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Module 11

THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM


GENERAL REGULATIONS

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What is DRAINAGE SYSTEM?


Drainage System includes all the
pipings within public or private
premises which convey sewage or
other liquid wastes to a legal point of
disposal but does not include the
mains of a public sewer system or a
public sewage treatment or disposal
plant.
Sec 205.10 NPC 1999

The Drainage System is often known


as the DWV System or Drainage,
Waste and Vent System

It is composed of:
Sanitary Drainage System the pipings that
convey the discharge of water closets or fixtures
having similar functions (containing fecal matter)
with or without the discharges form other
fixtures.
Waste Drainage System the pipings that
receive the liquid discharge from plumbing
fixtures, other than water closets and urinals, and
are free of fecal flow.
Vent System the pipings installed to provide
a flow of air to or from a drainage system or to
provide a circulation of air within such system to
protect trap seals from siphonage or back
pressure.
Storm Drainage System the piping system
that receives clear water drainage from leaders,
downspouts, surface run-off, ground water,
subsurface water, condensate water, cooling
water or other similar discharges and conveys
them to the point of disposal. All sanitary waste
must be excluded.

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Storm Drain System

Waste Drain System

Sanitary Drainage
System

Vent System

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Vent Pipe a pipe or opening


used for ensuring the
circulation of air in a
plumbing system and for
relieving the negative
pressure exerted on trap
seals. Sec 223.3

GENERAL PARTS OF THE


DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Vent Stack the vertical vent pipe
installed primarily for providing
circulation of air to and from any
part of the soil, waste of the drainage
system. Sec. 223.4

Soil Stack Pipe a vertical soil


pipe conveying fecal matter
and waste water. Sec. 220.21
Soil Pipe any pipe, which
conveys the discharge of water
closet, urinal or fixtures having
similar functions, with or
without the discharge from
other fixtures to the building
drain or building sewer.
Sec. 220.22
House Drain is that part of the
lowest horizontal piping of a
plumbing system which receives
the discharge from soil, waste and
other drainage pipes inside of a
building and conveys it to the
house sewer outside of the
building. Sec 209.6

House Sewer is that part of a


plumbing system extending from the
house drain at a point 0.60 meters from
the outside face of the foundation wall
of a building to the junction with the
street sewer or to any point of
discharge, conveying the drainage of
one building site. Sec. 209.7

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Waste Pipe a pipe,


which convey only
wastewater or liquid
waste, free of fecal
matter. Sec. 224.2

Septic Tank a water tight


receptacle which receives
the discharge of a sanitary
plumbing system, designed
and constructed to retain
solids , digest organic
matter through a period of
detention and to allow the
liquids to discharge into the
public sewer or an
approved private sewage
disposal system. Sec. 220.7

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GENERAL
REQUIREMENTS FOR A
PROPERLY DESIGNED
DRAINAGE SYSTEM

All horizontal piping shall be


supported at sufficiently
close intervals to keep them
in alignment and prevent
sagging. Sec. 315.2.1

Vertical piping shall be


secured at sufficiently close
intervals to keep the pipes in
alignment. Stacks shall be
properly supported at their
bases. Sec. 315.1

Each plumbing fixture trap shall be


protected against siphonage and backpressure by means of vent pipes.
Sec. 901
Each plumbing fixture, except those
with integral traps, shall be separately
trapped by an approved type
waterseal trap. Sec. 1001.1

A cleanout, easily accessible, shall be


provided for inspection or cleaning of the
pipe run. Sec. 706
Every building where
plumbing fixtures are
installed shall have a
sewer service connection
to a public or private
sewer systems. Sec. 305.1

All horizontal piping shall run in


practical alignment & at a uniform
grade of not less than 2% (20 mm per
meter) toward the point of disposal.
Sec. 302
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Catch Basin a
receptacle in which
liquids are retained for a
sufficient period of time
to allow settleable
material to deposit.
Sec. 204.3

