the access level for the building entrance to match
adjacent levels by changing the entrance level and providing stairs or ramps to
connect with pedestrian sidewalks (Figure 4.7).

Figure 4.7 For this corner unit shophouse, the five-foot way was raised to match entrance levels. Steps were created to lead down to
the road and common sidewalk area for the side entrances.

USE OF
ANCILLARY AREAS

For developments in low-lying areas that may have significant differences


between the minimum platform levels and adjacent road or ground levels,
ancillary areas could be designed as an intermediate transition zone to
tie-in with the adjacent low-lying road/ground levels, or to satisfy other
planning considerations. Using ancillary spaces such as those listed below
provides more opportunities to mitigate the differences between platform
levels (Figure 4.8).

UNDER THE CODE OF PRACTICE, ANCILLARY AREAS INCLUDE:

i. entrance driveways;
ii. bin centres;
iii. turfed compound areas;
iv. car porches for single unit developments; and
v. other areas as may be approved by PUB.
40 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Figure 4.8 The ancillary area outside this development is used to showcase street art,
adding vibrancy to the entrance of the building.

ALIGNMENT OF
ENTRANCE LOCATIONS

On development sites that are sloped, it may be easier to align entrances and
access on the higher elevation side of the slope compared to the lower elevation
side so as to mitigate between the minimum platform level requirements and
adjacent levels (Figure 4.9).

Figure 4.9 The development incorporates an urban park with a sloped access to act
as an intermediary area to mitigate the level difference between the road and the
platform level of the development, where the entrances are located.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 41

4.4.3 DESIGN TOOLS


This section presents the benefits, constraints, and applications of various tools
that could facilitate the implementation of design options that would either meet
4
the minimum platform and/or crest levels required for the development site,

DEVELOPMENTS FROM FLOODS


RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS TO PROTECT
or would achieve at least the same level of flood protection that the minimum
platform and/or crest levels would provide for the building.

STAIRCASES
AND RAMPS

Staircases and ramps may be used to mitigate differences between the ground
level and the development’s platform level. In space-constrained developments,
stairs may be a space-efficient means of providing accessibility from the street
level to the building. However, tall staircases could potentially create visual
barriers to the landscape. Designers should take into consideration the various
uses of access points into the building and determine the locations where these
features would be appropriate.

Figure 4.10 Two examples of


staircases and ramps used to bridge
the level differences between ground
levels and the development’s
platform level.

Benefits Constraints Applications


š (DVLO\LPSOHPHQWDEOHLIWKHUHLVDGHTXDWH š 6WDLUVWUXFWXUHVWKDWDUHXVHGWRPLWLJDWH  š $OOGHYHORSPHQWW\SHV
setback area. significant differences in the ground level and the
š 0LQLPDOPDLQWHQDQFH building’s platform level may become a visual
barrier depending on the location of the stairway.
š &DQEHLQWHJUDWHGDVDSHUPDQHQWIHDWXUHLQ
the development. š 5DPSVPD\UHTXLUHORQJDUHDVRISDVVDJHWR
mitigate between levels (e.g. ramps typically need
to maintain a certain slope to meet safety and
handicap access requirements).
42 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

MECHANICAL LIFTS

In developments with space constraints, platform lifts, stair-lifts, passenger


and car lifts can be used together with stairs and ramps to mitigate level
differences and provide additional access into the building. However it is
important to note that the mechanical and electrical systems located below
the lifts may be subject to the ingress of floodwater, so it is vital to have an
additional crest protection for these systems by providing a ramp up to the lift
or by installing flood barriers.

Figure 4.11 Examples of different types


of mechanical lifts. Top – Platform lift for
handicap access. Bottom – Car lift that is
integrated into the building.

Benefits Constraints Applications


š 2ijHUVDQDOWHUQDWLYHRSWLRQLQDGGLWLRQWRUDPSV š (OHFWULFDOHTXLSPHQWWKDWLVORFDWHGEHORZWKH š &DQEHUHWURıWWHGLQWRH[LVWLQJGHYHORSPHQWV
and staircases to mitigate level differences. platform level may be subject to flooding š 8QGHUJURXQGSDUNLQJHQWUDQFHV
š 3URYLGHVEDUULHUIUHHDFFHVVLELOLW\IRUDFFHVV  (requires a ramp or mechanical flood barrier
to prevent water from short circuiting the š $OOGHYHORSPHQWW\SHV
from a lower level to a higher level.
electrical system).
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 43

FLOOD BARRIERS

Flood barriers are mechanical barrier systems that are installed to prevent
4
water from flooding the protected area behind the barrier. These barriers are

DEVELOPMENTS FROM FLOODS


RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS TO PROTECT
typically installed at the ground level of a development and at entrances and
exits of basements. Flood barrier systems can be automated or manually
operated. Apart from ensuring that flood protection levels are met, tests
for watertightness are necessary to ensure that the flood barriers remain
watertight when the floodwaters are below the top edge of the barriers.

For developments that are unable to meet the minimum platform and
crest levels through structural design tools alone, flood barriers could be
implemented on-site to achieve an equivalent level of flood protection.
However, it must be emphasised that the platform and crest levels should be
raised to the highest possible levels before considering the implementation of
flood barriers. Flood barrier systems should be combined with other structural
measures to ensure that the development is adequately protected from flooding.
These flood protection measures are cost-effective solutions compared with
the potential economic costs of flood damages and inconvenience caused to
building users.

KEY CONSIDERATIONS FOR SELECTION OF FLOOD BARRIER SYSTEMS


When selecting the type of flood barrier systems to implement, a designer
should consider the following:

1. Response Time: the time from the issue of the flood alarm to the onset of
flooding and the readiness and availability of personnel;

2. Deployment Time: the time taken to activate the barriers, including


appropriate locations to store detachable barriers; and

3. Maintenance of Mechanical Flood Barriers: the amount of maintenance


required (e.g. maintenance of mechanical components) and the required
testing frequency.

Figure 4.12 Maintenance staff checking


and testing a flip-up flood barrier.
44

Type of Manual Slot-in Manual Swing Manual Pivot Manual Manual/Automatic Manual/Automatic Automatic
Flood Barriers Watertight Door Flip-up Sliding Drop-down
(Shuttle door)

Description Piece(s) that are Barrier that Flood barrier Watertight version Flood barrier is Flood barrier Flood barrier
manually deployed operates on a is lowered into of doors. recessed in the that slides across that is kept in a
prior to a flood “swing door” place using a ground and raised an opening raised position
event. Slots must concept. pivot system. into position during into position. under normal
be installed to flooding conditions. conditions and is
guide installation lowered during
of barrier(s). flood event.

