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Menschen fr Menschen Foundation

Draft WaSH Manual of Procedures for


Schools built by Menschen fr
Menschen
Draft Document

Henock Markos

This manual of procedures is intended to be used for the schools built and/or
support my Menschen fr Menschen foundation. In the preparation of this manual,
global principle of school WaSH is consulted and adapted to the national and MfM
concept. The overall objective is to create child friendly schools with effective
integration of WaSH.

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Table of Content
Table of Content.......................................................................................................... i
Section I. Introduction............................................................................................. 1
1.1.
Importance of WaSH in Schools...............................................................1
1.2.
Purpose and Scope of the Manual...........................................................1
Section II. Water Supply........................................................................................ 3
2.1
Estimate Water Demand..........................................................................3
2.2
Consider Available Water Supply System................................................4
2.2.1
Groundwater Sources..............................................................................4
2.2.2
Rainwater catchment system/School Rooftop Water Harvesting/............5
2.2.3
Ground Reserve Wire Water Storage system...........................................7
2.2.4
Pipe Water Supply Connection.................................................................7
2.2.5
Water Carting (from home drinking and river for hygiene & sanitation)..8
2.2.6
Ensure Combined System and Multipurpose Use of MfM Water
Developments............................................................................................................ 8
2.3
Management of Water Sources................................................................8
2.4
Accessibility for Use: Disinfection, Water Quality test and Accessibility. .9
Section III................................................................Sanitary Facilities in Schools
9
3.1.
Key Principles for WaSH Facilities............................................................9
3.2.
Latrine Facilities (VIP Refresher)............................................................10
3.3.
Number and Location Latrines..............................................................10
3.4.
Hand Washing Facilities.........................................................................12
Section IV.Waste Management...........................................................................13
4.1.
Type and Nature of Waste in Schools.....................................................13
4.2.
Waste Water Management.....................................................................14
4.3.
Multiple Use of Waste Water in Schools.................................................15
4.4.
Garbage-Solid Wastes............................................................................15
Section V. Management and Sustainability of School Wash Facilities and
System
15
5.1.
Key Principles in Management of School Wash Facilities.......................16
5.2.
Monitoring School WaSH Facilities.........................................................16
5.3.
Financing School WaSH Program...........................................................17
Section VI......Participation and Linkages with Community and Stakeholders
18
6.1.
Involving Parents and Community in Planning for Improvements.........18
6.2.
Main Roles of Community in the Management and Promotion of School
WaSH
18
6.3.
Training of School Community...............................................................19
Section VII...........................................Child Participation and WaSH Education
20
7.1.
Life Skills-Based Hygiene Education......................................................20
7.2.
Development of WaSH Teaching Aids and IEC Materials........................23
7.3.
Establishing School WaSH Club.............................................................23
Section VIII........................School WaSH Program Planning for Improvements
25
8.1.
Participatory Assessment of the Current Condition, Needs and Problems
25
1

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8.2.
8.3.
Annex
Annex
WaSH
Annex
Annex

I.
II.
III.
IV.

Setting Objective...................................................................................25
Making Action Plan................................................................................ 26
School WaSH Program Regular Action Plan...............................................i
Outlines for training of teachers , PTA and community members on
i
VIP Latrine Description............................................................................. ii
Lay out of school WaSH facility...............................................................iii

Acronyms

EFA

Education for All

ESDP

Education Sector Development Program

IRDP

Integrated Rural Development Program

MDG

Millennium Development Goals

MfM

Menschen fr Menschen

MfM PCO

Menschen fr Menschen Project Coordination


Office

MoE

Ministry of Education

MoH

Ministry of Health

MoWE

Ministry of Water and Energy

PTA

Parent- Teacher- Association

UNICEF

United Nations Children Fund

VIP

Ventilated Improve Pit

WaSH

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

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Section I. Introduction
1.1.

