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Air

Conditioning System Design

CHAPTER I
Introduction
HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) is the technology of indoor and
automotive environmental comfort. HVAC system design is a major sub discipline
of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics,
and heat transfer. Refrigeration is sometimes added to the field's abbreviation as
HVAC&R or HVACR, or ventilating is dropped as in HACR (such as the designation of
HACR-rated circuit breakers).
HVAC is important in the design of medium to large industrial and office buildings
such as skyscrapers and in marine environments such as aquariums, where safe
and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity,
using fresh air from outdoors (Wikipedia).
In our daily life situations, air-conditioning system place an important role. It serves
as a sense of relaxation, gives comfort to human bodies, regulates the temperature in
working places and many others. Generally speaking, air-conditioning system is the way
of conditioning the air insid e of a system to provide the necessary quality of air. This
research aims to provide the way of designing an air-conditioning system by the use of
duct system and the calculation on proper derivation of sizes in each duct to be able to
balance the flow of air.
Air conditioning generally is understood to mean the simultaneous control of
temperature, relative humidity, air motion, air distribution, and ventilation within an
enclosure. Air-conditioning system are used in theaters, churches, auditoriums, schools,
restaurants, offices, homes, etc., to produce of effect comfort for occupants by
maintaining a temperature and relative humidity which will lie in the so-called comfort
zone (Kent, 1895).

Air Conditioning System Design

CHAPTER II
CALL CENTER AIR CONDITIONING SITE

Isometric View Layout


The Figure shows the plan of call center site where an air conditioning system is
to be installed, the air conditioning site dimensions are needed for the computation of
cooling load of the system.

Figure 2.1: Layout for Air Conditioning Area

Air Conditioning System Design

Top View Layout


Figure 2.2 shows the layout of the call center site in top view. The measurements
in meters will be used for the surface area that is essential for calculating the heat loads
in the walls.
Measurements in meters

Figure 2.2: Floor Layout of the Air Conditioning Site

Air Conditioning System Design

Glass Door
The maindoor is made up of a double glass door with patch and fittings, opposite
slide opening, it is made of tempered glass 9 millimeters thick to acquire higher heating
resistance.

Figure 3.3: Glass Door Dimensions

Air Conditioning System Design

CHAPTER III
COOLING LOAD CALCULATION
This chapter focuses on the cooling load computations that are present in the
following area for application of air conditioning system. It includes heat transmissions on
walls, windows and doors. Also the heat gain from the lightings, people, solar heat,
appliances and many others. These values are needed for acquiring the appropriate
capacity of an air conditioning unit.

I. Sensible Heat Loads


a. Thermal Transmission
These are the heat transferred through the structure due to temperature difference
from the environment, from high temperature to low temperature for air conditioning
system.

Exterior Walls
Table 3.1: Specification of Exterior Walls
Material
Cement plaster
Light weight
aggregate
Internal
conductance
Outside
conductance

Description
16 mm
200 mm
Surface emissivity
of 0.9
Heating season,
6.7 m/s

source: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by: Stoecker pg.68

1.39
0.38
0.120
0.029

Air Conditioning System Design

Figure 3.1: Wall insulation materials


Thermal Coefficient

0.02
.

0.12

1
1.39 0.016 2

0.38

Ceiling Insulations
Table 3.2: Specification of Ceiling Insulations
Material

Description
/

Gypsum board
Concrete (sand
and gravel)
Air Space
Internal
conductance
Outside
conductance

16mm
200 mm
Surface
emissivity of 0.9
Heating season,
6.7 m/s

source: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by: Stoecker pg.68

/ ,

1.39
0.18
0.170
0.120
0.029

Air Conditioning System Design

Figure 3.2: Ceiling insulation materials


Thermal Coefficient

Window Glass
Table 3.3: Specification of Window Glass
Material
Single glass

Description
6 mm, heat absorbing

5.9

U,

source: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by: Stoecker pg.69

Thermal Coefficient

Doors
Table 3.4: Specification of Glass door
Material
Tempered glass door

Description
9 mm

source: http://www.aisglass.com/flat_tempered.asp#5

U,

5.7

Air Conditioning System Design

Figure 3.3: Glass door materials


Thermal Coefficient

Summary of Thermal Coefficients


The summary of all the necessary thermal heat conductivity is tabulate in
Table 3.5 for the computation of heat load.