Benefits š/LJKWZHLJKWDQG š,QVWDOOHGLQ š,QVWDOOHGLQ š,QVWDOOHGLQ š)OXVKZLWKWKH š,QVWDOOHGLQ š,QVWDOOHGLQ


easy to mobilise. place, reducing place, reducing place, reducing ground surface, place, reducing place, reducing
deployment time. deployment time. deployment time. reducing visual deployment time. deployment time.
š&DQEHVWRUHG obstruction.
away until š0LQLPDO š0LQLPDO š8VHIXOLQ š0LQLPDOQR š5HTXLUHV
needed for personnel personnel unmanned areas š,QVWDOOHGLQ personnel minimum
deployment and required to required to for doors that place, reducing required to installation
therefore less deploy system. deploy system. are kept closed deployment time. deploy system. space.
prone to wear at all times,
and tear. as no human š&HUWDLQPRGHOV š&DQEHXVHGIRU
intervention can be activated large openings.
š6XUIDFHPRXQWHG is needed with the lifting
for easy to activate power of
post-construction the system. floodwater,
installation. without the need
for electricity.
š(FRQRPLFDOFRVW

Constraints š/RQJHUUHVSRQVH š3HUPDQHQWO\ š3HUPDQHQWO\ š,IWKHGRRULV š1HHGVWREH š%HVWWREH š3HUPDQHQWO\


time needed to visible structure. visible structure. constantly being customised to integrated during visible structure.
manually deploy used for access site conditions. construction.
flood barrier š0D\EHSURQH š0D\EHSURQH into the building,
system. to wear and tear. to wear and tear. it may be more š0D\EHSURQH
prone to wear to wear and tear
š0D\UHTXLUH š0D\UHTXLUH if integrated
vanity covers vanity covers and tear.
with roads or
to conceal the to conceal the pavements.
barriers for barriers for
aesthetics. aesthetics.
DRAINAGE HANDBOOK
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 45

MANUAL FLOOD BARRIERS

Manual flood barriers are barriers that have to be physically installed or


4
operated in the event of a flood. These barriers can be pre-installed, such as

DEVELOPMENTS FROM FLOODS


RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS TO PROTECT
swing-type systems that can remain open during normal times, or “slot-in”
barriers that are put in place only when necessary. Manual systems require
time and manpower to install and activate, which are important considerations
as flooding situations require quick response.

Figure 4.13 Manually installed slot-in


barrier system.

Figure 4.14 Manually operated swing-


type barrier system.

Figure 4.15 Sliding mechanical flood


barrier system.
46 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Benefits Constraints Applications


š :LGHYDULHW\RIV\VWHPVZLWKPDQ\SRVVLEOH  š 5HTXLUHVPRUHPDQSRZHUWRDFWLYDWHWKH š &DQEHUHWURıWWHGLQWRH[LVWLQJGHYHORSPHQWV
configurations. barriers manually, therefore may result in š 6XLWDEOHIRUGHYHORSPHQWVWKDWKDYHD
š 0DQXDOV\VWHPVXVXDOO\FRPHZLWKIJH[LEOH  longer response and deployment time during maintenance crew on-site for deployment of
components, making them easier to install. flood events. flood barriers.
š 'HPRXQWDEOHEDUULHUVFDQEHUHPRYHGZKHQQRW š 0HFKDQLFDOKLQJHVDQGVORWFRPSRQHQWV
required and are usually made of lightweight associated with manual systems may not
material for portability. integrate well with the overall aesthetics of
the building.
š 7\SLFDOO\UHTXLUHVORZPDLQWHQDQFH
š ,IWKHIJRRGEDUULHULVQRWUHPRYDEOHDQGLV
located in a public area, it may be more prone
to wear and tear.

There are also more permanent options available, such as building low flood
walls along the perimeter of the development site with provisions (e.g. gaps
or slots) for flood barrier systems. Gaps between the walls would provide
pedestrian access during normal conditions. During flood situations, flood
barriers would be installed or activated to close the gaps and ensure that
the areas around the building are fully watertight. Flood barriers can also be
integrated into the design of entrance gates (Figure 4.16).

Minimum crest level

Shortfall
between
road level
and minimum
crest level

Figure 4.16 The entrance gate of this development leading directly to the basement car park was designed with a solid bottom section,
with openings (for aesthetics) starting at the level above the required minimum crest level. A cross-section schematic of the gate is shown
on the right.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 47

DEVELOPMENTS FROM FLOODS


RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS TO PROTECT
Figure 4.17 Automatic flood barrier
system at Lucky Plaza.

AUTOMATIC FLOOD BARRIERS

Automatic flood barriers are permanently installed in place and can be activated
very quickly compared with manual flood barriers (Figure 4.17). There are
several types of automatic barriers, including automatic flip-up, self-closing
or drop-down systems. The normal position of these automatic flood barriers
is flush with the pavement, road surface or side walls, providing seamless
pedestrian or vehicular access. When activated, the barrier will be raised,
lowered or closed to protect the premises from flooding. When the floodwaters
recede, the barrier will return to its original location allowing for vehicle and
pedestrian passage.

Benefits Constraints Applications


š )XOO\DXWRPDWLFQRPDQXDOGHSOR\PHQWQHHGHG š $VWKHEDUULHULVSDUWRISHGHVWULDQRUYHKLFXODU š 3XEOLFDUHDV
š &DQEHDFWLYDWHGTXLFNO\DWDQ\WLPHRIWKHGD\ access, it may be prone to damage or wear and š &DQEHLQWHJUDWHGLQWRQHZGHYHORSPHQWVIRU
tear. round-the-clock, unmanned activation.
š &DQEHOLQNHGWRZDWHUOHYHOVHQVRUVRUDODUP
systems for faster activation.
š :HOOLQWHJUDWHGLQWRWKHHQYLURQPHQWZLWKPLQLPDO
interference with building aesthetics.
48 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

4.5. Non-Structural Receptor Solutions


PUB has installed more than 150 sensors in waterways around Singapore to
monitor water levels. CCTVs have also been installed in highly-urbanised areas
like Orchard Road, the Central Business District, Bukit Timah, Upper Thomson,
Ang Mo Kio, Little India and Commonwealth to provide up-to-date images PUB’s “MyWaters” is a free mobile app
of conditions at these locations. Information from the water level sensors that is available via Apple’s App Store
and CCTVs are available on PUB’s website (refer to Figure 4.18) and PUB’s and Android’s Marketplace.
mobile app, MyWaters. PUB also provides flood alerts and updates to
the public via various channels such as Facebook, Twitter, PUB’s website
(http://www.pub.gov.sg/managingflashfloods/) and the MyWaters mobile app.

Building operations and maintenance staff and occupants can prepare


themselves for potential flood risks through updates from these channels or
by subscribing to the Heavy Rain Warning SMS alert service provided by the
Meteorological Service Singapore (MSS). Subscribers of the MSS service will
receive alerts via SMS when heavy rain is expected over any of the five sectors
(north, south, east, west, central) across Singapore.