Importance of WaSH in Schools

Access and Quality of education requires suitable infrastructure, teaching and


learning materials, competent teachers and good governance. But the role of
physical infrastructure is paramount to sufficiently implement other components
of access and quality education. In this line MfM has been building standard
schools since 1982 with the object of creating access to quality education.
Rehabilitating, maintaining and expanding school sanitation and hygiene
infrastructure which includes water supply, latrine and hand-washing facilities,
needs to be part of this priority in improving school infrastructure.
The strategic approach of providing schools with safe drinking water, improved
sanitation facilities and hygiene education that encourages the development of
healthy behaviors for life is known as Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Education
(WaSH). The strategy helps fulfil childrens rights to health, education and
participation, and has been widely recognized for its significant contributions to
achieving the MDGs particularly those related to providing access to primary
education, reducing child mortality, improving water and sanitation, and
promoting gender equality. WaSH in Schools not only promotes hygiene and
increases access to quality education but also supports national and local
interventions to establish equitable, sustainable access to safe water and basic
sanitation services in schools.
School water, sanitation and hygiene contribute to childrens learning and school
experiences in many ways. It evident that well implementation of WaSH directly
contributes for improved cognitive function and attention of children, reduces
drop-out and days missed from school, increased safety and other results. A
survey made by MoH in collaboration with UNICEF in 2007 showed that about half
of the ailment found among school children is related to urinary infections. The
experiences and observations made during assessment in rural areas for planning
of new schools by MfM also support the impact is more apparent among girls.
Inadequate school WaSH system disables children from meeting their learning
potentials. Thus, despite high enrollment achieved by classroom infrastructure,
drop-out and completion rate can be low.
Considering this importance for education, not only MfM but also MoE positioned
WaSH as one of the priority action program in the strategic documents. Focus on
school WaSH has also impact on the community level. Schools have a central
place in a community. Children can act as agents of change, since schools
stimulate a learning environment for children; they can initiate change of what
they learned in schools about WaSH to their family and community. The schools
by themselves can also be promoted as a model for the community in its practice
of WaSH.
1.2.

Purpose and Scope of the Manual

This manual of procedure is meant to be a guiding and stimulating material on


WaSH for the rural schools built by MfM for MfM personnel and school community
who have involvement in design, construction and implementation of WaSH
program. It intends to give complete range of components and elements of WaSH

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program and seeks to set out the current state of knowledge and experience for
schools in rural setting. This manual is prepared consulting the principles and
designs stipulated in the manual prepared by Ministry of health, education and
water and energy in collaboration with UNICEF and also national WaSH strategy.
The concepts basically derived from the national strategies and procedures of
education programs and particularly on WaSH. Thus, it presents illustrations and
physical activities from Design and Construction Manual for WaSH for Schools
prepared by Ministry of Health, Education and Water & Energy in collaboration
with UNICEF in 2012 and ESDP IV. Accordingly, in the child friendly principles are
taken as the prior basis for implementation of this practices stated in this manual.
This manual on WaSH deals with both hardware and software aspects needed to
bring about changes in hygiene behavior of students and, through these students,
in the community at large. The hardware is the total package of sanitary
conditions and facilities available in and around the school compound. It gives
prescription on structures since it is national guideline documents which presented
tried and tested technical solutions. However, the applicability of the proposed
type WaSH facilities are subject for scrutiny for detailed cost effectiveness.
The software is the activities aiming to promote conditions at school and practices
of school staff and children that help to prevent water and sanitation-related
diseases. The software, it is not only prescribe but also it gives overviews,
stimulate change and provide ideas and guidance to make schools center of
change and diffusion of good sanitation and hygiene practices for the children
their teachers and parents, and their communities at large.
In general the manual intends to give directions for Menschen fr
Menschen the important concepts and principles that required adhering
to in all stages school project; from the inception-planningimplementation, monitoring and handover phases. Detail procedures
and action plans that are expected to be implemented in each phase of
school project is presented in Section 9 and Annex I. The conceptual
framework the manual is derived from globally accepted Child-friendly-school
principle, which is presented below.
Box 1: Child Friendly Principles
1. Girls and boys should be consulted about the number, location, orientation
and design of school WASH facilities. This consultation should be organized
with girls and boys separately, discussions facilitated by women and men
respectively.
2. The numbers of toilets should be sufficient to ensure that students do not
have to wait in a queue to use the toilet for anything more than a few
minutes. Urinals can help reduce load on the toilets at peak times. Equally,
the school administration should arrange and if necessary stagger school
breaks to avoid overloading

