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7.

0 Week Seven
Theory, Hazards & Classification of Fire

7.1 Session One: Introduction to Safety Principles of Fire

7.1.1 Introduction

It was found that 23% of ships are lost due to fire. The main reasons are:

lack of knowledge,

lack of training and

crew negligence.

It must be understood that fire is a very terrifying experience for those who dont
know how to put fire off, thus good knowledge and training is a must for all members of
the ships crew.

7.1.2 Reasons of Fire

Fire is an oxidization chemical process if that fact is understood; it will be easier


to put off the fire. There are several reasons that may help to create a fire onboard ships
.the most common causes that may cause fire onboard can be described as

7.1.2.1 Smoking:

Smoking is on the top of the reasons causing fires on board, be aware that there
are many places onboard that are classified as No Smoking area.

7.1.2.2 Hot-work (welding Torch)

It is usual onboard the ship to use hot-work for welding or cutting, always make
sure that safe practice was followed and that all required extinguishing tools and trained
crew are standing by. In all cases; Never allow any Work without written permission

7.1.2.3 Ships Galley

The ship's galley is one of the high risk areas onboard, as much unsafe practice
may be done, with electricity and liquids; in addition to fats and so on. Cleaning and safe
practice is the best to prevent fires. Always make sure that fire equipments are readily
available and that every thing is clean, specially the filters above stove.

7.1.2.4 Electrical fires

Electricity is very safe when used correctly. Never use electrical equipments
without reading the manuals. Remember that jury wiring (un-authorized connections)
may cause sever problems.

7.1.2.5 Cargo Holds

Smoking is prohibited in cargo places. Always refer to cargo books (Such s


IMDG) to find the risk related to each type of cargo.

7.1.2.6 Paint Locker

A very high risk area with paints, solvents and oils. Paint locker usually in a
remote area and is required to be covered with fire detector & CO2 fixed extinguishing
system as its contents are easily subjected to spontaneous ignition in addition to other fire
risks.

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7.1.2.7 Engine Bilge

This is an ideal place to start the fire as oil remains from engine room gathers in
this place, with any source of ignition the fire will start.

7.1.2.8 Ships funnel

As the ships funnel is the only out-let of the exhaust, any trouble in firing order
of the main or auxiliary engines my emit some un-burned but very hot carbon that may
come in contact with some surface that can catch fire. Fire nests and funnel cleaning are a
must to prevent such fires.

7.1.3 Burning

What is called burning is the rapid oxidation of millions of vapour molecules. The
molecules oxidize by breaking apart into individual atoms and recombining with oxygen
into new molecules. It is during the breaking-recombining process that energy is released
as heat and light.
The heat that is released is radiant heat, which is pure energy. It is the same sort of energy
that the sun radiates and that we feel as heat. It radiates, or travels, in all directions.
Therefore, part of it moves back to the seat of the fire, to the "burning" solid or liquid (the
fuel). The heat that radiates back to the fuel is called radiation feedback. Part of this heat
releases more vapour and part of it raises the vapour to the ignition temperature. At the
same time, air is drawn into the area where the flames and vapour meet. The result is that
there is an increase in flames as the newly formed vapour begins to burn.

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7.1.4 How Fire Spreads

The fire needs continuous fuel and transfer of heat, this transfer can happen
through any of the followings:
1) Conduction
2) Radiation
3) Conviction

7.1.4.1 Conduction
The heat is transferred through the material itself that means that it will depend on the
conductivity of the material. (Metals are good conductors, though the degree of
conductivity vary from one metal to another while wood is a bad conductor.)

7.1.4.2 Radiation

The heat is like light, they dont need a media to transfer.

7.1.4.3 Conviction

The heat can be carried and transferred through hot air and smoke.

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7.2 Week 7-Session Two: Conditions Required for Fire to occur (Fire Triangle)

7.2.1 Fire Triangle

There are four elements that are required for combustion;1) Fuel (to vaporize and burn)
2) Oxygen (to combine with fuel vapor), and
3) Heat (to raise the temperature of the fuel vapor to its ignition temperature)
4) Chain reaction that increases the fire as the resulting heat increases the rate
of vaporizing the fuel

The fire triangle illustrates these requirements. It also illustrates two important
facts in preventing and extinguishing fires. These two important facts are:
1) If any side of the fire triangle is missing, a fire cannot start.
2) If any one of the previously mentioned elements is removed, the fire will
be extinguished. (But may reignite).

7.2.2 Elements Composing Fire Triangle

There are three basic sides of such triangle in addition to the area between them; these
can be described as:

7.2.2.1 Oxygen

The oxygen side of the fire triangle refers to the oxygen content of the
surrounding air (oxygen content about 21% of the volume of air). Ordinarily, a minimum
concentration of 16 percent oxygen in the air is needed to support flaming combustion.
However, smouldering combustion can take place in about 3 percent oxygen. Air
normally contains about 21 percent oxygen, 78 percent nitrogen, and 1 percent other
gases, principally argon. Smothering is used; to attack the triangle from this side.

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7.2.2.2 Fuel

Fuels are the materials that are subjected to burning, but it must be understood
that any fire would only happen into the gaseous form of the material and that the fuel
characteristics are important for the mariner to know; so that they can identify what fire
fighting agent should be used in fighting a fuel fire. Starvation is used; to attack the
triangle from this side.

7.2.3 Heat

Heat is the third side of the fire triangle. When sufficient heat, fuel, and oxygen
are available, the triangle is complete and fire can exist. Heat of ignition initiates the
chemical reaction that is called combustion. It can come from the flame of a match,
sparks caused by ferrous metals striking together, heat generated by friction, lightning, an
oxyacetylene torch cutting or welding metal, an electric short circuit, an electric arc
between conductors, or the overheating of an electric conductor or motor. Cooling is
used; to attack the triangle from this side

7.2.4 Chemical Reaction

The chemical reaction is the area between the previously mentioned three sides of
the fire triangle. It is a process that results in the inter-conversion of chemical substances.
The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction (fire in this case) are
called reactants. Chemical reactions are characterized by a chemical change, and they
yield one or more products which are, in general, different from the reactants. Classically,
chemical reactions encompass changes that strictly involve the motion of electrons in the
forming and breaking of chemical bonds, although the general concept of a chemical
reaction, in particular the notion of a chemical equation, is applicable to transformations
of elementary particles. This Chemical reaction is the area between the three sides of the
fire triangle

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7.2.4 Breaking Fire Triangle

To extinguish any fire, the fire triangle must be broken; this can be done if we
reverse the one of the actions that had formed the triangle. This reversing will cause
direct effect and also a secondary effect on the fire as shown in the following table:

Action to

Effect

Extinguish
This

reverses

Direct Effect
HEAT

action as it Reduces the


Cooling

temperature of the fuel


below

its

ignition

temperature
This will separate the fuel
Smothering away from the fire; and
thus it acts on fuel side

This procedure
directly attacks the
heat side of the fire
triangle

Also will cause


Cooling using
liquids (usually
water) will produce
steam that will
smother the fire

This procedure
directly attacks the
fuel side of the
triangle
Usually this will be

This
Starvation

amount

will

reduce
of

the

This procedure

done using

available

directly attacks

compressed inert

oxygen side of the

gas that will cause a

triangle

cooling effect while

oxygen below that needed


to sustain combustion

being released.