The Heavy Rain Warning SMS alert service is part of the Integrated Heavy Rain
and Water Level Alert Service jointly operated by the MSS and PUB. Members
RIWKHSXEOLFFDQVXEVFULEHWRHLWKHURQHRUERWKDOHUWVWKURXJK1($ŖV0\(19
mobile app or PUB’s MyWaters mobile app, or via the PUB website.
The Heavy Rain Warning information is
available on PUB’s website:
SMS alerts received can be used to trigger standard operating procedures or http://www.pub.gov.sg
flood contingency plans for the operation of flood protection measures and DQG1($ŖVZHEVLWH
activation of alert or warning systems so as to reduce the risk of flood damage http://app2.nea.gov.sg
to property or safety hazards to occupants and members of the public.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 49

DEVELOPMENTS FROM FLOODS


RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS TO PROTECT
Figure 4.18 Location of water level sensors and CCTVs for flood monitoring in Singapore, available on the PUB
website and MyWaters mobile app.
50 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Safety, Operations and


Maintenance Considerations

5
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 51

MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS
SAFETY, OPERATIONS AND
Figure 5.1 A crossing installed across When designing source and receptor solutions, it is important to keep in mind
a grass conveyance swale ensures a the safety, operations and maintenance aspects of the proposed solutions. By
smooth transition between the two considering these aspects right from the design stage, innovative and cost-
walkways, and also protects the soil
effective source and receptor solutions that not only meet public agencies’
beneath from being compacted by
pedestrians, which would otherwise requirements, but are well integrated into the development to create a safe
reduce the infiltration capacity of and beautiful environment for users can be implemented.
the swale.
5.1 Safety Considerations
A risk and safety assessment can be conducted to identify potential safety
hazards that might occur after the completion and implementation of
stormwater management measures. It is paramount to put public safety as the
most important consideration and is the responsibility of the developer and/or
Qualified Person (QP) to ensure that all applicable safety standards are met and
that a system of safety checks is set up and continues to be in place after the
development project is completed.

Some key considerations for designing for public safety are listed below (not
an exhaustive list):

1. BCA requirements for safety;


2. Safety and maintenance considerations in ABC Waters Design Guidelines
(if there are ABC Waters design features);
3. NEA requirements for public health (e.g. mosquito breeding prevention);
4. NParks requirements for tree conservation and tree planting provisions
within developments;
5. Safe access for maintenance of the stormwater management features;
and
6. Public awareness and education to inform people of potential hazards and
restricting access to areas with potential flood risk during storm events
(e.g. dry ponds or plazas that are designed to store stormwater).
52 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

5.1.1 RISK ASSESSMENT FORMS


A Risk Assessment Form (Figure 5.2) can be used to assist designers in
identifying and addressing potential hazards associated with various features
on-site.

RISK ASSESSMENT FORM


Company Conducted by
(Name, Signature)
Job scope/Location

Project Approved by
(Name, Designation, Signature)

Item Hazards Potential Current Risk Severity Likelihood Risk Additional Risk Control Action by
Consequence(s) Control Measures Measures
Areas designed Slowly fluctuating Water safety Moderate Occasional Medium š'HVLJQDWHGHQWU\
to be accessed water depth of signage/hazard points
directly by approx. 0.1 m warning will š/RZZKHHOVWRSVRU
users that have during extreme be placed at a raised kerbs for
a waterbody/ storm events strategic location areas of circulation
waterbodies of creates potential to promote public between 500mm -
varying depth injury/drowning awareness of the 1000mm
and velocity. hazard. potential dangers š5DLOLQJVRUSODQWHG
and proper use edges to be provided
of facilities. where level
Design difference is
Considerations 1000mm and above
Water edges Park users may Higher intensity Moderate Occasional Medium At some locations
that are hard to inadvertently lighting to be with steeper banks or
discern at night. wander or fall provided at higher flow volumes,
into the water hotspot activity softscape will be used
during or just areas, lighting to shield the user from
after rain events. along pathways, the water edge.
uplighting of trees
will also
illuminate water
surface and edge.
Operations & Stagnant water 5LVNRIPRVTXLWR Checks to be Minor Frequent Low Detention facilities:
Maintenance that could related diseases. carried out twice š&KHFNIRUFKRNDJHV
and Monitoring possibly be a a week for and stagnant water
mosquito stagnant water
5HWHQWLRQIDFLOLWLHV
breeding site. and mosquito
with permanent
larvae.
water body:
š(QVXUHFRQVWDQW
water circulation
š,QWURGXFHZLOGOLIH
which would eat
larvae or introduce
anti mosquito agent
 HJ%7,
,QWHULPGHWHQWLRQ Poor water Users are Minor Occasional Low Where necessary
facilities or quality affecting informed on water (eg if used for play
other detention public health. quality of facilities DUHDIRUFKLOGUHQ 
facilities where and proper use of create wash point.
people are facilities.
encouraged to
enter and play in.

5HFHLYHGE\ Date

5LVN 5 0DWUL[

/LNHOLKRRG / 5HPRWH Occasional Frequent


6HYHULW\ 6
Major Medium High High
Moderate Low Medium High
Minor Low Low Medium

$FFHSWDELOLW\RI5LVN/RZULVN $FFHSWDEOH 0HGLXP5LVN 0RGHUDWHO\DFFHSWDEOH +LJK5LVN 1RWDFFHSWDEOH

Figure 5.2 ([DPSOHRID5LVN$VVHVVPHQW)RUP


MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 53

MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS
SAFETY, OPERATIONS AND
Figure 5.3 Using a combination of
gradual slopes and clear signage, this
dry pond allows users to move out of
the area safely and easily during a
rain event.

5.1.2 SAFETY ISSUES FOR SOURCE SOLUTIONS SITED ALONG PUBLIC


ACCESS
Source solutions, such as surface detention and conveyance elements that are
open and sited along public access, or that serve dual functions as recreational
areas during dry weather and stormwater detention ponds during wet weather
are subject to higher safety requirements. For such features with multiple
functions, it is important to understand and address the associated risks
accordingly.

For retention elements which have a permanent pool of water (e.g wetlands),
barriers such as railings should be provided to prevent people from falling in.

Figure 5.4 A low seat wall, together


with clear signage, can be used to limit
access into the bioretention feature.
54 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

5.2 Operations and Maintenance Considerations


Operations and maintenance decisions and actions pertain to the control and
upkeep of property and equipment. They include, but are not limited to:
1. Scheduling, work procedures, systems control and optimisation; and
2. Routine, preventive, predictive, scheduled and unscheduled maintenance
actions aimed at preventing equipment failure or decline, with the goal of
maintaining system performance.