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3. WASH structures in schools must be physically safe for users to use - in terms
of the structural stability; in terms of a child not being able to fall through an
oversized drop hole; in terms of children not risking abuse, bullying or attack
when approaching, using or leaving the facilities provided
4. Physically separate facilities must be provided for girls and boys, spaced
sufficiently apart to ensure that girls do not feel embarrassed but secure
when approaching and using the facilities. Separate hand-washing areas
should also be provided, affording privacy for girls who may need to wash and
dry menstrual cloths.
5. The orientation of facilities specifically the direction that the toilet entrance
faces, must also take into account the perceived security and safety of girls.
The orientation of the squatting plate should also take into account cultural
and religious norms
6. The location of toilets needs special consideration. Too close, and users may
feel embossed as peers can see them from the class room; the smell from the
vent pipe may be offensive. Too far, and it may take too long to get to the
toilet for a child with a small bladder. Remote toilets are often neglected, and
may be perceived as unsafe.
7. The detailed design of the facilities provided must also be child friendly. Steps
must be easy to climb. Door handles must be easy to reach. The toilet interior
cannot be too dark. Squatting plates must be designed to accommodate a
childs feet rather than those of an adult.
8. Hand-washing facilities must be provided in each toilet block, together with
water and soap. The hand-washing stand must be sized to facilitate its use by
smaller as well as larger children. The facility must provide an acceptable
degree of privacy for girls. The design must facilitate the filling of water
containers by children
9.

Facilities provided must include provision for disabled children, with at least
one toilet cubicle for girls and one for boys modified accordingly. In terms of
design, ramps and hand rails should be provided, with more internal space for
a caregiver to assist if necessary. Disabled girls and boys should be consulted
with their able bodied peers to get the design right.

10.WASH facilities and related practices should be designed to encourage


children to understand their environment and conserve scarce resources,
especially water resources. With the right technology and safe supervision,

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urine, waste water and composted fecal matter from toilet pits can be reused
to support agricultural production and boost the schools budget.
Section II.

Water Supply

Availability of water inside schools is imperative for drinking as well as to maintain


acceptable sanitation and hygiene practices. Without access to water it will be
very challenging to implement WaSH practices in schools and children become
very susceptible for diseases. MfM is very active in improving water supply for
rural community since its establishment. However, the assessments made
indicate quite a number of schools do not have a stable water supply. As stated in
WaSH document prepared nationally stated, the design of WaSH cannot function
without water.
Whilst there are a wide range of water supply solutions applicable in schools, in
most cases, relatively few will be feasible because of the schools specific location
and elevation, the limited budget available for construction, and the limited
budget available to pay for operation and maintenance.
Thus, the potential means need to be thoroughly explored to address the water
requirements in schools built by MfM.
2.1

Estimate Water Demand

Water is the critical resource to effectively implement WaSH practices. Children,


and also teachers and staff working in the school need water for healthy learning
environment. Children need water for drinking, metabolic sanitary and hygiene
requirements, to keep the toilets and urinals clean as well as for hand-washing
after using toilets and urinals.
However, accurate basis is important for
estimation the water demand and apparently to deciding the proper water supply
system. In this manual the water demand estimation method used in MoEd
documents of ESDP IV and WaSH and UNICEF is taken as source.
ESDP IV document indicated 5 liters per child per day is an ideal and a norm for
schools. On the other hand UNICEF, MoEd, MoE and MoWE suggested, for a
typical rural school with a VIP type toilet, it is estimated that 1 liter is needed for
drinking, 0.5 liters for hygiene (hand washing with soap) and 0.5 liters for cleaning
both the toilet and urinal per student per day. For a 4 stand toilet block and urinal
(catering for 400 students), this equates to 200 liters for hand-washing and 200
liters for cleaning. Inevitably, some water is wasted, and additional water may be
needed for menstrual hygiene, so an average of 2 liters per student per day only
for sanitation and hygiene is appropriate. An additional 1 to 2 liters per
student per day is needed for drinking. But it is also observed even providing a
total of 3 to 4 liters per student and teacher can be a great challenge for some
schools. Much more water is required for residential schools, for staff living on
campus, and to operate flush toilets. The greater the water demand, the greater
the amount of waste water and grey water that will need to be disposed of.
Taking the above information into consideration, MfM should take 4 to 5 liters
of water per day per child and teachers as ideal demand estimation for

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schools in rural areas1. Based on this calculation the estimated demand of
water supply is depicted in this table.