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7.2.5 Classes of Fire

There are four basic major categories of fires that may happen onboard ships
(labeled A through D) according to their fuels and they are called Classes of fire as
shown in the following table:

Class
A

Description
These are the fires that are caused by common flammable solid fuels or what
may be called "Ash Producing materials"

These are the fire caused by the flammable hydrocarbon liquids (such as oils)

These are the fires that are caused by electricity

These are the fires that are caused by combustible metals.

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7.3 Session Three: Theory of Fire, Definitions (Flammability, Ignition Point,


Burning Temperature, Thermal Value, LFL&UFL, Flammable Range, Flash Point)

7.3.1 Chemistry of Fire

Oxidation is a chemical process in which a substance combines with oxygen.


During this process, energy is given off, usually in the form of heat. Rusting iron and
rotting wood are common examples of slow oxidation. Fire, or combustion, is rapid
oxidation; the burning substance combines with oxygen at a very high rate. Energy is
given off in the form of heat and light. Because this energy production is so rapid, we
can feel the heat and see the light as flames.
All matter exists in one of three states:
1) Solid, The atoms or molecules of a solid are packed closely together.
2) Liquid, where we will find atoms or molecules of a liquid are packed loosely.
3) Gas (vapor), with its molecules are not packed together at all; they are free to
move about.

7.3.2 Burning
What is called burning is the rapid oxidation of millions of vapour molecules. The
molecules oxidize by breaking apart into individual atoms and recombining with oxygen
into new molecules. It is during the breaking-recombining process that energy is released
as heat and light.
The heat that is released is radiant heat, which is pure energy. It is the same sort of
energy that the sun radiates and that we feel as heat. It radiates, or travels, in all
directions. Therefore, part of it moves back to the seat of the fire, to the "burning" solid
or liquid (the fuel)
The heat that radiates back to the fuel is called radiation feedback. Part of this heat
releases more vapour and part of it raises the vapour to the ignition temperature. At the
same time, air is drawn into the area where the flames and vapour meet. The result is that
there is an increase in flames as the newly formed vapour begins to burn.

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7.3.3 Start of a Fire

In order for a substance to oxidize, its molecules must be very surrounded by


oxygen molecules. The molecules of solids and liquids are packed too tight to be
surrounded by oxygen molecules.
Therefore, only vapors can burn
When a solid or liquid is heated, its molecules move rapidly. If enough heat is
applied, some molecules break away from the surface to form a vapor just above the
surface. This vapor can now mix with oxygen. If there is enough heat to raise the
vapor to its ignition temperature, and if there is enough oxygen present, the vapor will
oxidize rapidly and it will start to burn.

7.3.4.1 Definitions: Flammability

This can be described as the ease with which a substance will ignite , causing Fire
or combustion. Materials that will ignite at temperatures commonly encountered (up to
750 C) are considered flammable. Materials that ignite in less than 23 C are considered
highly flammable.

7.3.4.2 Definitions: Ignition point

This is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture with air.
At this temperature the vapor may cease to burn when the source of ignition is removed.

7.3.4.3 Definitions: Burning Temperature

Sometimes called "The fire point of a fuel" and it is the temperature at which it
will continue to burn after ignition for at least 5 seconds.

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7.3.4.4 Definitions: Thermal value

The amount of heat released per unit mass or unit volume of a substance when the
substance is completely burned.

7.3.4.5 Definitions: LFL (Lower Flammable Limit)

This is the point below which the mixture of substance and air lacks sufficient
fuel (substance) to burn. This is sometimes called the lower explosive limit (LEL).

7.3.4.6 Definitions: UFL (Upper Flammable Limit)

This is the point above which the mixture of substance and air is too rich in fuel
(deficient in oxygen) to burn. This is sometimes called the upper explosive limit (UEL).

7.3.4.7 Definitions: Flammable limits (Flammable Range)

Flammable limits apply generally to vapors and are defined as the concentration
range in which a flammable substance can produce a fire or explosion when an ignition
source (such as a spark or open flame) is present. The concentration is generally
expressed as percent fuel by volume.

7.3.4.8 Definitions: Flash point

This is the lowest temperature at which a liquid can form an ignitable mixture in
air near the surface of the liquid. The lower the flash point, the easier it is to ignite the
material.

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7.4 Session Four: Fire Hazards (Ignition Sources, Fire Spreading, Classification of
Fire) and Fire Prevention

7.4.1 Ignition Source

Ignition occurs when the heat is enough to sustain burning. The initial source of
heat is the Ignition Source which may be an external source like flame or spark or an
eternal source such as internal combustion.
The fire will start when the temperature of the ignition source is equal or higher than the
flash point of the fuel.

7.4.2 Fire Spreading

The fire will always keep spreading as long as the three sides of the fire
triangle exist. To control the fire; one of the three sides must be removed as discussed
before.

7.4.3 Classes of Fire

The class of fire depends on its fuel and there are Four main classes of fire
onboard ships as follows:
Class A (Ash producing materials)
Class B (Hydrocarbon Liquids)
Class C (Electrical Fire)
Class D (Metals)

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7.4.3.1 Class A

Some times this class is defined as the ash producers or the materials that
will produce ash when burned. Examples of such materials are: wood, paper, cotton,
cardboard etc. The best way to extinguish such fires is cooling using water as an
extinguishing agent.

The best extinguishing agent is water.

7.4.3.2 Class B
This class is the fires that start in a hydrocarbon liquid. Examples of such
materials are: gasoline, oil, benzene etc. The best way to extinguish such fires is
smothering using foam as an extinguishing agent hence water can not be used as such
hydrocarbon liquids have lighter density and will float on top of the water continuing
to burn.

JET WATER CAN NOT BE USED as an extinguishing agent.

7.4.3.3 Class C

This class is the fires that starts due to electricity: whether due to overload or
short circuit in radar or motors. Thus we can sub-divide them into electronics and
electrical. The best way to extinguish fire in electronics is using inert gases (CO2,
HALON etc.) as it leaves no residues while fires in electrical equipments may be
extinguished using Dry Powder.

LIQUIDS CAN NOT BE USED as extinguishing agent for fear of electrical


shock.

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7.4.3.4 Class D

This class is the fires in metals, such as: Sodium, magnesium, aluminum
etc. Hence may fire in metals may excite and become worse when subjected to water,
The best way to extinguish fire in metals is either using Multi purpose dry powder
or cooling the area of fire from a point far from flames using inert gases (CO2,
HALON etc.) as it leaves no residues while fires in electrical equipments may be
extinguished using Dry Powder.