5.2.1 OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE CHECKLISTS


Similar to the Risk Assessment Form, an Operations and Maintenance
Checklist should be developed to identify actions which need to be carried out
on a frequent basis, a less frequent basis, or periodically (e.g. after a heavy Examples of Operations and Maintenance
storm event). Maintenance encompasses visual inspections and equipment Checklists for ABC Waters design
checks, cleaning as well as caring for greenery (landscaped areas and ABC features can be found in the Engineering
Waters design features which include vegetation). Frequent visual inspection Procedures on PUB’s website:
http://www.pub.gov.sg/abcwaters/
and maintenance of not just singular elements but the entire stormwater
drainage system for the development is essential to ensure that the performance
of the stormwater drainage system continues to function according to design.
Regular and thorough visual inspections of the system elements take little time
and aid in identifying preventive maintenance needs.

5.2.2 OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE ISSUES FOR SOURCE SOLUTIONS


Maintenance can be categorised into aesthetic maintenance and functional
maintenance. Functional maintenance aims to ensure performance of the
stormwater system, its environmental benefits as well as public safety, while
aesthetic maintenance aims to satisfy the aesthetic needs of the users.

The following two key points should be noted:


1. Before the commissioning of the stormwater drainage system, an overall
comprehensive check of all components is essential. All parts of the
stormwater drainage system must be free of any construction waste to
ensure that runoff from the source can be effectively conveyed to the
public drains.
2. All components of the stormwater drainage system must be monitored on
a regular basis and the frequencies of maintenance should be adjusted to
the site-specific conditions and customised according to the experience
gained from operating and maintaining the stormwater drainage system
and records kept. These should be reviewed periodically.

Figure 5.5 (URVLRQLQJUDVVVZDOHVFDQ


be minimised by planting more resilient
or water-tolerant species in areas that
experience higher flow velocities or are
frequently submerged (e.g. depression
DUHDV 
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 55

MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS
SAFETY, OPERATIONS AND
Figure 5.6 Sedimentation and
excessive vegetation have grown inside
the swale, obstructing flow and reducing
conveyance capacity during rain events.
This could also potentially be a breeding
ground for mosquitoes when stagnant
ZDWHULVWUDSSHGLQWKHVZDOH5HJXODU
maintenance of the swale is required to
ensure its functionality.

DETENTION SYSTEMS
Detention systems which discharge stored water to the public drains are only
allowed to do so when water levels in the public drains have dropped below
75%. Water levels in the public drains will be monitored via a water level sensor.
It is important to understand how the system of storing and discharging runoff
works, so that the operations and maintenance plan for the detention system
can be developed accordingly.

If the detention system is a tank, maintenance of the tank may include:


š Regular desilting to ensure that the storage capacity of the tank is
maintained.
š Checking that the discharge system continues to function effectively.
For discharge via gravity flow, maintenance is required to ensure that
the outlet does not get clogged.
For discharge via pumped drainage, maintenance of the electrical
systems and pumps is required.

5.2.3 OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE ISSUES FOR RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS


During a flood situation, floodwaters will naturally flow towards the lowest
points in the terrain. As such, it is imperative that building owners and
management take steps to ensure that receptor solutions continue to be in
place and function effectively so as to minimise potential damage to property
and other safety hazards. This would involve regular checks and maintenance,
and is especially important for flood barriers which are located in public
areas that may be subject to wear and tear which may affect their operational
effectiveness.

Designers and operators should also refer to Chapter 13 of the COP, which
contains clauses on maintaining the integrity of the stormwater drainage
system, including flood protection measures.
56 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Figure 5.7 5HJXODUWHVWVDQGLQVSHFWLRQVRIIJRRGEDUULHUV\VWHPVDUHQHFHVVDU\WRHQVXUHWKDWWKHV\VWHPFDQEHUHOLDEO\DFWLYDWHGGXULQJ


flood events.

FLOOD OPERATIONS PLAN


When supplementing structural receptor solutions like platform levels with
mechanical receptor solutions like flood barriers, it is also important to note
that the development’s flood protection is only as good as the response time
to activate the flood barriers. A Flood Operations Plan, or a flood standard PUB’s website also provides advisory
operating procedure, is developed with the aim of ensuring the safety of people information on how members of the
and minimising damage to property in the event of a flood. public can exercise caution during
flash floods:
http://www.pub.gov.sg/
The Flood Operations Plan details actions that take place before, during and managingflashfloods/
after the storm event and defines a chain of command to initiate operations.
Elements of a Flood Operations Plan would include situation monitoring, flood
threat identification, alert response, dissemination of information, emergency
response actions and post-flood recovery and management (Figure 5.8).
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 57

Before
Identify Potential
During
Flood Warning/Monitoring
After
Termination and Recovery 5
Risk/Source š'HWHUPLQHIJRRGWKUHDWDQG š7UDQVLWLRQLQJIURPHPHUJHQF\SKDVH

MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS
SAFETY, OPERATIONS AND
š(VWDEOLVK$FWLRQDQG(PHUJHQF\ monitoring of flood into recovery phase
Response Plan including chain of š5HPRYDORIGHEULVLQVSHFWLQJ
command and responsibility Action and Emergency Response property damage, condition of
š(TXLSPHQWRSHUDWLRQDQG Action development
maintenance of flood safety š$OHUWUHVSRQVH š3RVWPRUWHPRI)ORRG$FWLRQDQG
equipment (e.g. flood barriers, sand Emergency Response
š'LVVHPLQDWLRQRILQIRUPDWLRQDQG
bags, etc. if any)
warnings
š3ODQQLQJDQGFRQGXFWLQJIJRRGGULOO
š'HSOR\PHQWDFWLYDWLRQRIIJRRG
exercises in implementation of flood
protection measures or safety
barriers (if any)
equipment (if any)
š3ODQQLQJDQGFRQGXFWLQJIJRRGGULOO
š5RXWLQJWKHSXEOLFWRDUHDVRIVDIHW\
exercises in public evacuation
and away from potential dangers

Figure 5.8 (OHPHQWVRID)ORRG2SHUDWLRQV3ODQ

FLOOD MONITORING
Owners and operations and maintenance personnel of developments located
in low-lying or flood prone areas can improve their readiness in activating
flood protection systems through close monitoring of weather forecasts and
Subscribe to SMS Alerts: water level information, available on the NEA and PUB websites respectively.
http://www.pub.gov.sg In addition to monitoring websites, building owners, occupants and building
managingflashfloods/ management can also subscribe to the SMS alert systems for Heavy Rain
or download the ‘MyWaters’ mobile app
Warning and water level alerts, so as to determine which actions they need to
to receive heavy rain or water level alerts.
take to protect themselves and their premises from flood risks.