R. No.

Number of Students

Estimated Liters of Water Demanded


per Day

500-600

2400

600-700

2800

700-800

3200

800-900

3600

900-1000

4000

1000-1100

4400

1100-1200

4800

1200-1300

5200

1300-1400

5600

10

1400-1500

6000

11

1500-1600

6400

2.2 Consider Available Water Supply System


1 The demand per child is estimated to be 5 liters per day if shower is included as standard facility.
Depending on the available fund MfM shall consider including shower, especially for girls.

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The WaSH document prepared by Ministry of Health, Education and Water and
Energy explained broadly there are two water supply systems for rural schools,
Rainwater Catchment System and Groundwater Supply System. Apart from the
above two major water sources, there are conventional water supply sources
where water may be taken directly from a river or lake or reservoir and subjected
it to treatment before domestic use. Water development is involves complex level
of cost assessment and physical activities which will be the basis to select among
the available alternative water supply means2. This section discussed the available
options that can be considered for the rural schools built by MfM. In the
considering the alternative water supplies, apart from availability and physical
dealing, the issues regarding implementation costs and sustainably (especially
after hand-over) need to be given prior attention.
2.2.1

Groundwater Sources
Studies show that 70% of the water supply source in Ethiopia is from ground water
source such as spring and wells. In addition, unlike roof catchment, ground water
sources do not require special treatment for water quality, means it is generally
safe to drink directly from the source because the natural filtering through the soil.
For this reasons, groundwater sources are one of the most ideal sources of water
supply for MfM schools considering their availability.
MfM operated on quite diverse topographic, climate and geomorphology areas
where the groundwater sources can also be wide range. The major groundwater
supply sources identified that are considered appropriate, financially realistic and
useful for school water supply are spring water and wells. MfM is already has
spring water, shallow wells and hand dug-wells in many rural parts of Ethiopia.
Below explanation is given on how to integrate groundwater sources for school
water supply with their benefits and constraints.

Spring Water
Springs in Ethiopia are located in large number in high rainfall areas, along the
slopes and valley bottoms of mountainous areas and escarpment of edges of
plateaus that have adequate rainfall input and vegetative land cover. Spring
water is considered as the most ideal for most of MfM because generally
considered as safe water and inexpensive in its development.
The main structural components of the spring water system include (the detail
design and construction is found in manual prepared by MoEd, MoH and MoWE
together with UNICEF):
i).

A protective structure at the sources or where it appears at the ground surface


(eye of the spring).

2 Detailed physical design and construction it is advised to consult the WaSH document prepared by
Ministry of Health, Education and Water and Energy in 2012 in Collaboration with UNICEF, which this
manual takes as its principal source and adapt it to context of MfM education program.

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ii).

A collection chamber (storage) which is used for collecting night storage and it
is located downstream of the protective structure

Spring water is reliable water sources that can supply water in adequate quantity
and quality, if the catchment of the spring is conserved and protected. The
collection point needs to be protected properly and the necessary natural
hydraulic conditions (free flow) should be maintained for its optimal use.

Wells (Hand-dug well & Bored or Drilled Wells)


A well can be defined as a hydraulic structure, which when properly designed and
constructed, permits the economic withdrawal of water from underground waterbearing formation or aquifer. Wells can be shallow or deep which are vertically
shafted through dug, bored or drilled to access water from water supply. Two
types well types are discussed in this manual; Hand-dug well and bored or drilled
wells.
Hand-dug wells are done by hand and their diameter is larger one meter. Hand
dug wells for schools are lined or use concrete tubes (Caisson sinking). In the
case of bored or drilled well the drilling is done by hydraulic tools.
If technically feasible, hand dug wells can be constructed with the premise of the
schools, and it can provide a cheaper water supply services. It is recommended
the existence of shallow water bearing geological formations-aquifers within in
less than 30 meters depth suit to the hand dug wells technology. Perched water
tables are less reliable water sources and it should be avoided.
However, due to depletion of ground water level, hand dug wells and spring
development may not be effective in the future, thus it is important to focus on
shallow wells and also deep well wherever appropriate.
2.2.2 Rainwater catchment system/School Rooftop Water Harvesting/
Studies show the average rainfall in Ethiopia is 800 mm and from most part of the
country 80% of the rainfall occurs between July and September. For areas where
there is adequate rainfall, roof top water harvesting is considered as the simplest
and obvious choice for schools with large roof structure made of corrugated
galvanized iron sheets. Schools open after summer break on mid-September,
thus, the harvested water in rainy season can be directly utilized in the dry season
which is also the academic season. It more applicable for MfM schools, because all
of roof structure is very suitable in terms of size and the nature of the sheet.

