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ENDOCRINOLOGY TiKi TaKa

_________________________
. THYROID DISEASES:
___________________
___________________
. P.O.C.
___________________ HYPOthyroidism ______________ HYPERthyro
idism
------------------------------* Labs
___________________ -- T4 & ++ TSH ______________ ++ T4 & -TSH
* Weight
___________________ Gain
______________ Loss
* Intolerance
___________________ Cold
______________ Heat
* Hair
___________________ Coarse
______________ Fine
* Skin
___________________ Dry
______________ Moist
* Mental
___________________ Depressed
______________ Anxious
* Heart
___________________ Bradycardia
______________ Tachycardi
a & Af
* Muscles
___________________ Week
______________ Week
* Reflexes
___________________ Diminished
______________ Hyperactiv
e
* Fatigue
___________________ Yes
______________ Yes
* Menstrual changes ___________________ Yes
______________ Yes
. HYPOTHYROIDISM:
_________________
* PRIMARY Hypothyroidism * * Secondary Hypothyroidism * * TERTIARY Hypothyro
idism *
________________________
_________________________
___________________
______
. -- T3 & T4.
. -- T3 & T4.
. -- T3 & T4.
. ++ TSH.
. -- or normal TSH.
. -- or normal TSH.
. Ex: Auto-immune Hashimoto's.
. HASHIMOTO's THYROIDITIS:
__________________________
. Hypothyroidism symptoms: Slow, tired, fatigued pt with weight gain.
. Anti-TPO Abs (Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies).
. -- T4 & ++ TSH.
. Tx -> T4 or thyroxine replacement.
. High risk of developing THYROID LYMPHOMA.
. GENERALIZED RESISTANCE to thyroid hormones:
_____________________________________________
. ++ T3 & T4 levels.
. ++ or Normal TSH level.
. features of HYPO-thyroidism despite having ++ free T3 & T4.
. N.B. HYPOTHYROIDISM & MYOPATHY:
_________________________________
. Un-explained ++ ofe serum CPK creatinine kinase.
. ANA Anti-nuclear antibodies may be +ve in HASHIMOTO's thyroiditis.
. Serum TSH level is the most sensitive test to diagnose hypothyroidism.
. HYPERTHYROIDISM -> "Grave's disease" - "Silent" - "Subacute" - "Pituitary
adenoma":
________________________________________________________________________________
__________
. Physical findings: . Eye,skin,nails - Not tender - Tender gland - None.
. RAIU scan:
.
(++)
- (--)
(--)
- (++).
. TTT:
. Iodine ablation - None
Aspirin - Surgical r
emoval.
.1. GRAVE's DISEASE:

____________________
. Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis (weight loss - insomnia - hperactivity - tachycard
ia).
. Ophthalmopathy (Exophthalmos & proptosis - Abs against the extra-ocular muscl
es).
. Dermopathy (Thickening & redness of the skin just below the knee).
. Onycolysis (Separation of the nail from the nailbed).
. Peri-orbital lymphocytic infiltration -> Gritty sandy sensation.
. Fibroblast proliferation, hyaluronic acid deposition, edema & fibrosis.
. Throid stimulating immunoglobulins.
. RAIU -> HIGH.
. Tx -> Propylthiouracil (PTU) or methimazole.
. Use radioactive iodine to ablate the gland (May cause permanent HYPO-thyroidi
sm).
. BB (propranolo) to treat sympathetic symptoms, such as tremos & palpitations.
.2. SILENT Thyroiditis:
_______________________
. Auto-immune process.
. Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis (weight loss - insomnia - hperactivity - tachycard
ia).
. NON-tender gland.
. No skin, eye or nail diseases.
. RAIU -> NORMAL.
. Tx -> NONE !
.3. SUB-ACUTE Thyroiditis = De QUERVAIN's THYROIDITIS:
______________________________________________________
. Viral etiology.
. ++ ESR > 50 mm/hr.
. Thyroid TENDRNESS.
. Syms last for < 8 wks due to thyroid depletion.
. RAIU -> LOW.
. Tx -> ASPIRIN to relieve pain.
.4. PITUITARY ADENOMA:
______________________
. THE ONLY CAUSE OF HYPERTHYROIDISM WITH ++ T4 & ++ TSH !
. Dx -> Brain MRI.
. Tx -> Surgical removal.
.N.B. EXOGENOUS THYROID HORMONE ABUSE:
______________________________________
. ++ T4 & -- TSH.
. The galnd will atrophy to the degree of non-palpability on exam.
. N.B. THYROID STORM:
_____________________
. Acute, severe life threatening hyperthyroidism.
. Tx -> IODINE -> Blocks uptake of iodine into the gland.
. Tx -> Propylthiouracil or methimazole -> Blocks the production of thyroxine.
. Tx -> Dexamethazone -> Blocks peripheral conversion of T4 to T3.
. Tx -> Propranolol -> Blocks target organ effect.
# THYROID NODULE APPROACH:
__________________________
A . 1st step -> Cilinical evaluation - TSH level & thyroid ULTRA$OUND.
______________________________________________________________________
B . CANCER risk factors or suspicious U$ findings ??
____________________________________________________
. YES -> FNAB (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy).
. NO -> C. (TSH level).
C . TSH LEVEL ??
________________
. Normal or ++ -> FNAB.
. -- Low -------> D. (I 123 scintigraphy).