Figure 5.9 Members of the public can subscribe to free heavy rain warning and water
level SMS alerts through PUB’s website.
58 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Case Studies

6
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 59

6.1 Waterway Ridges, Singapore

Legend
6

SINGAPORE
CASE STUDY: WATERWAY RIDGES,
Apron inlet

Vegetated
Swale

Bioretention
Basin

Discharge/
overflow
Roadside
Drain
Discharge
points
Existing
discharge
points
Treated
water
Bioretention
Basin
showcasing
treated water
(Educational)

Figure 6.1.1 Indicative drainage flow 6.1.1 BACKGROUND


paths in Waterway Ridges. Stormwater Waterway Ridges in Punggol is a 3.98 hectare public housing project that
runoff is conveyed, detained and
treated through a series of bioretention demonstrates how the collection, detention, treatment and conveyance of
basins and vegetated swales stormwater runoff can be integrated with a residential development at a
before being discharged from the precinct level. While maintaining the pre-development hydrology of the site
development into the roadside drains,
Punggol Waterway and Tributary A.
for all storm events up to a 10 year return period, the holistic integration
of ABC Waters design features into residential spaces also brings additional
benefits to the community and the environment in terms of improving runoff
quality, creating multi-functional spaces, enhancing aesthetics and promoting
biodiversity.

The main challenge of Waterway Ridges was to design a stormwater


drainage system that could regulate the runoff rate from the precinct as well
as improve runoff water quality. ABC Waters design features are located at
both the Common Green and Waterway Ridges precinct, slowing down flows
collectively to maintain the pre-development peak runoff rate (up to a 10 year
return period) and cleansing stormwater to improve water quality.

6.1.2 INTEGRATED STORMWATER MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS


Due to site constraints, runoff from about 70% of the total site runoff
would be channelled through a comprehensive train of rain gardens and
vegetated swales meandering through the development. Normally dry, these
aesthetically pleasing gardens and swales would be filled with stormwater
runoff during rainy weather, acting as temporary detention basins and
treatment features before being discharged into the public drains.
60 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Figure 6.1.2 Bioretention basin during dry weather (left). During a rain event (right), stormwater is directed into the swale, reducing
the velocity and volume of runoff into the drainage system.

As space at the ground level had to be set aside for public amenities (e.g.
playgrounds, lawns, etc.), the amount of space available for surface detention
was limited. Thus, underground detention space was implemented in addition
to surface detention. This was done through the use of gravel storage layers,
with depths ranging from 400 to 850 mm, which were located within or
below the bioretention basins and integrated with the drainage layer (refer
to Figures 6.1.2 and 6.1.3).

Overflow system design

Standing overflow pipe


200mm extended
1:4 detention depth
(Mi Overflow manhole
n)

Max WL 200 mm
Total depth 400mm
400mm filter media

100mm transition
layer

400-850mm
Discharge outlet Perforated pipe gravel layer

Figure 6.1.3 Typical cross-section of a bioretention basin implemented at Waterway Ridges.


MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 61

Sized to cater to runoff from a storm with a return period of 10 years, runoff
from the sub-catchment flows into the basin, and water is allowed to pond up
to a maximum detention depth of 200 mm. Above that, runoff will overflow into
6
the manhole and be directed into the underground gravel layer for detention

SINGAPORE
CASE STUDY: WATERWAY RIDGES,
through the perforated pipes. Meanwhile the amount of overflow entering
the discharge overflow pipe will be regulated through the reduced outlet, the
opening size of which was predetermined through calculations to maintain
the pre-development peak flow. When the underground gravel layer is full, the
water level in the manhole rises to the standing overflow pipe and is discharged
via the discharge outlet that connects to the roadside drains.

Pre-development
peak runoff from
Total site area = 3.98 ha a greenfield site
1.04m3/s

Post-development peak
runoff from a developed
site served solely
by conventional
drainage system
1.85m3/s

Post-development peak
runoff from a developed
site that incorporates
on-site stormwater
detention and retention,
in addition to conventional
drainage systems
1.16m3/s

Figure 6.1.4 Comparison of the different peak runoff rates for different drainage
systems adopted for the precinct.
62 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Besides detaining stormwater runoff, the ABC Waters design features in the
precinct also function as natural filters which remove fine to colloidal particles
and dissolved pollutants in water with the following treatment objectives:
For 90% of all storm events:
TSS (Total suspended solids): 80% removal or less than 10 ppm
(parts per million)
TP (Total phosphorus): 45% removal or less than 0.08 ppm
TN (Total nitrogen): 45 % removal or less than 1.2 ppm

Since aesthetics and public amenities on the ground level are important for
such a development, plants of high aesthetic value and which encourage
biodiversity were incorporated into the design of the ABC Waters design
features for conveyance and detention. The ABC Waters design features were
also designed as multi-functional spaces, able to be used during dry weather
as public amenities. For example, selected bioretention basins would serve
as communal lawns, where residents can enjoy recreational activities during
dry weather. As such, through holistic planning, peak runoff reduction and
runoff water quality improvement can be achieved, while creating a beautiful
environment rich in biodiversity for residents to enjoy.

Figure 6.1.5 Bioretention basin serving as a multi-purpose lawn during dry weather.
During a rain event, it acts as a temporary detention feature for stormwater runoff.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 63

6.2 Tanglin Mall, Singapore

SINGAPORE
CASE STUDY: TANGLIN MALL,
Figure 6.2.1 Tanglin Mall, located 6.2.1 BACKGROUND
at the junction of Tanglin Road and
Grange Road.
Tanglin Mall is a 0.57 hectare commercial development located at the
junction of Tanglin Road and Grange Road. Completed in 1994, Tanglin Mall
complied with the minimum platform level requirement imposed by PUB.
Notwithstanding this, in light of changes in the surroundings and weather
patterns, Tanglin Mall has taken further measures to meet the higher flood
protection requirements specified by PUB in the COP (revised in December
2011).

Due to its strategic location at the junction of two major roads, Tanglin
Mall has at least ten entrances, including a basement car park. This
makes it challenging as no single type of flood protection measure can be
NA
implemented across the entire frontage of the building without compromising
SS
IM
HI ST MAR
TIN DRIV
E
pedestrian or vehicular access. Additionally, the new flood protection
LL
TANGLIN
DELIVERY
ST REGIS
RESIDENCES
requirement stipulated in the COP (6th Edition) was 0.7 metres above the
BASE
TANGLIN ROAD TANGLIN
TUDOR COURT PLACE
existing platform level. As such, a combination of flood protection measures
TOM

SHOPPING MALL
TANGLIN had to be designed and implemented to meet PUB’s revised requirements
LIN

MALL
GR

SO

as well as those imposed by other agencies such as the need for seamless
AN

THE REGENT
NR

SINGAPORE
GE

OA
RO

connectivity at pedestrian access areas.


D

TRADERS
AD

HOTEL OAD
EN R
SINGAPORE CAD
CUS
GRANGE
ORCHAR

RESIDENCES
TOURISM
COURT
A thorough examination of the vulnerabilities of the building was carried out
D SPRING

WESTWOOD
PARK
HOUSE
followed by consultation with agencies, so as to devise a holistic solution
CAMDEN APARTMENTS
MEDICAL that would not only increase Tanglin Mall’s level of flood protection, but also
LANE

CENTRE
VARD
ORCH
ARD B
OULE
preserve its attractiveness as a lifestyle mall at the gateway of the Orchard
Road shopping district.
64 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Figure 6.2.2 Flip-up barrier at the front of Tanglin Mall, in closed (left) and open (right) positions. This barrier was chosen to achieve
seamless connectivity for pedestrians crossing the junction of Tanglin and Grange Road to Tanglin Mall.