Transmissions
Exterior walls
Ceiling insulation
Window glass
Glass door


0.47
1.91
5.90
5.70

Heat Gain on the Exterior


In the computation of heat load in the exterior sides, the following values are
needed namely, thermal conductivity, ambient temperature, desired temperature and
cross sectional area.

Air Conditioning System Design

Temperature Standards
Table 3.6: Temperatures Standards for Design
Classification
Ambient temperature
(b)
Desired temperature

(a)

source:

Temperature ( C )
35
25

(a) http://mb.com.ph/node/357745/heat-wave-not-likely
(b) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by Stoecker and Jones pg.65

Transmission Dimensions
Figure 3.4 shows the diagram of the transmission blocks involve in thermal heat
gain of the exterior sides. The orientation are presented base on its sides for computation
purposes.

Figure 3.4: Transmission Diagram

Table 3.7: Dimension of Transmission Materials


Transmission Block
Wall A and C
Wall B and D
Ceiling
Windows
Doors

Length, m
30
80
80
3
3

Width, m
6
6
30
2
1.5

Area ( m2 )
180
480
2400
6
4.5

Air Conditioning System Design

Transmission Areas
Nomenclature:

~ Area

Exterior Walls:
A exterior wall = A wall A + A wall B + A wall C + A wall D
A Wall A = 180 4(A window)
A Wall A = 156 m2
A Wall B = 480 4(A door)
A Wall B = 462 m2
A Wall C = 180 4(A window)
A Wall C = 156 m2
A Wall D = 480 8(A window) 2(A door)
A Wall D = 423 m2
A exterior wall = 156 m2 + 462 m2 + 156 m2 + 432 m2
A exterior wall = 1197 m2
Ceiling:
AC = 80 x 30
AC = 2400 m2
Windows:
A window = A window + no. of glasses
A window = 6 m2 x 16
A window = 96 m2
Doors:
Adoor = 2 x Adoor
Adoor = 6 x 4.5 m2
Adoor = 27 m2

10

Air Conditioning System Design

11

Table 3.8: Summary of Transmission Areas


Total Area ( m2 )
1197
2400
96
27

Transmissions
Exterior wall
Ceiling
Window glass
Glass Door
Heat Gain

For the computations of heat gain through external walls the following formula for
Q will be used. The total value of heat load in the system will be used to acquire the
appropriate capacity of an air conditioning unit.

Nomenclature:

Q ~ Heat Gain, W
U ~ Overall thermal coefficient; W/m2 0C
A ~ Area of the wall, ground floor, floor, or roof; m2
T ~ Thermal difference, 0C

Exterior Walls

1.7715

21204.86

1197

35

25

Ceiling

1.91

45,840

2400

35

Windows Glass

5.9

5664

96

35

25

27

35

25

Glass Door

5.7

1539

25

Air Conditioning System Design

12

Tabulated Exterior Heat Gain


Table 3.9: Heat Gain in the Exterior
Transmissions
Exterior Walls
Ceiling
Window Glass
Glass Door
Total

Heat Gain ( W )
21204.86
45840
5664
1539
74247.86 Watts

b-1. Solar Load through Transparent Surface


In a transparent surface of a glass the heat load produce came from the
solar radiance that passes through the transparency quality of the glass. The figure 3.5
shows the area of the sun light expose for a certain amount time and respective direction.

Figure 3.5: Solar Radiance in the Glass

Air Conditioning System Design

13

Nomenclature:

Q
~ Solar heat gain
SHGF ~ Solar heat gain factor
SC
~ Shading coefficient
CLF ~ Cooling load factor
A
~ Sunlit area

~ Wall azimuth angle

~ Solar altitude angle

~ Solar azimuth angle

~ Angle of aertical plane normal to the wall


makes with south
d
~ Depth recess of the window glass
y
~ Depth of shadow cast horizontal projection
above window
x
~ Width of the shadow cast by vertical projection
depth

Design Parameters
The design parameter shown in Table 3.10 provides the following design
conditions for the computation of solar heat gain through the glass.