Downspout the vertical


portion of a rainwater
conductor. Sec. 205.8
Leader a pipe
connected from the
building gutter to the
downspout or conductor.
Sec. 213.6
House Storm Sewer is the
pipeline from the building to
the public or street storm
drainage system. Sec. 209.8

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DRAINAGE DRAINS, TRAPS and


VENTS

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DRAINS

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What is a Drain?
A Drain is a pipe, which carries ground and surface
waters, storm water or wastewater into a building
drainage system.
The common types of drains are the floor drains and
the roof drains.
The 2 types of drain connections are the direct drain
connection and the indirect drain connection.
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FLOOR DRAINS

Floor Drain a fixture providing an opening in a floor to drain water into a plumbing
system; in homes, usually fitted with a deep seal trap.

Trench Drain a cast-in-place or preformed concrete trench


usually covered with a grate that serves as both a drain and a
collection point for run-off water or other liquid.

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ROOF DRAINS
Roof Drain a drain designed to receive to
receive water collecting on the surface of a
roof and to discharge it into a leader or a
downspout.

Scupper Drain
an opening in
a wall or
parapet that
allows water to
drain from a
roof.

Plantbox Drain

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INDIRECT DRAIN
FUNNEL

Indirect Waste Pipe is a pipe that does not connect


directly with the drainage system but conveys liquid
wastes by discharging into a plumbing fixture,
interceptor or receptacle directly connected to the
drainage system. Sec. 210.1
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Air Gap, Drainage


the unobstructed
vertical distance
through the free
atmosphere between
the lowest opening
from any pipe,
plumbing fixture,
appliance or
appurtenance
conveying waste to
the flood level ream of
the receptor. Sec.
202.6

Airbreak a physical
separation, which may be a
low inlet into the indirect
waste receptor from the
fixture, appliance or device
indirectly connected.

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TRAPS

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What is a Trap?

A Trap is a fitting or device designed and constructed to provide, when


properly vented, a liquid seal which prevents the backflow of foul air or
methane gas without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater
through it.

1.

The types of waterseal traps are:


P-trap is the most widely used for fixtures, common diameter sizes are 110mm

2.
3.

4.

(4), 63mm (2), 32mm (1-1/4) and 38mm (1-1/2).


Drum trap is used mostly for bathtubs. It has the advantage of containing a larger
volume of water & discharging a greater volume of water than a P-trap.
Grease Interceptor / Grease Trap Grease interceptor is an interceptor of at
least 3 cubic meter capacity to serve one or more fixtures and which is remotely
located. Grease trap is a device designed to retain grease from one to a maximum of
four fixtures.
House Trap/Running trap a device installed to prevent circulation of air
between the drainage of the building and the building sewer.
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Waterseal Trap

Crown Weir the highest point of the bottom of

the internal surface of the trap

Dip the lowest


portion of the inside
top surface of the
channel through the
trap

51 102 mm

Trap seal the vertical distance or depth of


liquid that a trap will retain, measured
between the crown weir and the top of the
dip of the trap.

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TYPES OF TRAPS:

LAVATORY P-TRAP

P-TRAP
HOUSE TRAP

DRUM TRAP
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TYPES OF TRAPS

Lavatory P-Trap

Ordinary P-Trap

Drum Trap

House Trap

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TRAP ARM,
FIXTURE DRAIN,
FIXTURE BRANCH
AND HORIZONTAL BRANCH

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Each plumbing
fixture, excepting
those having
integral traps , shall
be separately
trapped by an
approved type
waterseal trap. Not
more than 1 trap
shall be permitted
on a trap arm*.
Trap Arm that
portion of a fixture
drain between a
trap and the vent.
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TRAP ARM

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TRAP ARM

Each fixture trap shall have a protecting vent so located that the developed
length of the trap arm from the trap weir to the inner edge of the vent shall be
within the prescribed distance, but in no case less than two times the diameter
of the trap arm.