Figure 6.2.3 A flip-up barrier at the entrance to the basement carpark in closed (left) and open (right) positions.

Figure 6.2.4 A multi-slot barrier at the front of Tanglin Mall before (left) and after (right) installation. These barriers have to be
installed manually.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 65

SINGAPORE
CASE STUDY: TANGLIN MALL,
Figure 6.2.5 Swing-type flood barrier
in open (top) and closed (bottom)
positions at access to loading/
unloading areas.

6.2.2 FLOOD PROTECTION MEASURES IMPLEMENTED


Tanglin Mall implemented a combination of flood barriers and raised platform
levels at the building’s access areas. For covered walkways, to minimise
disruption to pedestrian movement and visual porosity to the building, flip-
up barriers were implemented at key locations such as the entrance to the
building at the junction of Tanglin Road and Grange Road (Figure 6.2.2).
Similarly, at areas where vehicular access should not be obstructed such as
the entrance to the service driveway, flip-up barriers were also used (Figure
6.2.3).

At other areas where there are technical constraints to install flip-up barriers
due to the existing structure of the building, low walls, slot-in barriers or
swing-type flood barriers were used (Figure 6.2.4 and 6.2.5).

In addition to implementing on-site flood protection measures, the building


management subscribed to the SMS alert service for both Heavy Rain
Warnings and water level alerts, and developed a Standard Operating
Procedure (SOP) for flood barriers to be installed and activated in the event
of a flash flood along Grange Road or Tanglin Road.
66 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

6.3 Wisma Atria, Singapore

Figure 6.3.1 Wisma Atria, located along Orchard Road.

6.3.1 BACKGROUND SINGAPORE JLN LADA PUTEH

Opened in 1986, Wisma Atria is an established shopping mall situated along MARRIOTT
NU
TM

HOTEL
EG

Orchard Road. This 0.62 hectare development also provides access to the
RO

TANG
AD

PLAZA JLN KAYU MANIS


Orchard MRT station via an underground link. LUCKY
OR PLAZA
CH
AR
ION D RO
AD
Wisma Atria has been innovative in incorporating various architectural ORCHARD
TONG
and engineering designs to enhance its level of flood protection without WISMA ATRIA
BUILDING
ORCHARD
compromising its attractiveness to retailers and consumers. This ensures MRT
OR
that the building and the adjoining underground MRT station are protected CH
AR
D
TU
from flood risks. RN
NGEE
OR ORCHARD ANN CITY
CH PARKSUITES
AR
D
BO
UL
EV
AR
D
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 67

SINGAPORE
CASE STUDY: WISMA ATRIA,
Crest
protection

Figure 6.3.2 Using steps to create a


1 metre high crest protection for the
basement shops.

6.3.2 FLOOD PROTECTION MEASURES IMPLEMENTED


In 2001, modifications to allow direct access to shops located in Basement 1
of Wisma Atria from the pedestrian walkway along Orchard Road were made.
This meant that crest protection had to be provided at entrances to the basement
to reduce the risk of floodwaters entering the basement levels of the building
as well as Orchard MRT station. To address this risk, the building management
of Wisma Atria worked with PUB and LTA to implement the following flood
protection measures:

1. At areas with direct entry to the basement levels from the pedestrian
walkways, a 1m high crest was created using steps. Pedestrians would
have to first climb a flight of steps before descending to the basement.

2. In 2008, a 5m long, 0.9m high sliding mechanical flood barrier was


installed along a short stretch of the pedestrian walkway. During dry
days, the flood barrier would be left open, allowing pedestrians to enter
the basement level of Wisma Atria from the pedestrian walkway along
Orchard Road.

Figure 6.3.3 A sliding mechanical


flood barrier protects the basement
shops from floodwaters.
68 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Wisma Atria also developed a set of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) to


guide its staff on the steps and measures to take in the event of an intense
rainstorm. For example, the sliding mechanical flood barrier would be
closed after business hours and during rainstorm events when water level
in the Stamford Canal was high. To serve as an early warning system for
the activation of the flood barrier, a water level sensor was installed in the
Stamford Canal at the section near the building.

Figure 6.3.4 Sliding mechanical flood


barrier to provide crest protection.

6.3.3 FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS TO WISMA ATRIA


More recently in 2012, Wisma Atria has undergone a more extensive
transformation to provide new retail experiences along the Orchard Road
shopping belt.

The steps leading to the shops at the basement and the mechanical flood
barrier were replaced by a raised platform, integrated with accessibility
ramps that are linked to the second level of Wisma Atria. This continuous
raised platform has further enhanced the level of flood protection for the
development and eliminated the risk of floodwaters entering the building due
to mechanical failure of the flood barrier. In addition to enhancing Wisma
Atria’s flood protection levels, this transformation complies with BCA’s barrier
free access, while taking advantage of URA’s Façade Articulation Guidelines
to refresh their façade.

Entrance
107.25m RL

Existing
Pedestrian
Mall
105.3 m RL

Figure 6.3.5 Wisma Atria’s continuous raised platform (left) and section view (right).
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 69

SINGAPORE
CASE STUDY: WISMA ATRIA,
Figure 6.3.6 Wisma Atria’s continuous raised platform next to the main pedestrian walkway.

Figure 6.3.7 Raised platform at entrance to the Orchard MRT station.


70 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

6.4 The Prisma, Germany

Figure 6.4.1 Stormwater management


integrated within the development.
Water walls and luxuriant vegetation
work together with the building to
Photo: courtesy of Siegfried Gragnato create a healthy atmosphere.

6.4.1 BACKGROUND
The Prisma is a 1.7 hectare mixed-use building complex located in
Nuremberg, Germany, comprising 61 residential units, 32 office spaces,
9 retail stores, a cafe and a public kindergarten. Rainwater that falls within
the development is collected and reused. Surplus stormwater is allowed to
infiltrate into the ground. At the same time, stormwater that is collected within
the site is used to regulate air quality and the climate within the building,
as well as provide visual and acoustic aesthetics to the development. By
integrating these features into the development, water has become the
central theme of the development, creating an oasis in the heart of the city.

6.4.2 STORMWATER CONCEPT – COLLECTION, STORAGE, PURIFICATION


& INFILTRATION
During a storm, all the rainwater that falls on the roofs within the development
is channelled to a series of vegetated planters on the upper floors. As it flows
downwards towards the ponds and then into a cistern (with storage capacity
of approximately 300 m3), the stormwater is cleansed as nutrients and
suspended solids are removed through the vegetated filter systems.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 71

GERMANY
CASE STUDY: THE PRISMA,
Figure 6.4.2 Rainwater from the
entire roof area (approximately
4000 m2) is collected and channelled
into the cistern. Approximately 70%
of the cistern serves as stormwater
detention storage, 17% of the storage
is used for emergency purposes
(fire-fighting), and 13% is used to
circulate rainwater throughout the
building as “natural air-conditioning”. Photo: courtesy of Siegfried Gragnato

Stormwater that is stored in the cistern is then redistributed throughout the


development via three circulation systems – one for irrigation, one for fire-
fighting in the fire sprinkler system and the other for “natural air-conditioning”.
With a runoff detention capacity of 200 m3, any surplus stormwater flows out
of the cistern and recharges the groundwater through an infiltration system
located below the buildings’ foundations.