WATER CAN NOT BE USED DIRECTLY as some fiery metals may excite.

7.4.4 How to extinguish the FIRE

Always imagine the word FIRE as acronym as:

Find the source of fire


Use human normal senses of heat, smell, vision etc
When you hear/see a fire alarm (whether manual or automatic) is raised. Or
Find the position from the Panel of the fire detector

Isolate fire from spreading by cutting off fuel/electricity/oxygen


Cut off electricity from the area afire using switchboard
Cut off fuel if you have fire in engine room using Quick Shut valves
Minimize the air flow to the place of fire by putting the fans off and by
closing the dampers.

Raise alarm to draw attention to the fire


SOLAS requires that Fire Alarms are every where in the ship, if the
automatic ones didnt work for any reason, use manual fire alarm, use
telephone or shout or hail. Whatever it takes to let the others know that there
is a fire onboard.

Escape if you dont have help for a major fires or Extinguish minor fires.
If the fire is major, dont risk your own safety and wait for help, but if the
fire is a minor one; start tackling the fire before it grow into a major one.

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8.0 Week Eight


Extinguishers and Fixed Systems

8.1 Session One: Portable/Semi Portable Fire Extinguishers (Water CO2)

Extinguishers may be categorized according to working theory (Chemical/


Mechanical), portability (portable/semi-portable), and type of extinguishing agent
(water/foam/gas/powder) or capacity of extinguishing agent. These mentioned above can
give us many sorts that we can find.

8.1.1 General Requirements

1) All fire extinguishers shall be of approved types and designs.


2) The capacity of required portable fluid extinguishers shall be not more than 13.5
liters and not less than 9 liters. Other extinguishers shall not be in excess of the
equivalent portability of the 13.5 liter fluid extinguisher and shall not be less than
the fire-extinguishing equivalent of a 9 liter (fluid extinguisher.
3) Spare charges shall be provided in accordance with requirements to be specified by
the Administration.
4) Fire extinguishers shall be periodically examined and subjected to such tests as the
Administration may require.
5) One of the portable fire extinguishers intended for use in any space shall be stowed
near the entrance to that space.

8.1.1.1 "PASS" Rule for Using All Extinguishers

Always remember "PASS" rule when using any type of the fire extinguishers where:
P = Pull out safety pin,
A = Aim the nozzle or hose at the base of the fire from the recommended safe
distance;

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S = Squeeze the operation lever to discharge the extinguishing agent; and


S = Sweep the outlet of the extinguishing agent from side to side around the fire area.
(Watch out for reigniting).

8.1.2 Water Fire Extinguisher

This type can be either: A Chemical water extinguisher; or Mechanical water


extinguisher.

The first depends on chemical reaction between acid and alkaline fluids, resulting
pressurizing CO2, salt and water.

The second depends on cartridge filled with CO2 that will pressurize the water out.

8.1.2.1 Using Chemical water Extinguisher

This type does not have a hose.

1- Take the extinguisher from its storing position.


2- Remove safety pin.
3- Press down the pressing knob then turn the extinguisher up side down with several
shakes.
4- Aim the outlet to the base of fire.
5- Sweep back and forth at the base of fire till you extinguish the fire being aware of
re-ignition.

8.1.2.2 Using Mechanical water Extinguisher

This type has a hose and nozzle


1- Take the extinguisher from its storing position.
2- Remove safety pin.
3- Press down the pressing handle so as to punch crate the CO2 cartridge.
4- Aim the Nozzle to the base of fire.

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5- Sweep back and forth at the base of fire till you extinguish the fire being aware of
re-ignition.

8.1.3 Inert Gas Fire Extinguisher

This type is always Mechanical type and it can be filled with either:
1) CO2.
2) HALON.
Both depends on pressurizing the whole cylinder with Inert Gas, and both have the
advantage of being used on several occasion till the extinguisher is emptied.

8.1.3.1 Using CO2 Extinguisher

This Extinguisher has a hose and distinguishable big nozzle


1- Take the extinguisher from its storing position.
2- Remove safety pin.
3- Aim the nozzle to the base of fire.
4- Push the handle down to release the CO2 out.
5- Sweep back and forth at the base of fire till you extinguish the fire being aware of
re-ignition.

8.1.3.2 Using HALON Extinguisher

HALON is very expensive and very rare to be found on board ships, though that it
was widely used in the past so it may be found onboard some ships as a fixed system.
Use it in the same way as CO2 fixed system.

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8.2 Session Two: Portable/Semi Portable Fire Extinguishers (Powder Foam)

8.2.1 Dry powder Fire Extinguisher

This type is always Mechanical type and it can be either:


1) Pressurized Extinguisher.
2) Pressurized with CO2 cartridge.

The first depends on pressurizing the whole cylinder with CO2 gas which has a
good advantage that it can be used on several occasions till the extinguisher is emptied.
The second depends on cartridge filled with CO2 that will pressurize the dry powder out.

8.2.1.1 Using Pressurized Powder Extinguisher

This Extinguisher has a pressure gauge to indicate the pressure inside.


1- Take the extinguisher from its storing position.
2- Remove safety pin.
3- Aim the nozzle to the base of fire.
4- Push the handle down to release the Powder/CO2 mixture out.
5- Sweep back and forth at the base of fire till you extinguish the fire being aware of
re-ignition.

8.2.1.1 Using Powder Extinguisher with CO2 cartridge

1- Take the extinguisher from its storing position.


2- Remove safety pin.
3- Aim the nozzle to the base of fire.
4- Press down the pressing handle so as to punch crate the CO2 cartridge.
5- Sweep back and forth at the base of fire till you extinguish the fire being aware of
re-ignition.

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8.2.2 Foam Extinguisher

This type can be either:


1) Chemical Foam extinguisher
2) Mechanical Foam extinguisher.
The first depends on chemical reaction between Chemical A & Chemical B resulting
pressurising CO2 and Foam. The second depends on cartridge filled with CO2 that will
pressurize the ready made foam out.

8.2.2.1 Using Chemical Foam Extinguisher

This type does not have a hose.


1- Take the extinguisher from its storing position.
2- Remove safety pin.
3- Press down the pressing knob then turn the extinguisher up side down with several
shakes.
4- Aim the outlet to the base of fire.
5- Sweep back and forth on any surface that may absorbs the shock of the fluid so the
extinguishing liquid covers the fire smoothly till you extinguish the fire being
aware of re-ignition.

8.2.2.2 Using Mechanical Foam Extinguisher

This type has a hose and a nozzle.


1- Take the extinguisher from its storing position.
2- Remove safety pin.
3- Aim the nozzle to the base of fire.
4- Press down the pressing handle so as to punch crate the CO2 cartridge.
5- Sweep back and forth on any surface that may absorbs the shock of the fluid so the
extinguishing liquid covers the fire smoothly till you extinguish the fire being
aware of re-ignition.