Table 3.10: Design Parameters for Solar Heat Gain


Variable
Critical Date(a)
Location(b)
Critical Time(c)
Solar Altitude Angle, (c)
Solar Azimuth Angle, (c)
Wall Azimuth Angle,
Depth, d

Description
April 20
15N Latitude
3:00 pm
46
271
32
97 mm

source: (a) http://newsinfo.inquirer.net


(b) http://www.mapsofworld.com/lat_long/philippines-lat-long.html
(c) Carrier Handbook of Air Conditioning System Design

Air Conditioning System Design

Window Glass Specification

Table 3.11: Specification of Window Glass


Variable
Type
Shading

Description
Heat absorbing
Translucent, Light
Venetian Blinds

Thickness
Dimension(L x W)

6 mm
3m x 2m

source: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by Stoecker and Jones pg.76

Shading from Side Reveal

tan

97

tan 32

60.61

Shading from Top Reveal

tan
cos

97

118.44

tan 46
cos 32

Sunlit Area

0.11844 3

0.0.06061

14

Air Conditioning System Design

Solar Heat Gain Factor


Table 3.12: Tabulation of Solar Heat Gain Factors

source: Air Conditioning Principles and Systems by: Edward G. Pita

228

Shading Coefficient (Table 4-11, Stoecker, p.76)

Cooling Load Factor (Table 4-12, Stoecker, p.77)

718.24

0.53 0.72 5.53 2

15

Air Conditioning System Design

16

b-2. Solar Load on Opaque Surfaces


The solar heat gain for an opaque wall is described as a portion of solar energy
that is reflected and the remainder is absorbed. In the energy absorbed some is converted
and some radiated to the outside. The remainder of the absorbed solar energy is
transmitted to the inside by conduction and temporarily stored.

Solar Heat Gain through an Opaque Wall


Nomenclature:

Qow
Uw
CLTD
A
t1
t2

~ Solar heat gain through the opaque wall


~ Heat transfer coefficient of the wall
~ Cooling load temperature difference
~ Surface area
~ Inside temperature
~ Outside temperature

Table 3.13: Tabulation of Heat Gain through the Opaque Walls


Direction

U
(

A
B
C
D

South
East
North
West

1.77
1.77
1.77
1.77

CLTD

Area
(m2)
16
156
20
462
8
156
11
423
Total

source: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by Stoecker and Jones pg.82

Total Solar Heat Gain through Opaque Walls

Temperature
Inside (C)
25
25
25
25

Temperature
outside (C)
35
35
35
35

Heat Gain
(W)
6074.64
21261.24
3865.68
12728.07
43929.63

Air Conditioning System Design

17

c. Heat Gain through Infiltration


The air infiltration is the unwanted entry of the outside air directly inside the
building, resulting from natural forces, such as wind and buoyancy due to the temperature
difference of the environment the in system.

.
Nomenclature:

~ Heat gain through infiltration, kW


~ Rate of infiltration air through opening doors

~ Outside temperature
~ Inside temperature

3600
6 80 30
1
3600

1.23 4

35

25

49.2

d. Heat Emission from Occupants


The human has its heat and this heat is necessarily included for the computation
of heat gain by the system. The more people a system possesses the more heat is
being gain.

Air Conditioning System Design

18

Nomenclature:

~ Heat gain per person


~ number of occupants
~ Cooling load factor per person

Table 3.14a: Design Conditions


Variable
Type of Space
Activity
Working time
Occupancy

Description
Office
Office work
12 hours
10 m2/occupant

source: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by Stoecker and Jones pg.73-74

Table 3.14b: Heat Emission from the Occupants


Heat Gain per
Person, W
150

No. of
Occupants
384

Cooling Load
Factor
0.92

Heat Emission
(Watts)
52992

source: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by Stoecker and Jones pg.73

Total Heat Emission from the Occupant

e. Heat Gain from Electric Lights


Lighting produces heat that is also calculated for the cooling load. A light level of
500-750 lux is usually sufficient, depending on the difficulty of the visual tasks done in the
factory (Graham, 1984).