D . I - 123 scintigraphy:
_________________________
. HYPER-functional (HOT) nodule -> Treat hyperthyroidism.
. HYPO-functional (COLD) nodule -> FNAB.
. MOST thyroid nodules are BENIGN COLLOID nodules.
__________________________________________________
. SICK EUTHYROID $YNDROME = LOW T3 $YNDROME:
____________________________________________
. Abnormal thyroid function tests with an acute severe illness.
. May be due to caloric deprivation.
. Fall in total & free T3 levels with NORMAL T4 & TSH.
. FACTITIOUS THYROTOXICOSIS:
____________________________
. Due to exogenous thyroid hormone.
. H/O of psychiatric illness or attempted weight loss (Herbal remedy!).
. Thyrotoxicosis syms (Palpitations - sweating - weight loss - hyperactivity &
diarrhea).
. Lid lag may be present but NO exophthalmos (Excluding Grave's dis.).
. The ingested thyroid hormone disturbs the native thyroid axis !
. RAIU is decreased (-- Radio Active Iodine Uptake).
. Dx -> "LOW SERUM THYROGLOBULIN" is the main stay of diagnosis.
. Dx -> -- TSH & ++ T3 &/or T4.
. TOXIC ADENOMA:
________________
. ++ T4 & -- TSH levels.
. Symptoms suggestive of thyrotoxicosis.
. Radioactive uptake in the nodule & suppression of uptake ith rest of the thyr
oid gland.
. No infiltrative ophthalmopathy.
. THYROID RADIOACTIVE IODINE SCAN:
__________________________________
. HASHIMOTO's THYROIDITIS -> Heterogenous pattern.
. GRAVE's DISEASE ---------> Diffusely ++ uptake.
. MULTINODULAR GOITER -----> PATCHY.
. PAINLESS THYROIDITIS ----> -- markedly reduced uptake.
. SIDE EFFECTS OF RADIO-IODINE THERAPY -> HYPO or HYPER thyroidism !!
_____________________________________________________________________
. HYPOTHYROIDISM:
_________________
. Destruction of thyroid flollicles by radioactive iodine.
. Tx of hypothyroidism is Levo-thyroxine.
. Ophthalmopathy may worsen in 10 % of cases.
. THYROTOXICOSIS:
_________________
. may be a side effect of RADIO-IODINE theray !!
. I - 131 is taken up by thyroid follicles & then destroys them by emitting B-r
ays.
. Dying thyroid cells may release excess thyroid hormone into the circulation.
. Aggravating the hyperthyroid state.
. CONTRA-INDICATIONS to RADIO-ACTIVE IODINE THERAPY:
____________________________________________________
. PREGNANCY.
. VERY SEVERE OPHTHALMOPATHY.
. SIDE EFFECTS of ANTI-THYROID DRUGS (PROPYLTHIOURACIL):
________________________________________________________
. AGRANULOCYTOSIS (fever & sore throat) -> Stop the drug !
. SURGERY SIDE EFFECTS:
_______________________
. Permanent hypothyroidism.
. Risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve damage.

. COMPLICATIONS of UN-TREATED HYPER-THYROID PATIENTS:


_____________________________________________________
-> RAPID BONE LOSS -> due to ++ osteoclastic activity .
-> CARDIAC TACHYARRHYTMIA (Af).
. N.B. HYPERTENSION in pts with THYROTOXICOSIS:
_______________________________________________
. is predominantly SYSTOLIC.
. caused by HYPERDYNAMIC CIRCULATION.
. N.B. INDICATIONS OF THYROID FUNCTION TESTS:
_____________________________________________
-> HYPERLIPIDEMIA.
-> Un-explained hyponatremia.
-> Un-exlained ++ CPK.
# THYROID MALIGNANCIES:
_______________________
1 * PAPILLARY CARCINOMA:
________________________
-> MOST COMMON TYPE & BEST PROGNOSIS.
-> Slow infiltrative local spread.
-> Presence of PSAMMOMA bodies.
2 * MEDULLARY CARCINOMA:
________________________
-> CALCITONIN secretion.
3 * FOLLICULAR CARCINOMA:
_________________________
-> Invasion of the tumor capsule & blood vessels.
-> Early metastasis to distant organs.
. BIOCHEMISTERY IMPORTANT INFO:
_______________________________
. GLUCONEOGENESIS main substrates:
__________________________________
. Alanine - Lactate - Glycerol 3 phosphate.
. PYRUVATE is an INTERMEDIATE of Alaninie.
. MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA (MEN):
_____________________________________
* MEN TYPE 1:
______________
. Parathyroid adenoma.
. Pituitary tumor.
. Pancreatic tumor.
. {Mutation in the MEN 1 tumor suppressor gene}.
* MEN TYPE 2A:
______________
. Medullary thyroid cancer (HARD NODULE - ++ Calcitonin - Malignant cells on FN
AB).
. Pheochromocytoma.
. Parathyroid hyperplasia.
. Less aggressive (No associated cancers).
* MEN TYPE 2B:
______________
. Medullary thyroid cancer (HARD NODULE - ++ Calcitonin - Malignant cells on FN
AB).
. Pheochromocytoma (++ urinary metanephrines & nor-epinephrines levels).
. Neuromas (mucosal & intestinal).
. Marfanoid habitus (-- upper to lower body ratio - hypermobile joints - scolio
sis).
. {Mutation in the RET proto-oncogene located on chromosome 10}.
. DNA testing is used for screening.
. More aggressive (Associated cancers).
. DM SCREENING TESTS:

