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You are on page 1of 11

Debdeep Mukhopadhyay

Assistant Professor

Department of Computer Science and

Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

INDIA -721302

Objectives

A Communication Game

Concept of Protocols

Magic Function

Cryptographic Functions

A Communication Game

Alice and Bob are the two most

famous persons in cryptography.

They are used every where

Consider a scenario, where Alice and

Bob wishes to go for dinner together.

Alice decides to go for Chinese,

whereas Bob wants to go for Indian

Food.

Now how do they resolve?

Alice tosses a coin (with his hands

covering the coin) and asks Bob of

his choice: HEADS or TAILS

If Bobs choice matches with the

outcome of the toss, then they go

for Indian food. Else Alice has in

her way.

Consider the situation when both

of them are far apart and

communicate through a telephone.

What is the problem?

Bob cannot trust Alice, as Alice can tell

a lie.

How do we solve this problem?

(plural number of players) are called

technically protocols

In order to resolve the problem, both

Alice and Bob engage in a protocol.

They use a magic function, f(x)

Properties of f(x)

Assume, Domain and Range of f(x)

are the set of integers

1. For every integer x, it is easy to

compute f(x) from x. But given f(x) it

is hard to compute x, or find any

information about x, like whether x

is even or odd (one-wayness)

2. It is impossible to find a pair of

distinct integers x and y, st. f(x)=f(y)

The Protocol

Both of them agree on the function

f(x)

an even number x represents HEAD

an odd number x represents TAIL

Alice picks up randomly a large

integer, x and computes f(x)

Bob tells Alice his guess of whether

x is odd or even

Alice then sends x to Bob

Bob verifies by computing f(x)

Security Analysis

Can Alice cheat ?

For that Alice need to create a yx, st

f(x)=f(y). Hard to do.

guess?

Bob listens to f(x) which speaks nothing

of x. So his probability of guess is

(random guess).

Alice and Bob wish to resolve a dispute over

telephone. We can encode the possibilities of the

dispute by a binary value. For this they engage a

protocol:

Alice Bob: Alice picks up randomly an x, which is

a 200 bit number and computes the function f(x).

Alice sends f(x) to Bob.

Bob Alice: Bob tells Alice whether x was even or

odd.

Alice Bob: Alice then sends x to Bob, so that Bob

can verify whether his guess was correct.

If Bob's guess was right, Bob wins.

Otherwise Alice has the dispute

solved in her own way.

They decide upon the following

function, f: X Y,

X is a 200 bit random variable

Y is a 100 bit random variable

A Real Instance of f

The function f is defined as follows:

f(x) = (the most significant 100 bits of

x) V (the least significant 100 bits of

x), x X

Here V denotes bitwise OR.

Bobs Strategy

Bobs Experiment:

Input f(x)

Output Parity of x

Algorithm:

If [f(x)]0=0, then x is even

else x is odd

If X is chosen at random,

Pr[X is even]=Pr[X is odd]=1/2

Pr[Bob succeeds]=Pr[X is even]Pr[Bob

Succeeds|X is even]+Pr[X is

odd]Pr[Bob Succeeds|X is odd]

=+1=

Remember we compute Alices cheating

probability irrespective of Bobs strategy.

Case 1: X is even.

f(x)]0=0, with prob.= . In this case Alice cannot cheat.

f(x)]1=1, with prob.= . In this case Alice can cheat.

Case 2: X is odd.

f(x)]0=0, this is not possible from the

definition of f.

f(x)]0=1. In this case Alice can cheat.

Alice = .

So, Alice can cheat with a prob. of

+=

Throughout the course we shall see

various techniques, methods etc all

aimed at discovering these kind of

functions.

They shall be referred to with various

terms, like:

one-way functions

pseudo-random generators

hash functions

symmetric and a-symmetric ciphers

Practical efficiency

A mathematical problem is efficient

or efficiently solvable when the

problem is solved in time and space

which can be measured by a small

degree polynomial in the size of the

problem.

The polynomial that describes the

resource cost for the user should be

small.

Practical efficiency

Eg, a protocol with the number of

rounds between the users increasing

quadratically with the number of

users, is not efficient

So, we wish protocols/algorithms

which are not only secure but also

efficient.

References

Wenbo Mao, "Modern Cryptography,

Theory and Practice", Pearson

Education (Low Priced Edition)

10

Overview on Modern Cryptography

11

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