Nomenclature:


~ Lighting Capacity, Watts
~ Ballast Factor
~ Cooling Load Factor for Lighting
~ Number of lightings

Table 3.15: Lighting Material Specifications

Air Conditioning System Design

19

Variable
Lighting capacity
Light level
Led light lumen
Area
Ballast factor (a)
Cooling load factor (b)

Description
40 W
750 Lux, Lumen/m
3050 lm
30m x 80m = 2400 m
1.25
1.0

Source: (a) Air conditioning principles and systems by Pita p. 137;


(b)http://www.amazon.com/dp/B002CZ15FK/ref=asc_df_B002CZ15FK2173156?smid=A2E4DH1S65
GTFP&tag=nextagusmp0403791-20&linkCode=asn&creative=395105&creativeASIN=B002CZ15FK

Table No. shows the specification of the lighting materials that is used with an
additional factor for lightings. Also the selected design of the light level is 750 lux. The lux
(symbol: lx) is the SI derived unit of illuminance or illumination. It is equal to one lumen
per square metre. Lux is the symbol for light level which is the basis of the design of the
lighting load of the cold storage. ( Brillianz Company UK, 2006)



Total lumen = light level x area = 750 lumen/m x 2400 m = 1,800,000 lumen

,
,


=
590.16 590 lamps

40 1.25 1.0 590

f. Heat Gain from Appliances


The appliance also emits heat as it consumes the electricity to produce power.
This heat gain is also essential for achieving the total heat gain in the system. The
common appliance present in the system is the computers which has a common wattage
of 300W as stated in ASHRAE 2011 and there is a computer in every cubicle.

Power Consumption = 300 Watts (ASHRAE 2011)


No. of Appliances = (12)(2)(3)(2) = 144 cubicle + 4 units = 148 Computers
300

148

2. Latent Heat Loads

Air Conditioning System Design

a. Latent Heat from Infiltration Air

~ Rate of infiltration air, m3/s


~ Humidity ratio outdoor air
~ Humidity ratio indoor air

Nomenclature:

Table 3.16: Humidity Ratio Conditions


Type
Indoor
Outdoor

Humidity Ratio (grains/lb)


106.40
131.60

Source: Psychometric Tables and Charts by: Stoecker

0.68

0.68

0.68

6.45

234196

35.315

35.315


60 /

131.6 106.40

b. Latent Heat from Occupants



Table 3.14b: Heat Emission from the Occupants
Heat Gain per
Person, W
150

No. of
Occupants
384

Cooling Load
Factor
1

source: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by Stoecker and Jones pg.73

Total Latent Heat from Occupants

Total Cooling Load

Heat Emission
(Watts)
57600

20

Air Conditioning System Design

74247.86 1515.66
44400 68632

43929.63
57600

49200

422017.15

422017.15


3516.7

CHAPTER IV

52992

29500

21

Air Conditioning System Design

22

AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


This chapter is mainly about the methods of supplying appropriate air conditioning
system for the building site, including the various computations for volume flow, mass
flow and duct diameters. These values are relevant in providing an efficient distribution of
air in the scope of the system.

Figure 4.1: 3D Ducting Layout


A. Duct Sizing
In duct sizing there are many options or methods for the design of duct. The most
accurate in the two methods is the equal friction method where the friction in the main
duct follows all throughout the latter part of the duct system which is the same.
Table 4.1: Design Conditions for Duct Sizing
Variable
Main duct velocity (a)
Main branch velocity
Density of Air (b)
Sensible heat gain
Temperature of room
Temperature of supply air

Description
4 7 m/s
3 6 m/s
1.18425 kg/m3
295.78515 kW
25C
35C

source: (a) http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/equal-friction-method-d_1028.html


(b) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by: Stoecker and Jones

Determination of Volume Flow Rates:

Air Conditioning System Design

23

~ Volume flow rate, m3/s


~ Total sensible heat gain, kW
~ Density of air, kg/m3

Nomenclature:

295.78515
1.18425 1.0062 35

25

.
Main Duct Dimensions
The main ducts are the ventilation mechanism that holds the total air volume flow
of the whole system. It is the key in finding the appropriate machine capacity of the fans
to be able to supply the whole air conditioned area.

Nomenclature:

A
Q

~ Cross sectional area of duct


~ Volume flow rate of air
~ Average velocity, (5.5 m/s for average speed)

Using two main ducts for the system with equal performance we arrive

24.82
2

12.41
12.41
5.5

2.26

Air Conditioning System Design

24

4 2.26

Equivalent square duct dimensions



1.61
.
.
For the orientation of diffusers, one main duct is composed of 20 diffusers that
are placed proportionally with each other. Considering two main ducts are to be used in
the design for a total number of 40 diffusers to ventilate the system.