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8.3 Session Three: Fixed Extinguishing System (Fire Main - Fire Box - Fire Hose &
Nozzle)

8.3.1 Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems

These are fixed stations that are built in the ship and are connected to the areas
that require protection. The type of the fixed installation and the extinguishing agent in
use will depend on the nature of the area to be protected.
Ships may have one or more of the following fixed systems:

Fire Main

Sprinkler system

CO2 fixed system

Foam fixed System

8.3.1.1 Fire Pumps & Fire Mains

1) It will be noted that the capacity of the fire pump (amount of water delivered) is
related to the capacity of the Bilge pump (amount of water pumped out), the
relation is 2/3 in passenger ship and 4/3 in cargo ships respectively.
2) The fire pumps shall be independently driven. Sanitary, ballast, bilge or general
service pumps may be accepted as fire pumps, provided that they are not normally
used for pumping oil and that if they are subject to occasional duty for the transfer
or pumping of fuel oil, suitable change-over arrangements are fitted.
3) Relief valves shall be provided in conjunction with all fire pumps if the pumps are
capable of developing a pressure exceeding the design pressure of the water
service pipes, hydrants and hoses. These valves shall be so placed and adjusted as
to prevent excessive pressure in any part of the fire main system.

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8.3.1.1.1 Materials Used

Materials readily rendered ineffective by heat shall not be used for fire mains and
hydrants unless adequately protected. The pipes and hydrants shall be so placed that the
fire hoses may be easily coupled to them.

8.3.1.1.2 Number and Position of Hydrants

The number and position of the hydrants shall be such that at least two jets of
water not emanating from the same hydrant, one of which shall be from a single length of
hose, may reach any part of the ship normally accessible to the passengers or crew while
the ship is being navigated.

8.3.1.2 Pipes and Hydrants

1) Materials readily rendered ineffective by heat shall not be used for fire mains
and hydrants unless adequately protected.
2) The pipes and hydrants shall be so placed that the fire hoses may be easily
coupled to them.
3) Unless there is provided one hose and nozzle for each hydrant in the ship,
there shall be complete interchangeability of hose couplings and nozzles.
4) A cock or valve (usually called Hydrant) shall be fitted to serve each fire hose
so that any fire hose may be removed while the fire pumps are at work.

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8.3.1.3 Fire Hoses

1) Fire hoses shall be of material approved by the Administration and sufficient


in length to project a jet of water to any of the spaces in which they may be
required to be used.
2) Their maximum length shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.
3) Each hose shall be provided with a nozzle and the necessary couplings.

8.3.1.4 Nozzles

1) Standard nozzle sizes shall be 12 millimeters, 16 millimeters, and 19


millimeters or as near thereto as possible. Larger diameter nozzles may be
permitted at the discretion of the Administration.
2) For accommodation and service spaces, a nozzle size greater than 12
millimeters need not be used.
3) For machinery spaces and exterior locations, the nozzle size shall be such as
to obtain the maximum discharge possible from two jets at the required
pressure, provided that a nozzle size greater than 19 millimeters need not be
used and the nozzle used have to be capable of spraying water on oil or
alternatively shall be of a dual purpose type.

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8.3.1.5.1 Hoses & Nozzles Using Techniques

The angel of the water out from the nozzle will give different name and certain
characteristics that should be understood by the user of the hose, this can be as follows:

Full Shielding

The angle of the water is 90 or more. It gives personnel protection from


radiant heat and may be used in combination attacks.

CAUTION: if too close to the flames, the vortex effect will suck the fire
towards the nozzle.

Wide Fog

The angle of the water is about 60. Best to be used for close up attacks;
and for indirect application. Indirect means applying very short duration
bursts into the thermal layer above the fire. This aids extinguishment without
disturbing the thermal balance. A direct attack, i.e. onto the fire, may disturb
this balance and bring the heat gathered at the deck head down around the fire
fighters, to their discomfort, if not injury.

Narrow Fog
The angle of the water is about 30

Broken Stream
The angle of the water is about 15.This is good for attacks from a distance on
incipient fires or when cooling is required. It can be described as a balance
between straight stream and fog.

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Straight Stream (Jet Stream)


The angle of the water is zero. The distance and reach gives safety. Excellent
for overhauling Class A fires where penetration and break up of debris is
desired. Not to be used on interior attacks until the heat has been controlled by
indirect attacks and dissipated through ventilation.
CAUTION: NOT to be used on oil fires.

Spray stream

Jet stream

Difficult to aim.

Can be aimed with better accuracy.

Limited reach.

Has a good reach.

Excellent cooling effect.

Must hit the seat of fire to cool

Much steam is generated.

Less amount of Run-Off water (most

Run-off water may be extensive.

of the water vaporize into steam).

Very little steam is generated.

Can push fire and smoke.

Does not need to hit the seat of fire to

effectively.

be effective

Comparing characteristics of jet and spray streams

8.3.1.6 Fire Box

Such boxes are either built-in while the ship is being built or may be wall
mounted (especially on open decks), they are of red color with letter F or word FIRE
written on it as a label. The box will be fitted with a fixed place (rack) or a hose reel to
facilitate the movement of hose out wards to the fire position. A typical "Fire Box" may
also contain: Fire Axe
Fire axes is required to be carried on board ships, the usual type is the pickup axe with a wooden handle as it also can act as a wrenching lever when
the fire fighting persons try to break in closed spaces.

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Hose Wrench
Hence, the hydrant, hose and nozzle will be very wet; it will be very
difficult to connect or disconnect them together and a special wrench is used
for some types of connectors.

Valve Spanner
It is obvious that there must be a coupling at each end of any hose so the
hose can be connected to the hydrant and nozzle or may be two hoses
together for more length.

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8.4 Session Four: Fixed extinguishing system (sprinkler CO2 foam)

8.4.1 Automatic Sprinkler Systems

The sprinkler is the spray nozzle which distributes water over a defined fire
hazard area. Each sprinkler operates by actuation of its own temperature linkage. The
typical sprinkler consists of a frame, thermal operated linkage, cap, orifice, and deflector.
Styles of each component may vary but the basic principles of each remain the same.

8.4.2 General Requirement

1- Any required automatic sprinkler and fire alarm and fire detection system shall be
capable of immediate operation at all times and no action by the crew shall be
necessary to set it in operation.
2- Any parts of the system which may be subjected to freezing temperatures in service
shall be suitably protected against freezing. It shall be kept charged at the necessary
pressure and shall have provision for a continuous supply of water as required.
3- Each section of sprinklers shall include means for giving a visual and audible alarm
signal automatically at one or more indicating units whenever any sprinkler comes
into operation.
4-Sprinklers shall be grouped into separate sections, each of which shall contain not more
than 200 sprinklers. Any section of sprinklers shall not serve more than two decks
and shall not be situated in more than one main vertical zone.
5- Each section of sprinklers shall be capable of being isolated by one stop valve only.
6-A gauge indicating the pressure in the system shall be provided at each section stop
valve and at a central station.
7- The sprinklers shall be resistant to corrosion by marine atmosphere.
8- In accommodation and service spaces the sprinklers shall come into operation within
the temperature range of 68deg.C and 79deg.C, except that in locations such as drying
rooms, where high temperatures might be expected.