Cleansing
biotope

Interior
pond

Cleansing
biotope

Water filter

Figure 6.4.3 Sized to cater to storms


of a 10 year return period, stormwater
is collected, stored, cleansed and
Overflow
reused. Excess water is released into
the groundwater via infiltration. Infiltration Cistern
72 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Interior
pond

Fire sprinkler system


Air intake through
waterfall

Exterior
pond

Figure 6.4.4 Using collected


stormwater for natural air-
Water
conditioning, fire-fighting and
wall irrigation.

Cistern

6.4.3 STORMWATER FOR NATURAL AIR-CONDITIONING


As part of the “natural air-conditioning” system, water is circulated to six
water walls within the development. The effect of the water walls is similar
to that of waterfalls since the water walls make use of the hydro-physical
process of water pulling air down as it falls, creating a light wind. As water
falls between two walls each 5 metres high, the stream of water pulls air
through a slit in the wall. This results in a cooling effect in summer. In winter,
the warmer water (set at a minimum of 18 degrees Celsius) warms up
the cool air from outside, creating a comfortable atmosphere indoors. The
circulation of fresh air is clearly noticeable later as the water moves through
whirlpools, streams and finally flows into a central pond surrounding the cafe
patio before returning to the cistern.

By integrating various source solutions and water features within the


development, the Prisma has demonstrated how stormwater can be
harnessed as an asset to enhance the living environment, reduce the
development’s potable water usage and reduce the impact of urbanisation
on peak flows downstream.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 73

GERMANY
CASE STUDY: THE PRISMA,
Photo: courtesy of Siegfried Gragnato

Figure 6.4.5 (Top) Exterior vents supply the water


Air intake through
wall with fresh air which is drawn down the falling steel grate
water and blown out at a wind speed of 3 metres
per second. This system helps to regulate the Glazing
microclimate by cooling the building in summer
and warming it in winter, as well as improving air
quality over a total volume of 15,000 m3 in the glass Fan heater
atriums. (Bottom) Cross-sectional view of the water
wall circulation system.

Adjustable Water spout


wooden louvres

Coloured glass facing

OUTER COURTYARD INSIDE THE GLASS BUILDING

Impact basin

Impact basin
74 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Frequently Asked Questions

7
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 75

7
These are some of the commonly asked questions that PUB receives. More
questions pertaining to drainage issues and their answers can be found at
the PUB website: http://www.pub.gov.sg/.
FAQ

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS


7.1 GENERAL

What is the definition of a return period?


It is the probability that the rainfall event will be exceeded in any one year
(or the inverse of the expected number of occurrences in a year). For
example, 1-in-10-year return period rainfall has a 0.1 or 10% chance of
being exceeded in any one year and a 50-year return period rainfall has
a 0.02 or 2% chance of being exceeded in any one year.

Since PUB will be requiring new and re-developments to reduce the


post-development peak runoff from the development site, does it mean
that PUB will no longer continue to upgrade the drains to cater for
increased urbanisation and higher rainfall intensities?
No, PUB will continue to upgrade the drains under its ongoing Drainage
Improvement Programme. However widening drains to increase drainage
capacity is challenging in land-scarce Singapore. Therefore there is
a need to go beyond pathway solutions to on-site solutions (source
solutions) to provide flexibility and adaptability to cater for the impacts
of climate change.

7.2 SOURCE SOLUTIONS: TOOLS TO MANAGE STORMWATER


ON-SITE

As part of stormwater management, is it possible to combine stormwater


detention with stormwater collection (i.e. rainwater harvesting)? Can
my client build ornamental ponds or ponds to collect rainwater for
gardening and washing of the building premises?
Runoff that is collected using detention systems can be used for non-
potable uses. However, it is important to ensure that the storage tank
capacity can accommodate volumes necessary for both retention
purposes (i.e. for non-potable use) as well as detention purposes (i.e.
temporary storage of runoff). The detention volume must be kept empty
so that the system will be effective in reducing peak flows from the next
storm event.

Can PUB allow for a change of the existing drainage discharge points
within the development site?
PUB may allow the change of the existing drainage discharge points within
the development site provided that the proposal does not significantly
alter the existing drainage overland flow pattern of the site and give rise
to flooding problems. The applicant has to submit the proposal to PUB
for technical comments and clearance. The QP has to avoid diverting flow
from one catchment to another as this may overload an existing drainage
system, which may result in flooding.
76 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

Frequently Asked Questions

7.3 RECEPTOR SOLUTIONS: FLOOD PROTECTION STRATEGIES

What can owners/tenants of existing buildings do to protect their


premises against higher storms?
Owners of existing buildings may approach QPs for technical advice
on the appropriate flood protection measures they could adopt, if
necessary. PUB also engages owners and management of older
developments which have been identified to be at risk of flooding. For
example, PUB engaged the owners of premises affected by flooding
along Orchard Road and recommended flood protection measures such
as flood barriers and humps at entrances to basements to protect their
premises. Building owners are also encouraged to develop emergency
plans for communication and evacuation procedures in the event of
floods. They can also subscribe to the Heavy Rain and Water Level SMS
alert service to get information on expected heavy rain and rising water
levels in the major drains and canals. They can also receive such alerts
and flash flood updates through PUB’s MyWaters mobile app.

Will the new development adjacent to my site lead to increase surface


runoff and eventually flood my site which is on lower ground?
PUB has put in place various measures that the QP/developer needs
to comply with to ensure that a new development does not flood the
adjacent site that is located on a lower platform level. As stipulated in
the COP, all runoff within a development site shall be discharged into
a roadside drain or outlet drain and not into adjacent premises. The
development needs to have a drainage system along the site boundary
(including a minimum 600mm high boundary wall) to prevent surface
runoff from overflowing into the adjacent premises.

How do I comply with the minimum platform level if there are site
constraints such as low-lying roads and surrounding ground levels?
The minimum platform level is necessary to protect the new
development against flooding. Therefore, the building structures must
be built above or at the minimum platform level. For walkways, if
there is a large difference between the minimum platform level and
the existing road level, the QP may study and propose a compromised
walkway level that could be lower than the minimum platform level
but higher than the road level to provide barrier-free access. The QP
may also propose lower platform levels for other ancillary areas such
as driveways to tie in with the existing road level. All these deviations
from the minimum platform level are subject to PUB’s approval.