_____________________
.1. GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN Hb A 1C:
_____________________________________
. It is used to monitor chronic glycemic control.
. It is reflective of the pt's average glucose levels over the past 100-120 day
s.
. Preferred test in non fasting state.
. > 6.5 -> DM.
. < 5.7 -> Normal.
.2. FASTING BLOOD GLUCOSE:
___________________________
. No caloric intake for 8 hours.
. > 126 mg/dl -----> DM.
. 100 - 125 mg/dl -> Impaired fasting glucose.
. 70 - 99 mg/dl ---> NORMAL.
.3. RANDOM GLUCOSE LEVEL:
__________________________
. > 200 mg/dl with symptoms of hyperglycemia.
.4. ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST:
_________________________________
. MOST SENSITIVE TEST.
. 75 g glucose load with glucose testing for 2 hours.
. > 200 mg/dl -----> DM.
. 140 - 199 mg/dl -> Impaired glucose tolerance.
. DKA DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS:
____________________________
. Blood glucose level > 250.
. pH < 7.3
. Low serum HCO3 < 15-20
. Detection of plasma ketones.
. ++ ANION GAP {(Na) - (Cl+HCO3)} ----> AG > 8-12.
. H/O of previous stressor e.g. recent GIT infection.
. H/O of weight loss, ployurea & polydipsia.
. Deep rapid breathing (Kussmaul's respiration).
. Osmotic diuresis -- total body K (But : Serum K may be elevated!).
. ++ in K level due to EXTRA-CELLULAR SHIFT.
. PARADOXICAL HYPERKALEMIA (The body potassium reserves are actually depleted!)
. 1st initial simple step to detect DKA --> FINGER-STICK GLUCOSE !
. DKA MANAGEMENT:
_________________
.1. RAPID INTRAVENOUS NORMAL SALINE (0.9% SALINE).
.2. RAPID INTRAVENOUS REGULAR INSULIN.
.3. K correction.
.4. TTT of infections e.g. Abs.
. ARTERIAL pH or ANION GAP is the most reliable indicator of metabolic recovery
in DKA.
________________________________________________________________________________
_______
. HYPER-GLYCEMIC HYPER-OSMOLAR NON-KETOTIC COMA:
________________________________________________
-> Very high glucose levels.
-> Very high plasma osmolality.
-> NORMAL ANION GAP.
-> NEGATIVE SERUM KETONES.
. Non ketotic - Hyperglycemic coma management:
______________________________________________
. Fluid replacement with NORMAL SALINE.