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9-A list or plan shall be displayed at each indicating unit showing the spaces covered and
the location of the zone in respect of each section. Suitable instructions for testing and
maintenance shall be available.
10- Sprinklers shall be placed in an overhead position and spaced in a suitable pattern to
maintain an average application rate of not less than 5 liters per square meter per
minute over the nominal area covered by the sprinklers.
11-A list or plan shall be displayed at each indicating unit showing the spaces covered
and the location of the zone in respect of each section. Suitable instructions for testing
and maintenance shall be available.
12- A test valve shall be provided for testing the automatic alarm for each section of
sprinklers by a discharge of water equivalent to the operation of one sprinkler. The
test valve for each section shall be situated near the stop valve for that section.
13-Means shall be provided for testing the automatic operation of the pump, on reduction
of pressure in the system.
14- Spare sprinkler heads shall be provided for each section of sprinklers to the
satisfaction of the Administration.

8.4.3 Fixed CO2 General Requirements

1- The use of a fire-extinguishing medium which, in the opinion of the Administration,


either by itself or under expected conditions of use gives off toxic gases in such
quantities as to endanger persons shall not be permitted.
2- In general, the Administration shall not permit the use of steam as a fire-extinguishing
medium in fixed fire-extinguishing systems of new ships. Where the use of steam is
permitted by the Administration it shall be used only in restricted areas as an addition
to the required fire-extinguishing medium and with the proviso that the boiler or
boilers available for supplying steam shall have an evaporation of at least 1 kilograms
of steam per hour for each 0.75 cubic meters (1 pound of steam per hour per 12 cubic
feet) of the gross volume of the largest space so protected. In addition to complying
with the foregoing requirements the systems in all respects shall be as determined by,
and to the satisfaction of the Administration.

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3- When carbon dioxide is used as the extinguishing medium in cargo spaces, the
quantity of gas available shall be sufficient to give a minimum volume of free gas
equal to 30 per cent of the gross volume of the largest cargo compartment in the ship
which is capable of being sealed.
4- Means shall be provided for automatically giving audible warning of the release of
fire-extinguishing gas into any space to which personnel normally have access. The
alarm shall operate for a suitable period before the gas is released.
5-The means of control of any such fixed gas fire-extinguishing system shall be readily
accessible and simple to operate and shall be grouped together in as few locations as
possible at positions not likely to be cut off by a fire in the protected space.

8.4.4 Fixed Foam System

Fire Fighting Foam is used to form a blanket on the surface of flaming liquids,
including oils. The blanket of foam keeps flammable vapors from leaving the surface and
keeps oxygen from reaching the fuel. Fire can not exist when the fuel and oxygen are
separated. The water which is one components of the foam has cooling effect, which
gives foam its capability for extinguishing class A fires.

The ideal foam solution should flow freely enough to cover a surface rapidly, yet
stick together enough to provide and maintain a vapor-tight blanket. The solution must
retain enough water to provide a long-lasting seal. Rapid loss of water would cause the
foam to dry out and break down (wither) from the high temperatures associated with fire.
The foam should be light enough to float on flammable liquids, yet heavy enough to
resist winds.
The quality of foam is generally defined in terms of its 25 percent drainage time, its
expansion ratio, and its ability to withstand heat (burn-back resistance). These qualities
are influenced by:
1) The chemical nature of the foam concentrates.
2) The temperature and pressure of the water.
3) The efficiency of the foam-making device.

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Foams that lose their water rapidly are the most fluid and so fast spreading. They flow
around obstructions freely and spread quickly. Such foams would be useful in engine
room or machinery space fires. They would be able to flow under and around machinery,
floor plates, and other obstructions. The two basic types of foam are chemical and
mechanical.
Foam can be formed as chemical foam by mixing an alkali (usually sodium bicarbonate)
with an acid (usually aluminum sulphate) in water. When chemical foam was first
introduced, these substances were stored in separate containers. They are now combined
in a sealed, airtight container. A stabilizer is added to make the foam tenacious and longlived. When these chemicals react, they form a foam or froth of bubbles filled with
carbon dioxide gas. The carbon dioxide in the bubbles has little or no extinguishing
value. Its only purpose is to inflate the bubbles. From 7 to 16 volumes of foam are
produced for each volume of water.

8.4.4.1 Mechanical foam

This type is produced by mixing a foam concentrate with water to produce a foam
solution. The turbulent mixing of air and the foam solution produces bubbles. As the
name air foam implies, the bubbles are filled with air. Aside from the workmanship and
efficiency of the equipment, the degree of mixing determines the quality of the foam. The
design of the equipment determines the quantity of foam produced.

8.4.4.2 Aqueous film-forming foam

This foam was developed by the US Naval Research Laboratory to be used in a


twinned system: a flammable liquid fire would be quickly knocked down with a dry
chemical; then AFFF would be applied to prevent re-ignition. However, the AFFF proved
more effective than expected, and it is now used without the dry chemical.

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8.4.4.3 Chemical Foam

Foam can be formed as chemical foam by mixing an alkali (usually sodium


bicarbonate) with an acid (usually aluminum sulphate) in water. When chemical foam
was first introduced, these substances were stored in separate containers. They are now
combined in a sealed, airtight container. A stabilizer is added to make the foam tenacious
and long-lived. When these chemicals react, they form a foam or froth of bubbles filled
with carbon dioxide gas. The carbon dioxide in the bubbles has little or no extinguishing
value. Its only purpose is to inflate the bubbles. From 7 to 16 volumes of foam are
produced for each volume of water.

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9.0 Week Nine


Fire Detectors

9.1 Session One: Fire Detection (Smoke Detector Heat Detector)

9.1.1 Introduction

Fire is by far the most dangerous and devastating because it spreads extremely
fast and does not spare anything in its way.
It is a necessity today to have a fire detector and alarm onboard the ship as there are
some places that dont have manning during certain times. Such system would depend on
reading the fire signature and thus activate alarm to announce that there is a fire.

9.1.2 Fire Signature

From the moment at which the fire begins, several changes occur in the
surrounding environment due to the results of the oxidization process, these changes are
called the "fire signature" basically they are smoke, heat, light and gas. These are the
things that the detectors will discover and respond to.