12.41

20
0.6205
2

12.41
.

2 0.6205

The formula for computing the next duct dimension is the same as the
calculations above, the rest of the values follows. In addition, to acquire the various
volumes of the duct assume the same friction losses in each resized duct and use the
friction loss chart for their values. (Carrier Air Conditioning System Design p.190)

Air Conditioning System Design

Duct Sizing Dimensions


In the sizing of the ducts the tabulated values in Table 4.2 are essential for
providing the right volume flow of air to maintain comfort cooling from the occupants.

Figure 4.2: Friction Loss Chart


The Friction Loss Chart shown in Figure 4.2 is a useful Chart in getting the
velocity in the equal friction method. It is a three way process of acquiring variables.
Specifically air volume flow, velocity and diameter of duct

25

Air Conditioning System Design

26

Table 4.2: Tabulated Duct Dimensions


Duct

Air Volume Flow


m3/s
12.410
11.169
9.928
8.687
7.446
6.205
4.964
3.773
2.482
1.241

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J

Velocity
m/s
5.691
5.640
5.488
5.335
5.030
4.929
4.573
4.319
3.963
3.252

Duct
Rectangular
Diameter, m Length, m
1.666
1.5
1.588
1.5
1.518
1.5
1.440
1.5
1.373
1.5
1.266
1
1.176
1
1.055
1
0.893
1
0.697
1

Rectangular
height, m
1.454
1.320
1.206
1.085
0.987
1.259
1.085
0.874
0.626
0.382

Main Branch Dimension


For the computation in sizing of ducts for the main branches consider same air
volume flow in each diffuser. Tabulated values of the dimension in each branch are
shown in Table 4.3.

Nomenclature:

1.241
4.5

0.275
4 0.275

~ Air volume flow for the branch


~ Velocity of the branch

Air Conditioning System Design

27

Equivalent Rectangular Dimensions


0.275

Table 4.4: Main Branch Dimensions


Branch
A1
A2
B1
B2
C1
C2
D1
D2
E1
E2
F1
F2
G1
G2
H1
H2
I1
I2
J1
J2

Air Volume
Flow
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241
1.241

Diameter Rectangular Rectangular height


Length
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524
0.592
0.524
0.524

B. Pressure Losses
The pressure losses are the opposing force that is cause by friction. Friction is a
mechanism that resists or opposes the direction of the force, these values are needed to
acquire the total pressure loss in the system which is an essential variable in computing
the machine capacity of an air handling unit.

Air Conditioning System Design

1. Converging Duct System


Converging air duct has a gradual decrease in size or dimensions.

Nomenclature:

~ Pressure loss, pa
~ Velocity of air at point 2, m/s
~ Cross sectional area at point 1, m2
~ Cross sectional area at point 2, m2
~ Density of Air, kg/m3

1.184 5.640
2

2.180
1.810

The rest of the system follows and the values are tabulated in Table 4.5.
Table 4.5: Tabulation of pressure losses in duct
Duct
AB
BC
CD
DE
EF
FG
GH
HI
IJ

Density
(kg/m3)
1.184
1.184
1.184
1.184
1.184
1.184
1.184
1.184
1.184

Velocity Diameter
(m/s)
(m)
5.691
1.666
5.640
1.588
5.488
1.518
5.335
1.440
5.030
1.373
4.929
1.266
4.573
1.176
4.319
1.055
3.963
0.893
Total

Area A Area B Pressure loss


(m)
(m)
(Pa)
2.180
1.981
18.835
1.981
1.810
17.834
1.810
1.629
16.853
1.629
1.481
14.981
1.481
1.259
14.386
1.259
1.086
12.383
1.086
0.874
11.045
0.874
0.626
9.300
0.626
0.275
6.653
115.617

28

Air Conditioning System Design

29

2. Pressure Drop for Sudden Contraction


When the duct size is abruptly reduced in the direction of flow in a duct section a
sudden contraction occurs. The flow of patterns consists of a separation of the fluid from
the wall upon entering the reduced sectional area.

Nomenclature:

~ Contraction Coefficient

1.184 5.640
2
.