Considerations for Rainwater Catchment System


Due to the fact that establishing rainwater catchment system requires quite high
investment, certain considerations need to be given prior to making decision to
invest in school water harvesting system:
i).

Evidently, rooftop water harvesting system should be selected in areas that


receive higher rainfall and have longer rainy season. MfM intervene in its
education program in multiple areas of Ethiopian where the rainfall amount is

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also diverse. Accordingly, consideration and design of rainwater harvesting
system to meet water demand of the school built by MfM is made only in areas
identified for substantial rainfall. Nationally identified areas that can meet
their water needs through harvesting rainwater in higher possible size storage
facilities are south western, central and eastern highlands of Oromia, South
Western Amhara, most of SNNO regions. In central and eastern highlands of
Oromia, North and eastern Amhara and most of Tigray, rainwater harvesting
can be an important supplementary resource to meet demand in schools. In
areas where there are less than 350 mm annual rainfall this system is not cost
effective.
ii).

Though rainwater catchment system is simplest method that can be used in


schools, there are some challenges to use it as the ideal one. These challenges
include:
a. Water quality from rooftop water catchment is less safe for drinking because
of

Roof can be a natural collecting space for dust, leaves, blooms, insects bodies,
airborne pesticides and insecticides in areas where there are commercial
farms

The harvested water stays a while before freshwater refills the storage tank.
Due to this utilizing for water collected need go through thorough treatments
before using it for drinking.

b. It is relatively costly as school population increase due to requirement to place


more water tankers in additional buildings. Additional costs also expected for pipe
lines, debris, gutters, etc particularly from additional designs of MfM. For
illustration, water demand for a school of 500 students amounts to 1,000 liters
every day. A reservoir designed to hold 40 school days supply (around two
calendar months) would need to have a volume of 40,000 liters, making this a
relatively expensive proposition. This is also because two 20,000 liters tanks is
better (though more expensive) to collect more water per block. This also means
as the number of children increase additional tankers per blocks may also be
required. If the masonry tankers are used it will more expensive due cost of
construction materials and skilled labor, added to maintenance costs. The roof
catchment and gutters need frequent maintenance, and the system should be
fitted with a first flush system to reduce the risk of debris- and contamination
entering the tank.
c. This system is difficulty to implement it in areas protracted dry period of three
months or more due to evaporation rate, and apparently requires larger tankers,

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which in term becomes more costly. For this reason in many areas of Ethiopia,
even if there are tankers per each block it is difficult to use to water for the whole
academic season.
Thus, apart from availability of rainfall, this method should be selected only in
areas where: groundwater development is either difficult or has been rendered unusable
by high level fluoride content, salinity, etc, and
the only available option is surface water

Designing Rainwater Catchment System


This section will not address detailed designing and construction specification and
bill of quantities. As explained earlier, the detail information is available from the
WaSH manual prepared by MoEd and UNICEF3. In this part, however, the basic
physical structure recommended to be used for MfM schools is presented.
Estimating roof runoff: Prior to the designing the water harvesting system, the
harvestable water from roof runoff must be estimated. The equation used for
estimation is:

Q=0.8 R . A

Q = Roof top runoff


R = is the rainfall in millimeters
A = is the guttered roof area of the building block in square meters
0.8. = is a runoff coefficient, C which takes into account losses between the roof
and the storage facilities
For example, in Woreilu annual rainfall is estimated around 950. According to MfM
construction design the roof area for one block or four classrooms is 34.6 meters
by 9.9 meters. Thus as per this calculation, from one block 260 m 3 or 260,033
liters is expected per year.
Sizing storage facilities: According to MoEd, MoH, MoWE and UNICEF the common
design for sizing storage facilities is to take a quarter of the estimated demand.
Placing two tankers at each side of school building is strongly advised to take the
full advantage roof water.
Two types of materials can be used as storage facility for roof top water harvesting
and the first is plastic water storage facility with water holding capacity of 2, 3, 5
and 10 m3. The second one is masonry storage facility with similar design as the
widely used in rural community.
3 In case selection is made any specific type of water supply the details regarding the designs will be
consulted with MfM Water and Irrigation program coordination office.