9.1.3 Theory of Detectors

The fire is a chemical oxidization process that will result some heat, flame and smoke
thus fire detectors onboard ships will depend on reading the fire signature as follows:
1) Smoke Detectors
2) Heat Detector
3) Optical Flame Detector

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9.1.3.1 Smoke Detectors

Smoke detectors are detectors that sense the presence of smoke and can be identified
according to their operating principles into two main categories as:

1) Ionization Type

This type operates by using small amount of radioactive material (Americium 241) to
ionize the air within sensing chamber inside the detector. The ionized air will conduct
electricity between two electrodes and any reduction in conductivity will be sensed as a
fire signature. Although this type is the cheapest and the most sensitive (thus giving
more false alarms) But they are not popular due to environmental refuse.

2) Photoelectric Detectors

The Photoelectric Detectors can be divided into three types according to the operation
principles as

Light Obscuration Principle


This type operates by projecting a light beam onto a photosensitive device.
Any smoke that enters between the light source and the photosensitive device
will cause reduction in the amount of light received and eventually raises
alarm.

Light Scattering Principle


These detectors operate with a light source and photosensitive device. On the
contrary to the previous one; when smoke particles go inside the sensing
chamber, they reflect the light onto the photosensitive device causing the
detector to respond.

Cloud Chamber Principle

These detectors draw an air sample from the protected area into a high humidity
chamber in the detector making the air humid thus its pressure is lowered. If

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smoke particles enter the chamber; a cloud would form which will be sensed by
the photosensitive device and the detector would respond.

9.1.3.2 Heat Detectors

Thermal detection systems are designed to operate from the thermal output of a fire.
The heat generated is dissipated throughout the area by laminar and turbulent convective
heat flows created by heated gases. Turbulent flow is induced and regulated by the fire
plume thermal column effect of heated air and gases above the fire surface. The fire plume
characteristics and the ceiling jet flow of convective heated gases are determined by the
heat release rate of the diffusion flame combustion and ceiling height.
A

heat detectors sensitivity to a given fire situation depends on the gas

temperature which is related to the ceiling height, the radial position of the detector, and the
fires heat release rate.

Heat detectors are identified according to their operating principles, and are classified into
the following types:
1. Fixed Temperature Detectors
2. Rate-of-Rise Detectors
3. Rate compensated Detectors

9.1.3.2.1 Fixed Temperature Heat Detectors

Fixed temperature heat detectors are the simplest type of heat detector and are
designed to alarm when the sensing element reaches a predetermined temperature.
Generally, the surrounding air temperature must be considerably higher than the heat
detector rating in order to raise the heat detector element to the operating temperature.
This condition is known as thermal lag. Generally, fixed temperature heat detectors
are constructed with fusible element type, continuous line type and bimetal type.

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The Fusible Element type operates similar to a sprinkler head where a


eutectic metal melts at a predetermined temperature releasing a spring under
tension and initiates an alarm signal. This type of detector is a spot type
detector.

The Continuous Line type heat detector generally consists of parallel wires
separated by a heat resistive insulation. When the insulation melts away at a
predetermined temperature (from a fire), the wires come into contact and an
alarm is initiated

The Bimetal type heat detector relies on two joint metals with different
coefficient of expansion. When subjected to heat; each metal will expand at
different rate and the bimetal will deflect toward the metal with lower
coefficient of expansion, such deflection is designed to close electrical circuit
and raise the alarm.

9.1.3.2.2 Rate-of Rise Heat Detectors

Rate-of-rise heat detectors are designed to function when the rate of ambient
temperature increase exceeds a predetermined value, usually -11C 9.5C per minute.
These detectors are designed to accommodate normal changes in the ambient air
temperature, which are anticipated under normal (non-fire) conditions.
One type of rate-of-rise detector employs pneumatic tubing filled with air with a relief vent.
When the air is heated (within the normal conditions), the air will expand with the excess
volume exhausted through the vent port before the pressure can build. Air expanding at a
rate that exceeds the relief capacity of the vent, will build pressure and initiate an alarm.

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9.1.3.2.3 Rate Compensated Detectors

Rate compensated heat detectors are designed to initiate an alarm when the
temperature of the surrounding air reaches a predetermined level, regardless of the rate of
temperature rise.
The detector is essentially constructed with temperature sensitive contacts within a stainless
steel shell. The coefficient of expansion of the shell is different than the internal contacts.
This rapid increase in air temperature will cause the shell to expand before the internal
contacts, producing a signal (similar to a rate-of-rise detector). In the case of a slow heat
release rate from a fire, the unit (shell and internal contacts) heats up more evenly and
produces a signal at the predetermined temperature rating of the detector (similar to a fixed
temperature heat detector).

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9.2 Session Two: Fire Detection (Flame Detector General Requirement)

9.2.1 Optical Flame Detectors

Optical flame detectors are the fastest responding type of detector since these detectors
rely on the visible and invisible radiation given off from a heat source (and travels at the
speed of light), and are usually applied in high hazard areas such as fuel loading
platforms, industrial process

areas, hyperbaric chambers, vaults, high ceilings, and

atmospheres in which explosions or very rapid fires can occur. Flame detectors are
designed to respond to radiant energy both visible and invisible to the human eye.
Essentially, flame detectors must be located to "see" the fire so avoidance of obstructions
is critical. (One exception to this is the IR detector which can respond to reflected levels
of optical radiation. For instance, a fire out of the view of the detector can reflect optical
radiation off a wall which can be detected by the IR detector.) Basically, there are three
general types of optical flame detectors:

1. Infrared type flame detectors


2. Ultraviolet type flame detectors
3. Combination IR/UV type flame detectors

9.2.1.1 Infrared type flame Detectors

Infrared type flame detectors are normally used to protect large open areas where an
immediate, flame-producing fire is expected such as in the protection of flammable liquid
hazard. IR detectors are constructed essentially of a lens and filter system that screens out
unwanted wavelengths and focuses the incoming energy on a photovoltaic or other type
cell that is sensitive to infrared energy. These types of detectors often also measure the
infrared radiation emitted from a flame (spiking at the 4.3 micron peak radiation
wavelength due to the presence of concentrated carbon dioxide within the flame) and
characteristic flame flicker associated with the flaming mode of a fire that is in the

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5:30.Hz frequency range. Infrared detectors can be subject to interference and false
alarms from solar radiation if not properly applied. One method employed is to use
multiple IR detectors to measure the amount of radiation in two or more wavelength
bands to discriminate between a flame and other IR sources.

9.2.1.2 Ultraviolet (UV) Type Flame Detectors

Ultraviolet type flame detectors are designed to respond to optical radiation in the
ultraviolet wavelengths (wavelengths below 4,000 Angstrom1, usually in the 2800 - 3000
Angstrom range) primarily emitted by higher intensity flames. One drawback is that solar
radiation can extend to as low 2900 Angstrom, while the detector must be able to respond
to fire induced optical radiation below 2900 Angstrom. Most detectors manufactured are
effective in discriminating between solar and fire induced radiation. These detectors are
normally applied where the detector can be located reasonably close to the expected
ignition source and the background can be protected from other sources of ultraviolet
radiation. One notable application for UV detectors is for use in explosion suppression
systems. UV flame detectors are essentially solid state devices employing silicon carbide,
aluminum nitride, or gas filled tubes that measure the flame component wavelength range
between 0.17 - 0.30 microns2 which are insensitive to both sunlight and artificial light.
Combination (UV/IR) type flame detectors are flame detectors using both of the flamesensing principles described above for greater discrimination between fire and non-fire
radiation sources.