_______________________________ .................... __________________________


______
. DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA) .................... HYPEROSMOLAR HYPERGLYCEMIC
STATE
________________________________ .................... __________________________
______
. Type (1) DM usually.
____________________ . Type (2) DM.
. YOUNGER age.
____________________ . Older.
. LESS confusion.
____________________ . MORE confusion.
. Hyperventillation MORE common ____________________ . Less common.
. Abdominal pain MORE common. ____________________ . LESS common.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______
. Glucose 250 - 500 mg/dl.
____________________ . > 600
. HCO3 < 18 meq/L.
____________________ . > 18
. +++++ ANION GAP.
____________________ . NORMAL.
. POSITIVE serum ketones.
____________________ . NEGATIVE.
. Serum osmolality < 320
____________________ . > 320.
. DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY:
_______________________
. Begins with HYPERFILTRATION (++GFR) & MICROALBUMINURIA.
. If not ttt well .. Micro becomes Macroalbumiuria > 300 mg/dl.
. INTENSIVE BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL to prevent worsenening of the condition.
. Use ACE Is with blood pressure goal 130/80 mmHg.
. Most sensitive screening test is -> RANDOM URINE MICRO-ALBUMIN/CREATININE RAT
IO.
. DIABETIC NEUROPATHY:
______________________
. DISTAL SYMMETRIC SENSORIMOTOR PLOYNEUROPATHY.
. STOCKING GLOVE pattern.
. It is the most common risk factor of foot ulcerations in diabetics.
. Tx -> TCAs (Amitriptyline - Gabapentin).
. DIABETIC GASTROPATHY:
_______________________
. Autonomic neuropathy of the GIT.
. Symptoms of delayed gastric emptying & gastroparesis.
. -- Esophageal dysmotility -> Dysphagia.
. -- Gastric emptying -------> Gastroparesis.
. Gastroparesis (Nausea - vomiting - early satiety - postprandial fullness).
. -- intestinal function ----> diarrhea - constipation - incontinence.
. Tx -> DN control - SMALL FREQUENT MEALS - METOCLOPROMIDE (prokinetic & Antiem
itic).
. SEs of Metoclopromide -> Extrapyramidal syms -> Tardive dyskinesia (Give Eryt
hromycin).
. ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION in D.M.:
_______________________________
. Due to vascular complications & neuropathy.
. 1st line of ttt is phosphodiesterase inhibitor (Sildenafil).
. Contr'd in pts being ttt with NITRATES.
. Sildenafil may predispose to PRIAPISM.
. When combined with an Alpha blocker (Prazosin), it is imp. to give them 4 hrs
apart,,
. to avoid SEVERE HYPOTENSION.
. DIABETIC FOOT management -> DEBRIDEMENT & proper wound care.
______________________________________________________________
. CAUSES OF HYPOGLYCEMIA in NON-DIABETIC pts:
_____________________________________________
1 - INSULINOMA (BETA cell tumor).
2 - SURREPTITIOUS use of insulin or sulfonylurea.

. INSULINOMA:
_____________
. BETA CELL TUMOR.
. Normally, blood glucose < 60 mg/dl result in complete suppression of insulin
secretion.
. Hypoglycemia in the presence of inappropriately ++ serum insulin levels = ins
ulinoma.
. ++ C-peptide level.
. ++ Pro-insulin.
. DIABETES INSIPIDUS:
_____________________
. Due to ADH defeciency or resistance.
. Urine osmolality is < serum osmolality.
. Polyurea & polydipsia.
. H/O of tendency to COLD BEVERAGES to QUENCH THIRST.
. Exclude psychogenic polydipsia using water deprivation test.
. Differentiate bet. central & nephrogenic DI using ARGININE VASOPRESSIN.
. Tx -> NORMAL SALINE.
. Tx -> CENTRAL -> INTRANASAL SPRAY DDAVP.
. Tx -> NEPHROGENIC -> NSAIDs & HCZ.
. HOW CAN U DIFFERENTIATE BET. DI & PSYCHOGENIC POLYDIPSIA:
___________________________________________________________
. WATER DEPRIVATION TEST:
__________________________
. Failure to concentrate urine after deprivation -> DI.
. Production of concentrated urine ---------------> Psychogenic polydipsia.
. HOW CAN U DIFFERENTIATE BET. CENTRAL & NEPHROGENIC DI:
________________________________________________________
. ARGININE VASOPRESSIN (AVP) or DESMOPRESSIN adminstration:
____________________________________________________________
. CENTRAL DI -----> ++ in urine osmolality.
. NEPHROGENIC DI -> No significant ++ !
. SYNDROME OF INAPPROPRIATE ADH SECRETION (SIADH):
__________________________________________________
. ++ ADH levels without stimuli of its release.
. NORMAL SERUM osmolality -> 275 - 295 mOsm.
. NORMAL URINE osmolality -> 50 - 1400 mOsm.
. Dx -> Simultaneous measurment of urine & plasma osmolality.
. The normal response to hypotonicity (low plasma osmolality) is ,
. the production of maximally diluted urine (low urine osmolality -> < 100 mOsm
.)
. LOW plasma osmolal. (<280 mOsm.) & HIGH urine osmolality (>100-150mOsm) is di
agnostic.
. Tx of SIADH:
-> Mild symptoms (forgetfulness & unstable gait) -> Fluid restriction.
-> Moderate symptoms (Confusion & lethargy) -> HYPERTONIC SALINE (3%).
-> Severe symptoms (seizures & coma) -> Hypertonic saline + Conivaptan.
. BOTTOM LINE:
______________
* Diabetes insipidus:
______________________
. Polyurea - polydipsia - excretion of diluted urine with ++ serum osmolality.
* 1ry (Psychogenic) polydipsia:
________________________________
. Excessive water drinking -> BOTH plasma & urine are diluted.
* SIADH:

_________
. Hyponatremia - LOW serum osmolality & inappropriately high urine osmolality.
. P.O.C.------- # DIABETES INSIPIDUS -------- # PSYCHOGENIC POLYDIPSIA --------# SIADH
_____
__________________
______________________
_____
-> SERUM osm. --->
(+)
(-)
(-)
-> URINE osm. --->
(-)
(-)
(+)
. HYPER-VITAMINOSIS "D":
________________________
. H/O of trials of weight loss with vitamin supplementations.
. Vit. D ++ Ca absorption -> Hypercalcemia.
. Constipation - Abd. pain - Polyurea - Polydipsia.
. METABOLIC $YNDROME:
_____________________
1- ABDOMINAL OBESITY -> Waist circumference (Men > 40 & Women > 35 inches).
2- DIABETIS MELLITIS -> Fasting glucose > 100 - 110 mg/dl.
3- HYPERTENSION ------> Blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg.
4- HYPERLIPIDEMIA ----> Triglycerides > 150 mg/dl & HDL (Men < 40 & Women < 50
mg/dl).
. The main mechanism of DM development in metabolic $ is INSULIN RESISTANCE.
. ACROMEGALY:
_____________
. ++ GROWTH hormone by SOMATOtroph PITUITARY ADENOMA.
. GH -> ++ IGF-1.
. IGF-1 ++ growth of bones & soft tissues.
. Coarse facial features - arthralgia - uncontrolled HTN - skin tags.
. Carpal tunnel $.
. Dx -> The MOST SENSITIVE TEST is -> IGF-1 level (GH level fluctuations is dec
eiving).
. Suppression of GH by giving glucose excludes acromegaly.
. MRI -> Pituitary lesion.
. Tx -> Surgical resection with trans-sphenoidal removal.
. Tx -> Somatostatin - Cabergoline or bromocriptine.
. MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEATH is CONGESTVE HEART FAILURE.
. Non cardiac causes of death: stroke - cancer colon - renal failure.
. ANDROGEN PRODUCING ADRENAL TUMOR in FEMALES:
______________________________________________
. Best indicator is DHEA-S = De-Hydro Epi-Androsterone Sulfate.
. PROLACTINOMA:
_______________
. Prolactin secreting micro-adenoma.
. Pituitary tumor < 10 mm in diameter is called micro-adenoma.
. Amenorrhea & galactorrhea in females.
. Hypogonadism in males.
. Its small size can't lead to mass effects of ++ ICT.
. Tx -> 1st line is medical ttt with Dopamine agonists (CABERGOLINE or BROMOCRI
PTINE).
. Cabergoline normalizes the prolactin level & shrinks the tumor's size.
# CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS:
______________________
. 3 forms of calcium (ionized Ca 45% - Albumin bound Ca 40% - Inorganic anions
bound Ca).
. Albumin plays an imp. role !
. Pts with hypo-albuminemia can have a low level of total plasma ca,
. However ,, They may NOT present with clinical hypocalcemia,
. Because their level of ionized calcium (physilologically active form) remain

ed normal.
. So .. it is imp. to calculate the CORRECTED SERUM CALCIUM LEVEL.
. CORRECTED SERUM CALCIUM LEVEL = TOTAL Ca + 0.8 (4 - Serum Albumin).
. Another rough method,
. With every 1 g/dl change in serum albumin level from 4 g/dl,
. there is a change in total plasma Ca level by 0.8 mg/dl.
# ++ Ca (Hyperclacemia) Approach -> Measure Parathormone (PTH):
_______________________________________________________________
* ++ Ca & ++ PTH -> 1ry hyperparathyroidism (abd. groans - renal stones - bones
- moans).
________________
* ++ Ca & -- PTH -> Malignancy - vit. D toxicity - Sarcoidosis.
________________
# -- Ca & ++ PO4 causes -> CRF & Primary hypothyroidism.
________________________________________________________
. CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE:
________________________
. -- Ca & ++ PO4 & ++ PTH.
. Exclude CRF by NORMAL renal function tests (urea & creatinine).
. PRIMARY HYPO-THYROIDISM:
__________________________
. Causes -> post-surgical- congenital absence - autoimmune.
. Post surgical may occur after thyroidectomy & removal of 3.5 out of 4 parathy
roids.
. -- Ca -> perioral tingling - numbness - ms cramps - carpopedal spasms - seizu
res.
. EKG -> prolongation of the QT interval.
# Causes of ++ Ca & + PTH: 1ry Hyperparathyroidism & familial hypocalciuric hype
rcalcemia:
________________________________________________________________________________
__________
. Differentiated by 24 hour urinary calcium:
____________________________________________
. Primary Hyper-parathyroidism ---------> > 250 mg.
. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia -> < 100 mg.
. PRIMARY HYPER-PARA-THYROIDISM:
________________________________
. Causes -> Parathyroid adenoma (90%) - hyperplasia (6%) & carcinoma (2%).
. Associated with MEN 1 & 2A.
. 80 % of pts are asymptomatic.
. Abdominal groans, renal stones, bones #s & psychic moans.
. ++ Ca & -- PO4 & ++ or normal PTH.
. 24 hours urinary calcium > 250 mg.
. Urinary calcium/creatinine > 0.02 (To rule out familial hypo-calciuric hypercalcemia).
. Dx -> 3Ds SESTAMIBI scan + U/$ to locate the hyperactive parathyroid tissue p
resurgery.
. Tx -> Parathyroidectomy for symptomatic pts.
. Surgery indications:
_____________________
-> Serum Ca level > 1 mg/dl above the upper limit of normal (11mg/dl).
-> Young age < 50 ys.
-> Bone mineral density < T-2.5 at any stage.
-> -- Renal function (GFR < 60ml/min.).
. HYPERCALCEMIA of MALIGNANCY:
______________________________
. ++ Ca -> confusion - lethargy - fatigue - anorexia - polyuria & constipation.
. Associated with SQUAMOUS cell lung cancer.
. CXR finding of lung cancer (lobar mass & perihilar lymphadenopathy).
. Malignancy produces PTH related peptide PTHrP -> ++ Ca & -- PO4.