Horizontal Distance of Trap Arms

TRAP ARM
DIAMETER

DISTANCE TO VENT
(Except for Water Closets and similar
fixtures)

32mm (1-1/4)

760 mm

38mm (1-1/2)

1070 mm

51mm (2)

1520 mm

76mm (3)

1830 mm

102mm and
larger

3050 mm

The developed length between the trap of a water closet


or similar fixture measured from the top of closet ring
(closet flange) to inner edge of vent shall not exceed 1.8
meters.
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FIXTURE DRAIN

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FIXTURE BRANCH

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HORIZONTAL BRANCH

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GREASE TRAP

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GREASE TRAP
When waste pretreatment is required, an approved type grease trap complying
with the Code shall be installed in the wasteline leading from sinks, drains and other
fixtures or equipment in establishments such as restaurants, cafes, lunch counters,
cafeterias, bars and clubs, hotel, hospitals sanitarium, factory or school kitchens, or
other establishments where grease may be introduced into the drainage or sewer
system in quantities that can effect line stoppage or hinder sewage treatment or
private sewage disposal.
A grease trap is not required for individual dwelling units or for any private living
quarters.

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Each plumbing fixture or piece of equipment connected to a grease trap shall be provided
with an approved type Flow Control or restricting device installed in a readily accessible
and visible location in the tailpiece or drain outlet of each such fixture.
Flow control Devices shall be so designed that the flow through such device or devices
shall at no time be greater than the rated capacity of the grease trap.

GREASE TRAPS CAPACITY


TOTAL NUMBER
OF FIXTURE
CONNECTED

REQUIRED RATE
OF FLOW IN
LITERS PER
MINUTE

GREASE RETENTION CAPACITY


IN KILOGRAM

76

18

95

23

132

32

189

45

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Grease Trap:

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UNDER COUNTER GREASE


TRAP

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GREASE TRAP

SIZING OF GREASE INTERCEPTOR:


S=MxWxRxF
Where:
S = size of grease interceptor
M = number of meals served at peak hour
W = Waste Flow Rate: Use
- with dishwashing machine ------- 6 gallon flow (per meal/day)
- without dishwashing machine -- 5 gallon flow (per meal/day)
- single service kitchen ------------- 2 gallon flow (per meal/day)
- food waste disposer --------------- 1 gallon flow (per meal/day)
- hospital kitchen --------------------25 gallon/bed/day
R = Retention Time: Use
- commercial kitchen waste dishwasher ----- 2.5 hours
- single service kitchen, single serving ------- 1.5 hours

F = storage factors
- For fully equipped commercial kitchen
8 hour operation: 1
16 hour operation: 2
24 hour operation: 3
- Single service kitchen: 1.5

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DRAINAGE PIPING

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Grade of horizontal excreta drainage piping


Horizontal drainage piping shall run
in practical alignment and at a
uniform slope of not less than 2% or
20 mm/m towards the point of
disposal, provided that, where it is
impractical due to the depth of the
street sewer or to adverse structural
features or to some irregular
arrangements of affected building or
structure to obtain a slope of 2% or
any such pipe or piping 102mm or
larger in diameter may have a slope
of not less than 1% or 10mm/m
when first approved by the
Administrative Authority.

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15 METERS

110 mm
15 METERS
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3000 mm

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VENTS AND VENT PIPING

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What is a Vent?
A Vent is a pipe or opening that brings outside air into the
plumbing system and equalizes the pressure on both sides of a
trap to prevent trap seal loss.

Inadequate ventilation usually causes the loss of trap seal.


At sea level, atmospheric pressure is about 102 kPa (14.75 psi).
Any difference between this pressure and the pressure on the
discharge side forces the water seal into the direction of less
pressure. Venting the discharge side of the trap to the
atmosphere tends to equalize these pressures.

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Causes of Trap Seal Loss:

Siphonage the withdrawal of a liquid from a trap due to a suction

1.
2.

caused by liquid flow in a pipe without proper ventilation.