Combination (UV/IR) type flame detectors


Combination (UV/IR) type flame detectors are flame detectors using both of the
flame-sensing principles described above for greater discrimination between fire and
non-fire radiation sources.

1
2

Angstrom = 1 / 10,000,000,000 meter


1 micron = 1/1,000,000 meter

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9.2.2 General Requirements:

1) Any required automatic fire alarm and fire detection system shall be capable of
immediate operation at all times and no action of the crew shall be necessary to
set it in operation.
2) Each section of detectors shall include means for giving a visual and audible
alarm signal automatically at one or more indicating units whenever any detector
comes into operation. Such units shall give an indication of any fire and its
location in any space served by the system and shall be centralized on the
navigating bridge or in the main fire control station, which shall be so manned or
equipped as to ensure that any alarm from the system is immediately received by
a responsible member of the crew. Such alarm system shall be constructed to
indicate if any fault occurs in the system
3) Detectors shall be grouped into separate sections each covering not more than 50
rooms served by such a system and containing not more than 100 detectors. A
section of detectors shall not serve spaces on both the port and starboard sides of
the ship nor on more than one deck and neither shall it be situated in more than
one main vertical zone except that the Administration, if it is satisfied that the
protection of the ship against fire will not thereby be reduced, may permit such a
section of detectors to serve both the port and starboard sides of the ship and more
than one deck.
4) The system shall be operated by an abnormal air temperature, by an abnormal
concentration of smoke or by other factors indicative of incipient fire in any one
of the spaces to be protected. Systems which are sensitive to air temperature shall
not operate at less than 57deg.C and shall operate at a temperature not greater
than 74deg.C. When the temperature increase to those levels is not more than
1deg.C per minute. At the discretion of the Administration the permissible
temperature of operation may be increased to 30deg.C above the maximum deckhead temperature in drying rooms and similar places of a normally high ambient
temperature Systems which are sensitive to smoke concentration shall operate on
the reduction of the intensity of a transmitted light beam by an amount to be

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determined by the Administration. Other equally effective methods of operation


may be accepted at the discretion of the Administration. The detection system
shall not be used for any purpose other than fire detection.
5) The detectors may be arranged to operate the alarm by the opening or closing of
contacts or by other appropriate methods. They shall be fitted in an overhead
position and shall be suitably protected against impact and physical damage. They
shall be suitable for use in a marine atmosphere. They shall be placed in an open
position clear of beams and other objects likely to obstruct the flow of hot gases
or smoke to the sensitive element. Detectors operated by the closing of contacts
shall be of the sealed contact type and the circuit shall be continuously monitored
to indicate fault conditions.
6) At least one detector shall be installed in each space where detection facilities are
required and there shall be not less than one detector for each 37 square meters
(400 square feet) of deck area. In large spaces the detectors shall be arranged in a
regular pattern so that no detector is more than 9 meters (30 feet) from another
detector or more than 4.5 meters (15 feet) from a bulkhead.
7) There shall be not less than two sources of power supply for the electrical
equipment used in the operation of the fire alarm and fire detection system, one of
which shall be an emergency source. The supply shall be provided by separate
feeders reserved solely for that purpose. Such feeders shall run to a change-over
switch situated in the control station for the fire detection system. The wiring
system shall be so arranged to avoid galleys, machinery spaces and other enclosed
spaces having a high fire risk except in so far as it is necessary to provide for fire
detection in such spaces or to reach the appropriate switchboard.
8) A list or plan shall be displayed adjacent to each indicating unit showing the
spaces covered and the location of the zone in respect of each section. Suitable
instructions for testing and maintenance shall be available.
9) Provision shall be made for testing the correct operation of the detectors and the
indicating units by supplying means for applying hot air or smoke at detector
positions.

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10) Spare detector heads shall be provided for each section of detectors to the
satisfaction of the Administration.
11) The alarm system shall operate both audible and visible signals at the main
stations. Detection systems for cargo spaces need not have audible alarms.
12) In passenger ships electrical equipment used in the operation of required fire
detection systems shall have two separate sources of power, one of which shall be
an emergency source.
13) Wiring systems for interior communications essential for safety and for
emergency alarm systems shall be arranged to avoid galleys, machinery spaces
and other enclosed spaces having a high risk of fire except in so far as it is
necessary to provide communication or to give alarm within those spaces. In the
case of ships the construction and small size of which do not permit of
compliance with these requirements, measures satisfactory to the Administration
shall be taken to ensure efficient protection for these wiring systems where they
pass through galleys, machinery spaces and other enclosed spaces having a high
risk of fire.

9.2.2 Power Supply

Power supplies and electric circuits necessary for the operation of the system shall
be monitored for loss of power or fault conditions as appropriate. Occurrence of a fault
condition shall initiate a visual and audible fault signal at the control panel which shall be
distinct from a fire signal.
There shall be not less than two sources of power supply for the electrical equipment
used in the operation of the fire detection and fire alarm system, one of which shall be an
emergency source.

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9.3 Session Three: Fireman's Outfit

9.3.1 Introduction

This outfit is a suit designed to protect a firefighter from high temperatures, thus
enabling him to tackle the fire in order to extinguish it. They are manufactured from
vacuum deposited aluminized materials that reflect the high radiant loads produced by the
fire. (It must be distinguished from HAZMAT suit)
There are 3 basic types of these aluminized suits.

Approach suit (Ambient heat protection up to ~ 93.5C.)

Proximity suit (Kiln suit ambient protection ~ 537C and Proximity


ambient protection ~ 260C)

Entry suit used for entry into extreme heat and situations requiring
protection from total flame engulfment. Most commonly made of Fyrepel
and not aluminized. (Entry suit ambient protection ~ 815.5C for short
duration and prolonged radiant heat up to 1093.5C)

9.3.2 Fireman's Outfit

A fireman's outfit shall consist of:


1. Personal equipment comprising:
1.1 Protective clothing of material to protect the skin from the heat radiating
from the fire and from burns and scalding by steam. The outer surface
shall be water-resistant.
1.2 Boots and gloves of rubber or other electrically non-conducting material.
1.3 A rigid helmet providing effective protection against impact.
1.4 An electric safety lamp (hand lantern) of an approved type with a
minimum burning period of 3 h.
1.5 An axe to the satisfaction of the Administration
2. A breathing apparatus of an approved type.

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9.3.2 Storage of Fireman's Outfit

The fireman's outfits or sets of personal equipment shall be stored so stored as to be


easily accessible and ready for use and, where more than one fireman's outfit or more
than one set of personal equipment is carried, they shall be stored in widely separated
positions. The stores are to be connected to the emergency power source that ensures that
the store will be lightened for 18 hours in emergencies.
In passenger ships at least two fireman's outfits and one set of personal equipment shall
be available at any one position.