. HYPERCALCEMIA (++Ca) ALGORITHM:


_________________________________
.(++Ca)
.|
.Measure PTH level
__________________
.|
.____________________________________________________
.|
.|
.(+++)
.(---)
.(PTH dependent)
. (PTH-INdependent)
________________
___________________
.|
.|
.Measure urinary Ca
._____________________________________________
__
.|

.|

.|

.|

.+1,25(OH)D

.+25(OH)D

.|

.|

.|
.________________
.+PTHrP
AL LABs
.|
.|
.|
.|
.> 250
.< 100
.TUMOR
THYROIDISM
.|
.|
P. MYELOMA
1ry or 3ry
.Familial
al tumor
Hyperpara.Hypercalcemic
egaly
thyroidism
.Hypocalciuria
toxicity

.NORM

.Lymphoma-Sarcoid .Vit.D toxicity.HYPER


.MULTI
.Adren
.Acrom
.Vit.A

.Immob
ilization
. IMPORTANT CASE SCENARIO:
__________________________
. Rapid ascent to a height of 10000 feet -> HYPO-calcemia ! HOW ?? (++ Albumin
bound Ca).
________________________________________________________________________________
__________
. Respiratory alkalosis = ++ pH level -> ++ the affinity of serum albumin to ca
lcium.
. ++ the levels of ALBUMIN-bound Ca -> -- the level of IONIZED Ca (Active form)
.
. -- Ionized Ca (Active form) -> Hypocalcemia manifestations.
. PAN-HYPO-PITUITARISM:
_______________________
* Pituitary tumors are the most common cause by exerting pressure on pituitary
cells.
* ACTH defeciency (2ry adrenal insuffeciency): "-- Glucocorticoids":
____________________________________________________________________
-> Postural hypotension & tachycardia.
-> Fatigue & weight loss.
-> -- libido, hypoglycemia & eosinophilia.
* HYPOTHYROIDISM (Central):
___________________________
-> Fatigue, cold intolerance, -- appetite, constipation & dry skin.
-> Bradycardia, delayed relaxation phase of DTRs & anemia.

* -- GONADOTROPINS:
___________________
-> Women -> Amenorrhea, infertility & hot flashes.
-> Men -> -- energy & libido.
. OSTEOPOROSIS:
_______________
. Postmenopausal woman.
. presenting with multiple bony #s.
. NORMAL serum Ca - PO4 & PTH.
. OSTEOMALACIA:
_______________
. Vit. D defeciency in ADULTS.
. Bony pain & tendrness.
. -- serum Ca & PO4.
. -- urinary Ca.
. ++ ALP & ++ PTH.
. -- 25 OH-D.
. X-ray -> BILATERAL SYMMETRIC PSEUDO-FRACTURES (LOOSER ZONES).
. PAGET's DISEASE:
__________________
. NORMAL serum Ca - PO4 & PTH.
. INCREASED ++ ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE.
. Tx -> BIPHOSPHONATES -> inhibit OsteoCLASTs asctivity.
. CAUSES of HYPOKALEMIA & --BICARBONATE HCO3 {Metabolic Alkalosis} -> (Check REN
IN):
________________________________________________________________________________
____
.. CAUSES of HYPOKALEMIA & ++ ALDOSTERONE & -- RENIN -> PRIMARY HYPER-ALDOSTERON
ISM.
_____________________________________________________
.. CAUSES of HYPOKALEMIA & ++ BOTH ALDOSTERONE & RENIN -> (Check Cl):
_____________________________________________________________________
(A) WITH ++ CHLORIDE (Check Na):
(B) WITH -- CHLORIDE:
_________________________________
_____________________
1- -- Na -----> (Diuretic use).
1- Surreptitious vomiting.
2- Normal Na -> (Bartter's $).
2- Factitious diarrhea.
3- ++ Na -----> (Renin secreting tumor).
. SURREPTITIOUS VOMITING:
_________________________
. Scars & calluses on the dorsum of the hands & dental erosions.
. Result from chemical & mechanical injury as the pt uses his hands to induce v
omiting.
. Dental erosions result due to ++ exposure to gastric acid..
. May lead to hypovolemia & hypochloremia -> Low urine Cl level.
. CAUSES OF HYPERTENSION & HYPOKALEMIA:
_______________________________________
. Primary hyperaldosteronism & Reno-vascular hypertension.
. Check the PLASMA RENIN ACTIVITY (PRA).
. Primary hyperaldosteronism -> LOW PRA.
. Reno-vascular hypertension -> HIGH PRA.
# ADRENAL DISORDERS:
____________________
____________________
.1. CUSHING $YNDROME = HYPER-Corticolism:
_________________________________________
. ++ Cortisol.
. Fat redistribution -> Truncal obesity - moon face - buffalo hump - thin arms
& legs.
. Easy bruising & striae -> Cortisol leads to loss of collagen.