0.010

The rest of the values follow and the tabulation for pressure drop for sudden
contraction is shown in Table 4.6.

Table 4.6: Tabulation of Pressure Drop For Sudden Contraction


Duct
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J

Velocity
m/s
5.691
5.640
5.488
5.335
5.030
4.929
4.573
4.319
3.963
3.252

Density
Area 1
3
kG/m
m2
1.184
2.180
1.184
1.981
1.184
1.810
1.184
1.629
1.184
1.481
1.184
1.259
1.184
1.086
1.184
0.874
1.184
0.626
1.184
0.382
Total

Area 2
m2
1.981
1.810
1.629
1.481
1.259
1.086
0.874
0.626
0.382
0.275

Cc
0.909
0.914
0.900
0.909
0.850
0.863
0.805
0.716
0.610
0.720

Pressure
Loss (Pa)
0.193
0.168
0.220
0.168
0.466
0.365
0.728
1.733
3.793
0.948
8.782 Pa

3. Turns or Elbows
Most common elbows used in duct system are 90 degree turn which
accumulates pressure losses as the air pass through.

Air Conditioning System Design

30

For Geometric Factor refer to (Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by: Stoecker
and Jones

4. Friction Loss
As the air travels through the duct system there is a corresponding pressure drop
opposing force in a unit of length which is needed to get the total pressure drop.

Nomenclature:

12 1

~ Length of duct, m
~ Pressure drop per meter, Pa/m
~ 1.0 Pa/m (Carrier Handbook of Air Conditioning)
/

Table 4.7: Tabulation of Friction Loss in a Length of Duct


Duct
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J

Length
(m)
12.723
4.232
5.000
5.000
10.000
13.000
5.000
5.000
5.000
3.986
Total

Pressure Drop
(Pa)
12.723
4.232
5.000
5.000
10.000
13.000
5.000
5.000
5.000
3.986
68.941 Pa

Air Conditioning System Design

31

Total Pressure Drop

115.617 Pa


8.782 Pa

79.12

68.941 Pa

A total of 272.46 Pa of pressure drops in one main duct. Consider two main ducts
in the system with equal specification and measurements.

Air Conditioning System Design

32

CHAPTER V
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
This chapter provides the necessary specification mechanism that is appropriate
to the air conditioning system to ba applied. The machineries must be compatible and
reliable to make the system a comfort air conditioning area.

A. CHILLER
A chiller is a machine also known as a heat exchanger which removes the heat
from a liquid by vapor compression or absorption refrigeration cycle to main the comfort
temperature of air desired. In the Air Conditioning System it is appropriate to choose
two chillers with same specification to provide the corresponding cooling load that the
system requires. So when the other chiller is malfunctioning. The other chiller is still
operating.

Table 5.1: Water Cooled Chiller Source


source: http://www.aquaair.net/HighCapacityChillerSystems.pdf

Air Conditioning System Design

33

Chiller unit specification OM60-4VIHD


Cooling Capacity
60 tons [ 720,000 BTU/H ] [ 180,000 KCAL/H ] at 45/ F ( 7.2/ C ) leaving water
temperature and 55/ F ( 12.8/ C ) returning water temperature. Chiller unit flow rate will
be approximately 180 gpm. Condenser flow rate ( each ) is to be approximately 60 gpm
entering at a maximum temperature of 90/ F ( 32/ C ). All ratings are at a fouling factor of
0.0005.
Heating Capacity
`54 Kw [ 184,410 BTU/H ] [ 46,103 KCAL/H ] of total heating capacity at 120/ F ( 48.9/ C)
leaving water temperature and 100/ F ( 37.8/ C ) returning water temperature.
Construction & Ratings
The chiller unit shall be constructed in accordance with ARI Standard 590-86 and
shall comply with all applicable NEC and ASME codes for water cooled chillers.
Compressors
The chiller unit will have four, 15 ton Bitzer semi-hermetic
compressors. Each compressor will be equipped with suction and discharge valves.
Input voltage to the compressor motor will be 208-3-60. Power consumption of each
compressor is approximately 14.1 kW each. Refrigerant to be used is R-22 .
Capacity Control
Chiller unit capacity control will be achieved through the use of four variable
frequency drive ( VFD ) units, one for each compressor. The VFD will vary the compressor
motor speed from a maximum of 100% of capacity to a minimum of 70%. The VFD
requires an input power supply of 208-3-60. The maximum output power will be 208-3-60
to the compressor motor. The VFD output will be regulated by a 4-20ma signal to the VFD
from the PLC. The VFD voltage/frequency output will be varied based upon chilled water
outlet temperature. The VFD will also control the compressor motor so that there is no
current inrush, during starting, above the motor's standard running amperage.
Cooler
The unit is equipped with four plate style heat exchangers, each of 15 tons
capacity. Each plate heat exchanger has a single water and refrigerant circuit.
Construction of the unit is of #316 stainless steel. The material used to braze the plates
together is copper. Maximum test pressure for both circuits is 635 psig. Each plate will be
individually insulated with 1/2" thick closed cell insulation.
Condenser
The unit is equipped with four shell and tube marine condensers. The shell is
constructed of ASME spec SA-53 steel pipe. Shells are shot blasted and cleaned before
assembly. Tubes are high performance enhanced surface seamless 90/10 Cupro-Nickel
tubes to ASME spec SB-359. Tubes are roller expanded into double grooved tubesheets