9.3.2 Number of Fireman's Outfits Onboard

The number to be carried depends on the classification of the ship, for cargo ships
1. At least two fireman's outfits shall be stored in each main vertical zone.
2. In passenger ships; there will be one for every 80 m, or part thereof, of the
aggregate of the lengths of all passenger spaces and service spaces on the deck
which carries such spaces or, if there is more than one such deck, on the deck
which has the largest aggregate of such lengths, two fireman's outfits and two sets
of personal equipment. In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, two
additional fireman's outfits shall be provided for each main vertical zone.

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9.4 Session Four: Fireman's Outfit

9.4.1 Introduction

A self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) is a device worn by firefighters or


rescue team, and others to provide breathable air in a hostile environment. The term "selfcontained" differentiates SCBA from other apparatus connected to a remote supply by a
long hose. If designed for use under water, it is called SCUBA, (self-contained
underwater breathing apparatus).
A self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) typically SCBA will be of the "positive
pressure" type, which supplies a slight steady stream of air to stop toxic fumes or smoke
from leaking into the mask.
SCBA has three main components: a high-pressure tank (e.g., 2200 psi1 to 4500 psi), a
pressure regulator, and an inhalation connection (mouthpiece, mouth mask or face mask),
connected together and mounted to a carrying frame.
There are two kinds of SCBA: open circuit and closed circuit. The one required to be
carried onboard ships is the open circuit type.

9.4.2 General Requirements for SCBA

A breathing apparatus of an approved type which may be either:


.1 A smoke helmet or smoke mask which shall be provided with a suitable air pump and a
length of air hose sufficient to reach from the open deck, well clear of hatch or
doorway, to any part of the holds or machinery spaces. If, in order to comply with this
subparagraph, an air hose exceeding 36 m in length would be necessary, a selfcontained breathing apparatus shall be substituted or provided in addition as
determined by the Administration; or
.2 A self-contained compressed-air-operated breathing apparatus, the volume of air
contained in the cylinders of which shall be at least 1,200 liter, or other self-contained
breathing apparatus which shall be capable of functioning for at least 30 min. A
1

Pounds per Square Inch unit for measuring pressure

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number of spare charges, suitable for use with the apparatus provided, shall be
available on board to the satisfaction of the Administration. In passenger ships
carrying more than 36 passengers, at least two spare charges for each breathing
apparatus shall be provided, and all air cylinders for breathing apparatus shall be
interchangeable.

9.4.3 Attachments to Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)

For each breathing apparatus a fireproof lifeline of sufficient length and strength shall
be provided capable of being attached by means of a snap-hook to the harness of the
apparatus or to a separate belt in order to prevent the breathing apparatus becoming
detached when the lifeline is operated.

9.4.4 Fog Applicator

Though is not related directly to the fire suit, but every ship must carry at least
three fog applicators for the protection of special Special category spaces. A water fog
applicator might consist of a metal "L"-shaped pipe, fitted with a fixed water fog nozzle
or capable of being fitted with a water spray nozzle.

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10.0 Week Ten


Extinguishing fire onboard and Muster List

10.1 Session One: Extinguishing Different Types of Fire

10.1.1 Extinguishing Agent

Attacking the fire depends on its class; this will govern the best action to be taken
and thus the best Extinguishing Agent to be used.
Each of the extinguishing agents has its advantages and limitations according to
the class of the fire (type of fuel) and the technique of which side of the triangle to attack
(action on fire), it is important to know which is the best agent to use with this class of
fire before starting using the agent.
This can be found from the following tables

Class D

Materials
liquids
electrical

Ash Producing

Best Action to Extinguish

Extinguishing Agent

(in order)
1) Cooling

Water / Foam

2) Starvation

Cutting fuel

3) Smothering

CO2

4) Breaking Chain reaction

Dry Powder

1) Smothering

Foam

2) Cooling

Foam / water spray

3) Starvation

Foam

4) Breaking Chain reaction

Multi Purpose Dry Powder

1) Smothering

CO2

2) Cooling

CO2

3) Starvation

Multi Purpose Dry Powder

4) Breaking Chain reaction

Multi Purpose Dry Powder

1) Smothering

Multi Purpose Dry Powder

2) Breaking Chain reaction

Multi Purpose Dry Powder

Class C

Hydrocarbon

Class B

Electricity and

Class A

Fuel

Metal

Class

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Understanding the types of fires and the extinguishing agents will guide the fire
fighter to choose the best method to attack the fire.

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10.2 Session Two: Fire Station and Muster List

10.2.1 Fire drills

Fire drills should be planned in such a way that due consideration is given to regular
practice in the various emergencies that may occur depending on the type of ships and the
cargo.

Each fire drill shall include:


.1 Reporting to stations and preparing for the duties described in the muster list;
.2 Starting of a fire pump, using at least the two required jets of water to show
that the system is in proper working order;
.3 Checking of fireman's outfit and other personal rescue equipment;
.4 Checking of relevant communication equipment;
.5 Checking the operation of watertight doors, fire doors, fire dampers and main
inlets and outlets of ventilation systems in the drill area; and
.6 Checking the necessary arrangements for subsequent abandoning of the ship.

The equipment used during drills shall immediately be brought back to its fully
operational condition and any faults and defects discovered during the drills shall be
remedied as soon as possible.

10.2.2 On-board training and instructions

.1 On-board training in the use of the ship's life-saving appliances, including survival
craft equipment, and in the use of the ship's fire extinguishing appliances shall be given
as soon as possible but not later than two weeks after a crew member joins the ship.
However, if the crew member is on a regularly scheduled rotating assignment to the ship,
such training shall be given not later than two weeks after the time of first joining the
ship. Instructions in the use of the ship's fire-extinguishing appliances, life-saving
appliances, and in survival at sea shall be given at the same interval as the drills.

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Individual instruction may cover different parts of the ship's life-saving and fireextinguishing appliances, but all the ship's life-saving and fire-extinguishing appliances
shall be covered within any period of two months.
.2 Every crew member shall be given instructions which shall include but not necessarily
be limited to:
.1 operation and use of the ship's inflatable life rafts;
.2 problems of hypothermia, first-aid treatment for hypothermia and other
appropriate first-aid procedures;
.3 special instructions necessary for use of the ship's life-saving appliances in
severe weather and severe sea conditions; and
.4 operation and use of fire-extinguishing appliances.
.3 On-board training in the use of davit-launched life rafts shall take place at intervals of
not more than four months on every ship fitted with such appliances. Whenever
practicable this shall include the inflation and lowering of a life raft. This life raft may be
a special life raft intended for training purposes only, which is not part of the ship's lifesaving equipment; such a special life raft shall be conspicuously marked.

Maritime Safety - Fire Fighting Hand out

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