. Hypertension -> From salt & water retention.


. Ms wasting.
. Hirsutism -> due to ++ adrenal androgen levels.
. Hyperglycemia - Hyperlipidemia - Leukocytosis - Metabolic alkalosis.
. Dx -> 1 mg over-night dexamethasone suppression test:
_______________________________________________________
. Give dexamethasone at 11 a.m. the night before.
. A normal person will will suppress the 8 a.m. level.
. A NORMAL 1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test EXCLUDES hypercorticol
ism.
. Abnormal test may be false elevated due to stress or alcoholism.
. Dx -> 24 hour urine cortisol:
_______________________________
. Done to confirm that an overnight dexamethasone suppression test is not false
ly ++.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_
. Sources of Cushing $ ------> Pituitary tumor - Ectopic - ACTH Adrenal adenoma
:
_______________________________________________________________________________
_
. ACTH ---------------------->
HIGH
- HIGH - LOW.
. High dose dexamethazone ---> Suppression No - No.
. Specific tests ------------>
MRI
CT - CT adrenals.
. Tx ------------------------>
Removal
- Removal - Removal.
. TO DIAGNOSE THE PRESENCE OF CUSHINNG $, Do the following tests:
__________________________________________________________________
1- 24 hour urine cortisol.
2- 1 mg over night dexamethasone test.
. To diagnose the origin of CUSHING $, Check the ACTH level:
_____________________________________________________________
* ACTH -> HIGH -> PITUITARY or ECTOPIC source.
* ACTH -> LOW -> ADRENAL source.
.2. ADRENAL INSUFFECIENCY = ADDISON DISEASE:
____________________________________________
. Fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, weakness & hypotension.
. Thin pt with hyperpigmented skin.
. Labs -> ++ K, -- Na, -- BP & EOSINOPHILIA.
. Dx -> COSYNOTROPIN (Synthetic ACTH) stimulation test:
_______________________________________________________
. Measure the level of cortisol bef. & aft. cosynotropin adminstration.
. NO RISE IN CORTISOL -> Adrenal insuffeciency.
. Dx -> CT adrenals.
. Tx -> FLUIDS + Steroid replacement (IV HYDROCORTISONE).
. CAUSES:
__________
. 1- Auto-immune adrenalitis -> Responsible of 80% of cases in developed countr
ies.
. 2- Adrenal Tuberculosis -> CT: CALCIFICATION of both glands.
. CENTRAL (TERTIARY) ADRENAL INSUFFECIENCY:
___________________________________________
. Due to long term supra-physiologic doses of prednisone.
. Suppressing the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis.
. Glucocorticoids suppress Corticotropin Releasing Hormone secretion from hypot
halamus,
. Also .. Block the action of of CRH on the anterior pituitary to release ACTH.
. ACTH acts on adrenal cortex & is responsible for the secretion of cortisol &
androgen.

. ACTH has mild stimulatory effect on Aldosterone secretion,


. so .. Aldosterone level is relatively normal in ACTH defeciency in central ad
renal def.
. NORMALLY, Cortisol suppresses ADH production by the posterior pituitary.
. In case of central adrenal def. -> -- cortisol -> ++ ADH secretion.
. ++ ADH -> Water retention -> Hyponatremia.
. TYPES OF ADRENAL INSUFFECIENCY ALGORITHM:
___________________________________________
.Symptoms & signs of adrenal insuffeciency
__________________________________________
.|
. 250Mg COSYNOTROPIN stimulation test with CORTISOL & ACTH levels
.________________________________________________________________
.|
. Minimal response
._________________
|
._________________________________________________
.|
|
. Basal cortisol LOW
. Basal cortisol
LOW
. ACTH HIGH
.____________________

. ACTH LOW
.________________

____
.|
. PRIMARY AI

.|
. SECONDARY or TERTIA

RY AI
.3. PRIMARY HYPER-ALDOSTERONISM:
________________________________
. Hypokalemia + Hypertension + Proximal muscle weakness & numbness.
. Hypernatremia + metbaolic alkalosis.
. Dx -> Measure (PA:PRA) -> Plasma Aldosterone : Plasma Renin Activity ratio.
. Result -> ++ Plasma Aldosterone & -- Plasma Renin Activity i.e. Ratio > 30 !
. (PA:PRA) -> is the most specific test.
.
.
.
.
.