Direct or Self siphonage
Indirect or Momentum siphonage

Back Pressure or Back Siphonage pressure developed in


opposition to the flow of liquid in a pipe due to friction, gravity or some
other restriction to the flow of the conveyed liquid.

Evaporation occurs when a fixture is not used for a long time.


Capillary Attraction a foreign object lodged in the trap causes loss
of trap seal by capillary action by acting as a wick.

Wind Effect

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Causes of Trap Seal Loss:

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What are the Types of Vents?

Soil and Waste Vent


Main Vent
Individual Vent or Back
Vent
Unit Vent
Circuit Vent or Loop
Vent

Relief Vent
Yoke Vent
Wet Vent
Looped Vent
Local Vent
Utility Vent

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HORIZONTAL PIPING: HANGERS AND SUPPORTS


Horizontal pipes shall be supported at sufficiently close intervals
to keep them in alignment and prevent sagging.
PIPE MATERIAL

HORIZONTAL SUPPORTS AND HANGERS

CAST IRON SOIL PIPE

supported at not more than 1.50 meters and shall be placed


within 0.45 meters of the hub or joint. for pipes more than 1.50
meters in length, may be supported at not more than 3 meters
interval

SCREWED PIPE

At 3 meter interval for piping 19mm in diameter and smaller and


3.60 meters interval for pipings 25mm and larger in diameter.

PLASTIC PIPE

shall be supported by stiff metal or wood backing with hangers in


its entire length for pipes 38mm diameter and without backing
but with spaced metal hangers at approved spacing for larger-size
spacing.

IN GROUND

Piping buried in the ground shall be laid in a firm bed for its
entire length, except where concrete cradle support is provided.

LEAD PIPE

Shall supported by stiff metal or wooden backing for its entire


length with hangers properly spaced.

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VERTICAL PIPING: SUPPORTS


Vertical piping shall be secured at sufficiently close intervals to keep the pipes in
alignment and to carry its weight and contents.
Stacks shall supported at their base.
PIPE MATERIAL

SPACING OF PIPE SUPPORTS

CAST IRON SOIL PIPE

Bell & spigot and hubless pipe shall be


supported at every storey or closer

SCREWED PIPE

Iron Pipe Size (IPS) shall be supported .

COPPER TUBING

Shall be supported at its storey or at


maximum intervals of 3 meters on center.

LEAD PIPE

shall be supported at intervals not exceeding


1.20 meters at centers with a rigid vertical
back-up.

PLASTIC PIPE

Shall be supported at every 1 meter interval.

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PIPE COLOR CODING

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IDENTIFICATION OF PIPING BY COLOR


MATERIAL PIPED

PIPE
COLOR

MATERIAL PIPED

PIPE
COLOR

Acetylene

Orange

Nitrogen Low pressure

Green

Acid

Yellow

Oxygen

Orange

Air High pressure

Yellow

Oil

Orange

Air Low pressure

Green

Steam High pressure

Yellow

Ammonia

Yellow

Steam Low pressure

Yellow

Argon Low pressure

Green

Tar

Orange

Blast Furnace Glass

Orange

Producer Gas

Orange

Carbon Dioxide

Red

Liquid Petroleum Gas

Orange

Gasoline

Orange

Vacuum High

Orange

Grease

Orange

Water Boiler Feed

Yellow

Helium Low pressure

Green

Water Cold

Green

Hydrogen

Orange

Water Distilled

Green

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IDENTIFICATION OF PIPING BY COLOR


MATERIAL PIPED

PIPE
COLOR

Water Fire Service

Red

Water Hot

Yellow

Water Low pressure (Excl. of Fire


Service)

Green

Water High pressure (Excl. of Fire


Service)

Yellow

Water Treated

Green

Oil and Water (For Hydraulic


System)

Green

Oil and Water (For Hydraulic


System)

Orange

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END OF PRESENTATION

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