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SITE INVESTIGATION REPORT

DYNAMIC CONE PENETRATION TEST REPORT

ROBERTHA SEKYIWA NKRUMAH

10353092

TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION.. 2
CHAPTER TWO
BACKGROUND STUDY..... 3
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY..4-5
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS . 6-7
CHAPTER FIVE
BEARING CAPACITY ANALYSIS 8
CHAPTER SIX
CONCLUSION .. 9

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL
This report presents the outcome of the site investigation carried out for the proposed
construction site at University of Ghana, Earth Science Department. Ms Robertha S. Nkrumah
and her team from Legon Geotechnical Consultant Inc carried out the site investigation on the
propose site of the University of Ghana, Earth Science Department. This report provides detailed
geological and engineering properties of the proposed site from the tests carried out on the site.
1.2 PURPOSE AND SCOPE
Investigation of the underground conditions at a site is prerequisite to the economical design of
the substructure elements.
In general, the purpose of this site investigation was to provide the following:

Information to determine the type of foundation required (shallow or deep).


Information to allow the geotechnical consultant to make a recommendation on the
allowable bearing capacity of the soil.

The Dynamic Cone Penetration Test was carried out to achieve the above purpose.

2.0 BACKGROUND STUDY


2.1 GEOLOGY AND
Rocks of the University of Ghana, Legon are of the Togo structural unit. These are strongly
tectonised phyllite, quartzite and serpentinite. The weathered top soil is mainly laterite.
2.2 SEISMICITY
Historical seismicity of southern Ghana shows earthquake events recorded as far back as
1862.The probable causative faults being the Akwapim Fault Zone and the Coastal Boundary
Fault. The event with the highest magnitude of 6.5 occurred on 22 nd June 1939. It affected most
of West Africa and the approximate location of the epicenter was SSE of Accra, about 40km out
of sea. The Legon area receives minor shocks during such an event.
2.3 OTHER FEATURES
The area is a highly built place with a lot of buildings most of which are more than 30yrs old.
Drainage in the area is very good. First class and second class roads surround the area with tall
trees along the principal streets.

3.0 METHODOLOGY
We began our investigation by looking out for information on the site. During the desk study, we
obtained information about the proposed site from the internet, the Geological Survey
Department of Ghana records, topographical maps, and soil research data. After the study, we
had information about geology and seismicity of the area as described in Chapter one. We also
had an idea of the topography, vegetation and drainage of the area.
We then proceeded with a visual inspection of the site to confirm the reality on the ground with
respect to drainage topography, present and past land use, groundwater levels from nearby wells
and constructions works around the area.
We proceeded with the dynamic cone penetration test on the site.
3.1 DYNAMIC CONE PENETRATION TEST (DCPT).
Cone penetrometer is a versatile tool for soil exploration. The equipment comprise of a
cylindrical cone as the tip with a metal rod screwed to it. a The dynamic penetrations is defined
as the number of blows per 10 cm penetration are plotted as a function of depth on the pion jar
drill hole logs. The dynamic penetrometer testing is terminated where there is an obvious
refusal i.e., where the dynamic penetration r exceeds 100 counts. The procedure in getting the
dynamic penetration is at follows;

After examining the site, we chose three points on the site where the tests will be carried

out in a triangular format


The metal rod was marked every 10cm so the number of blows per 10cm can be counted
effectively. Each rod is about 100cm.

The hammer and anvil are put in place as in fig1 below. Then the hammer is then lifted
and dropped on the anvil to advance the rod into the ground. The number of blows
required for the rod to penetrate 10cm in the soil is counted and recorded on the log sheet

as shown in table 1 below.


After 100cm without refusal another 100cm rod is added still refusal.
At refusal the process is stopped and the process is repeated at the next selected point.

fig 1. DCP tool in operation


4.0 RESULTS
DEPTH
(cm)
10
20

hole A

hole B
7
14

hole C
2
1

1
1

30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300

17
10
19
32
35
30
93

1
1
1
2
0
5
14
26

1
1
2
1
10
9
14
17
28
32
31
67
73
44
41
28
27
36
52
33
28
33
35
33
50
58
83
100

Table 1 DCPT values for the three holes


A graph of the numberof blows per 10cm against depth was prepared shown in graph 1 and
graph 2 below.

A graph of depth agaianst r for holes A & B


0

20

40

60

80

100

120

5
10
number of blows per 10cm 'r'

15
20
25
30
Depth (cm)
hole A

hole B

Graph 1 a graph of depth against number of blows per 10cm (r) for hole A and B

hole C
120
100
80
number of blows per 10cm

60
40
20
0

50

100

150

200

Depth (cm)
hole C

250

300

350

5.0 BEARING CAPACITY ANALYSIS


The allowable bearing capacity of each hole was approximated as Qall = 30 r where r is the
number of blows required to advance the cone by 10 cm.
Hole A
At 90cm below the surface; r = 90; Qall =30r
Qall = 30*93 = 2790 kPa
Hole B
At 100cm below the surface; r =26
Qall = 30*26 = 780 kPa
Hole C
At 300cm (3m) below the surface; r =100
Qall = 30*100 = 3000 kPa

The bearing capacity of the soil increases with depth. At 3m below surface the allowable bearing
capacity was 3000 kPa. For example; a square foundation with dimension 3*3m, the allowable
bearing load will be 27000kN. A knowledge of the allowable bearing capacity will help in
designing a foundation that will be able to bear a design load.
The soil at the site it laterite. Various buildings are around the site, most of which have shallow
foundations. A new construction work is ongoing near the site. This two-storey building with a
basement is sitting on a deep foundation.

6.0 CONCLUSION
At 3m below the ground surface the allowable bearing capacity at the site is 3000kpa. The
bearing capacity of the area increases with increasing depth. The soil will be able to support
shallow foundations, but for high rise buildings, a deep foundation to the bedrock is more
preferable. Judging by the long life span of other buildings near the site, the soil is able to
support structures put on it. Nevertheless, more test must be carried out to know some properties
of the soil and groundwater characteristics of the site for a complete evaluation of the bearing
capacity of the ground.