Confirm the diagnosis -> Aldosterone suppression test.


Give oral or IV NaCl then measure 24 hs urinary or plasma aldosterone level.
If Aldosterone level > 14 mg/24 hs despite Na loading -> So Dx is confirmed.
Once u confirm the diagnosis -> Detect the cause,
CT scan of the adrenals -> Adrenal mass -> Adrenal vein sampling.
. EVALUATION OF SUSPECTED HYPERALDOSTERONISM:
_____________________________________________
. HYPERTENSION & HYPOKALEMIA
_____________________________
|
. Measure PLASMA RENIN ACTIVITY (PRA)
______________________________________
.& PLASMA ALDOSTERONE CONCENTRATION (PAC)
_________________________________________
|
______________________________________________________
|
|
|
. + PRA & + PAC
. - PRA & + PAC
. - PRA & - PAC
________________
________________
________________
|
|
|
SECONDARY HYPERALDOSTERONISM PRIMARY HYPERALDOSTERONISM Other causes of ++ A
ldosterone

____________________________ __________________________ ____________________


__________
* Diuretic use.
* Do a CT ADRENAL to
*Congenital adrenal h
yperplasia
* Liver cirrhosis.
* detect the etiology ! * Glucocorticoid resi
stance.
* Congestive heart failure.
* Exogenous mineraloc
orticoid.
* Reno-vascular hypertension.
* Cushing's $yndrome.
* Renin secreting tumor.
* Malignant hypertension.
* Coarctation of the aorta.
.4. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA:
_____________________
. Headache, palpitations, tremors, anxiety & flushing.
. Episodic elevations of blood pressue.
. Dx -> BEST INITIAL -> ++ catecholamines level in plasma & urine.
. Dx -> BEST INITIAL -> ++ metanephrines & VMA levels.
. Dx -> MOST ACCURATE -> CT or MRI or MIBG of the adrenal glands.
. Tx -> PHENOXYBENZAMINE (Alpha blocker) "FIRST" to control blood pressure.
. e'out Alpha blockage, BB may lead to CATASTROPHIC ++ in BP due to unopposed A
lpha stim.
. Tx -> Propranolol is used "AFTER" an alpha blocker .
. Tx -> Surgical resection.
. N.B. It is a part of MEN type 2 A & B (DNA testing is imp. RET PROTO-ONCOGENE
).
.5. CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA (CAH):
_________________________________________
. ++ ACTH.
. -- Aldosterone & cortisol.
. Tx -> Prednisone.
. Types of CAH:
_______________
____________________________ ___________________________ ____________________
_________
* 21 hydroxylase defeciency - * 11 hydroxylase defeciency - * 17 hydroxylase de
feciency
____________________________ ___________________________ ____________________
_________
* ++ Adrenal androgens
- * ++ Adrenal androgens
- * -- Adrenal androg
ens
* Hirsutism
- * Hirsutism
- * NO hirsutism
* ++ 17 hydroxy-progesterone- * NO
- * NO
* NO hypertension
- * HYPERTENSION
- * HYPERTENSION
. LEYDIG CELL TUMORS:
_____________________
. Most common type of testicular sex cord tumors.
. ++ ESTROGEN & -- FSH & LH.
. ANDROGEN SECRETING NEOPLASM of the OVARY or ADRENAL:
______________________________________________________
. Rapidly developing hyper-androgenism with verilization.
. Serum TESTOSTERONE & DHEAS levels are diagnostic.
. ++ TESTOSTERONE & NORMAL DHEAS -> OVARIAN source.
. NORMAL TESTOSTERONE & ++ DHEAS -> ADRENAL source.
. PATHOLOGY of bone diseases:
_____________________________
. OSTEOMALACIA -> -- Mineralization of the bone.
. RICKETS ------> -- Mineralization of the bone & CARTILAGE.
. PAGET's ------> Disordered remodeling.
. OSTEOPOROSIS -> NORMAL mineralization but low bone mass.

. ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION:
_______________________
. Failure to achieve a spontaneous erection.
. Causes:
. * NEUROGENIC -> injury of the parasympathetic nerve fibers (# pelvis or ureth
ral tear).
. * VENOGENIC -> Disruption of tunica albuginea (# penis).
. * ENDOCRINOLOGIC -> ++ prolactin & -- Testosterone.
. * SITUATIONAL -> Anxiety (Nighttime & morning erctions are preserved).
. N.B. NOCTURNAL PENILE TUMESCENCE:
___________________________________
. helps to differentiate psychogenic from organic causes of male erectile dysf
unction.
. +ve in psychogenic causes.
. -ve in organic causes.
. PROLACTINOMA = LACTO-TROPH ADENOMA:
_____________________________________
. The MOST COMMON pituitary tumor.
. ++ PRL.
. Hypogoandism & galactorrhea.
Dr. Wael Tawfic Mohamed
_________________________