I have a proposal to construct a new underpass linking an existing


building to an existing MRT station. Can I seek a waiver of complying
with the required crest protection level for the existing or proposed
entrance, exit or opening linking the existing building to the
underground MRT?
PUB does not grant waivers due to the need for a higher level of flood
protection for MRT systems. All developments with underground
linkages to an MRT system must comply with the minimum platform
and crest levels imposed for the MRT system.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 77

Glossary

Active, Beautiful, are environmentally friendly features that detain and treat stormwater
Clean Waters runoff using natural elements like plants and soil. The features also
(ABC Waters) enhance the surroundings with biodiversity and aesthetic value.
Design Features
Addition & Additions refer to any new construction which increases the floor area
Alteration (A&A) of an existing building, for example rear extensions. Alterations are
physical changes to a building.
Catchment refers to the area which drains into a stormwater drainage system.
Central Building Plan refers to the Central Building Plan Department of the Environmental
Department (CBPD) Protection Division, National Environment Agency.
Certificate of is issued by BCA (Building and Construction Authority) when building
Statutory works are completed and all agencies’ requirements have been
Completion (CSC) complied with.
Commercial/Multi refers to developments with basements such as shopping malls, large
Unit Residential office buildings, condominiums, hotels and hospitals.
Developments
with Basements
Common Drain refers to a drain of less than 1m wide serving more than one premise
and without drainage reserve.
Crest Level refers to the bottom level of any openings (including ventilation and
services openings) or summit level of a ramp or access way leading
into or away from an underground or basement structure or facility,
including the summit level of any exits of the underground facilities.
Drain includes any canal, culvert, conduit, river or watercourse.
Drainage Reserve refers to any land set aside for drainage works pursuant to development
proposals approved by a competent authority.
General refers to developments other than commercial/multi-unit residential
Developments developments with basements and special facilities.
Pathway refers to means or routes through which stormwater is conveyed
(e.g. waterways such as drains and canals).
Platform Level refers to the general ground level of a proposed development.
Qualified Person (QP) refers to a person who is an Architect or a Professional Engineer or a
suitably qualified person registered under other relevant legislation.
Receptor is defined as where stormwater flows may propagate to and affect
infrastructure, for example development sites, building premises, or
other infrastructure such as courtyards, parking lots and basements.
Source is defined as the location where stormwater runoff is generated, i.e. the
origin of stormwater flows.
Stormwater Refers to a system of drains for the conveyance or storage of
Drainage System stormwater and includes
a) Any weir, grating, float boom, gauge, tidegate, sump, storage pond,
pumping station, maintenance access and debris interception and
removal facility related to such system.
b) Any structure constructed to convey, store or measure stormwater or for
flood alleviation; and
c) Any bridge over or railing for any such drain or any appurtenance
thereof.
78 DRAINAGE HANDBOOK

References and Resources

Singapore
BCA (latest edition) Code for Environmental Sustainability for Buildings
(available via the BCA website at http://www.bca.gov.sg).
MEWR (2012) Report by the Expert Panel on Drainage Design and Flood Protection Measures
(available via the PUB website at http://www.pub.gov.sg/managingflashfloods).
NEA (latest edition) Code of Practice on Environmental Health
(available via the NEA website at http://app2.nea.gov.sg/codeofpractice.aspx).
NEA (2011) Guidelines on Mosquito Prevention in Domestic Rainwater Collection System for
Non-Potable Uses (available via the NEA website at http://app2.nea.gov.sg/guidebooks.aspx).
NEA (2008) Guidebook on Prevention of Mosquito Breeding
(available via the website http://www.dengue.gov.sg/).
PUB (latest edition) Code of Practice on Surface Water Drainage
(available via the PUB website at http://www.pub.gov.sg/general/code/).
PUB (2011) ABC Waters Design Guidelines
(available via the PUB website at http://www.pub.gov.sg/abcwaters/).
PUB (2011) Engineering Procedures for ABC Waters Design Features
(available via the PUB website at http://www.pub.gov.sg/abcwaters/).

Overseas
Barry Carter (2008) North Shore City Council, 1 The Strand, Takapuna, Auckland NZ.
Stormwater Manager.
Berlin Senate for Urban Development (2010) Rainwater Management Concepts, Greening
Buildings, Cooling Buildings: Planning, Construction, Operation and Maintenance Guidelines.
Clean Water Services (2009) Low Impact Development Approaches Handbook. Hillsboro, OR.
Gold Coast City Council (2005) Land Development Guidelines: Water Sensitive Urban Design
(WSUD) Guidelines.
Hoyer, J., Dickhaut, W., Kronawitter, L., Weber, B. (2011) Water Sensitive Urban Design –
Principles and Inspiration for Sustainable Stormwater Management in the City of the Future.
HafenCity Universität, Hamburg.
Lloyd, S.D., Wong, T.H.F. and Chesterfield, C.J. (2002) Water Sensitive Urban Design –
A Stormwater Management Perspective, Industry Report 02/10, Cooperative Research Centre
for Catchment Hydrology.
Richmond Valley Council (2005) Development Control Plan No. 9 – Water Sensitive Urban
Design.
UACDC (2010) Low Impact Development: A Design Manual for Urban Areas. Fayetteville,
Arkansas.
Wollongong Development Control Plan (2009) Environmental Controls Chapter E15, Part E –
General Controls, Water Sensitive Urban Design.
Woods-Ballard, B., Kellagher, R., Martin, P., Jefferies, C., Bray, R., Shaffer, P. (2007) The
Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) Manual, CIRIA, London.
MANAGING URBAN RUNOFF 79

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the following agencies and organisations for their valuable suggestions
and input:

Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources (MEWR)


Building & Construction Authority (BCA)
Housing & Development Board (HDB)
JTC Corporation
Land Transport Authority (LTA)
National Environment Agency (NEA)
National Parks Board (NPARKS)
Singapore Land Authority (SLA)
Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA)

The Institution of Engineers Singapore (IES)


Association of Consulting Engineers Singapore (ACES)
Real Estate Developer’s Association of Singapore (REDAS)
Singapore Institute of Architects (SIA)

Surbana International Pte Ltd


Atelier Dreiseitl Asia Pte Ltd
Cuscaden Properties Pte Ltd
YTL Starhill Global Property Management Pte Ltd
YTL Starhill Global REIT Management Limited
Text and images produced by PUB and Atelier Dreiseitl Asia Pte Ltd, 2013

Disclaimer
The materials contained in this publication are meant for general information only. PUB assumes no
responsibility or liability in relation to anyone using the information provided in this handbook. If the
user wishes to use any material contained in this publication, the onus is on the user to determine the
suitability and appropriateness of such material for his own purpose.

This publication is printed on environmentally-friendly paper.


Notes
40 Scotts Road,
#22-01 Environment Building,
Singapore 228231
Tel: (65) 6235 8888
Fax: (65) 6731 3020

www.pub.gov.sg