Air Conditioning System Design

34

to assure tight joints. Tubesheets are 90/10 Cupro-Nickel to ASME spec SB-171 Alloy
706. Tube supports are quality steel plug welded to the shell. Heads are cast bronze with
integral pass partitions, ASME spec SB-62. Gaskets are die-cut providing effective
sealing between tubesheets and machined heads. The refrigerant side is constructed and
tested in accordance with Section VIII, Division 1 of ASME Code for unfired pressure
vessels. Shell side design pressure ( refrigerant side ) is 350 psig at 250/ F. Tube side (
water side ) is 150 psig at 150/ F. Every condenser is tested per ASME Code prior to
shipment. Seawater connections are 2" Class 150 PVC schedule 80 flanges. Water flow
to the condenser will be regulated by a compressor discharge pressure actuated water
regulating valve. A pressure relief valve ( set for 350 psig ) on the shell is standard.
Immersion Heater Elements
The unit is equipped with a three stage, 18 element, 54 Kw 5" flange style
immersion heating element. The heater elements are rated at full wattage on 208-3-60
power input. The elements are constructed of copper with a maximum watt density of 50
watts per square inch. The element heater tank will be constructed of steel pipe to ASME
specifications. All welds will be by MIG welding procedure. The tank will be equipped with
a 5" 150lb ANSI raised face welding neck flange to accept the 5" flange style immersion
heater. The tank design rating pressure is 150 psig at 200/ Fahrenheit. The tank will be
equipped with
a ASME water pressure relief valve.
Refrigerant Circuit
Each of the four refrigerant circuits shall include a discharge line check valve, liquid
line ball valve, replaceable core liquid line filter drier with access fitting for refrigerant
charging, combination moisture indicator and sight glass, liquid line solenoid and thermal
expansion valve. All suction lines will be covered with a minimum of 1/2" closed cell
insulation.
Control Panel / Electrical Box
The unit will have a NEMA 12 type enclosure for all of the electrical components.
The chiller unit will be controlled by a programmable logic controller ( PLC ). The user
interface for this PLC will consist of a touch screen mounted on the front of the electrical
box.

B. HVAC FANS

Air Conditioning System Design

35

The capacity For an HVAC is determine by the volume flow rate of air which is
12.4m /s and the total pressure Drop it can handle. By choosing the right specification for
ducts fan will help provide the appropriate air flow in the system until to the outermost
part.
3

Figure 5.2: Centrifugal Ventilation Fan, HVAC


source: http://www.tradezz.com/buy_10365340_ChaoYue2-26-Low.htm

Table 5.1: Specification of Centrifugal Ventilation Fan


Model
Capacity
Wattage
Speed
ChaoYue2-134

825~62205 m3/h

2.2~410 kW

960~2900 rpm

Static Pressure
557~1570 Pa

source: http://www.tradezz.com/buy_10365340_ChaoYue2-26-Low.htm

Other specification:
Low noise
High pressure
Large air flow capacity

High Efficiency
Specifically designed for
supplying air

The product brand ChaoYue2-134 can be an option for its specifications meets
the standards for the air conditioning system design of the project this values will be
useful to maintain comfort air condition inside the building.