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2.2.3

Ground Reserve Wire Water Storage system

The ground reserve wire water storage system is same to roof water harvesting
system in the source of water as it is collected from roof-tops, in calculation of
water supply and risks. The basic difference is in roof water storage system
tankers is place on ground to collect water from roofs using the pipes connected
from the roof to the tanker. Whereas in ground reserve wire water storage system,
the water collected from the roof directly go to underground tanker preparing
gutter and the ditch. However, the challenges of:

Limited use for drinking water and,

Limited use for areas protracted dry period of three months due low
capacity to collect rain water, are still present in this system also.

2.2.4 Pipe Water Supply Connection


For some schools it may be feasible to extend a pipeline from the local community
or Woreda town into the school. In such cases, it is very important to prepare an
elevated storage reservoir (tanker) in the school compound and feed this
reservoir. The water is fed to a drinking water fountain and hand-washing facility.
This option is very effective providing that:
i).

the capital cost if affordable using correctly sized HDPE or PVC pipes
helps reduced the costs compared to Galvanized steel;

ii). the system has capacity to meet water demand from the school
iii).
2.2.5

The school can afford to pay for the water it uses, or the water supplier
agrees to cross subsidize this cost from water sales to private users.

Water Carting (from home drinking and river for hygiene & sanitation)
When there is severe water shortage water carting can be recommended. Here
the technology may be as simple as a donkey cart fitted with two 200 liters water
drums. The water catering could be considered for meeting the sanitary water
needs. The main issues are in fact financial and institutional, relating to the
management of the local water filling point, how a school is expected to pay for
the water provided. How to ensure water safety when it comes from a remote
supply is also an issue if the water is used for drinking.
One variation on this theme, already mentioned, is to agree with parents that
older children bring a limited quantity of water to school each day, some of this
going into hand washing containers. One challenge may be to ensure that all

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students have access to water containers of the right size, and that their families
have reasonable access to safe water in the first place.
2.2.6 Ensure Combined System and Multipurpose Use of MfM Water
Developments
It is clearly stated in MfM strategic documents that potable water supply work
both for the rural villages and rural towns will be given emphasis and intensified,
especially for newly identified or started project areas. MfM has been developing
ground water for many years. But considering the fact that ground water level,
hand dug wells and spring development are depleting from time to time efficient
water development is imperative.
Earlier the different water supply technologies that can be considered are
demonstrated. But as discussed above single water source may not be sufficient
to satisfy demand within the school. Thus, to effectively utilize all available water
source options elevated storage reservoir (tanker) need to be placed in schools
where the different water supply systems can be stored.
In addition, as stipulated in the draft strategic document of MfM combined and
integrated water development systems that serve local community and schools
will be promoted. In this regard, one approach shall be to strengthen multipurpose
use of water supply development of MfM, and as much as possible ensure water
supplies constructed for irrigation and community purposes linked with schools
constructed by MfM.
2.3

Management of Water Sources


The problem of water sources, especially spring water, is their location is rarely
conceded within the premise of a school. It was explained spring water section
that catchment area should be conserved and protected to ensure sustainable
water supply. In this case, in order to protect, develop and use the water of such
sources, the school administration, local government and leader has to hold
consultation with the downstream community users in the area, and provide the
necessary provisions accordingly. MfM has to ensure such procedure is taken
place if spring water is established as the source of water for a school constructed
before design and hand-over. In addition, the detail design and construction
specifications have to be consulted to address spring protection.
On the other hand managing any water supply includes dealing with possible costs
of operation and manual. Excess water from a school supply, or grey water from a
hand-washing stand, may be used to water a cash crop grown in the school
compound which is then sold. The funds raised can pay towards the upkeep of the
water supply, for soap, and for a caretaker to ensure the upkeep of the school
toilet. Whether this is a feasible option depends on the capacity of the water
supply.
Finally, many schools are fully integrated with the local community. This may be
an advantage in many respects, for example, it may be possible for the school to
share water from a community water supply. The converse also holds true. A
school water supply is likely to be used by the surrounding households, unless
local agreement has been reached not to do this that agreement being enforced

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through a robust water management system. An
management of WaSH facilities is discussed in section 7.
2.4

additional

concept on

Accessibility for Use: Disinfection, Water Quality test and Accessibility


In preceding sections a number of water supply options that can be most relevant
for schools, particularly for MfM constructed schools were discussed. However,
there are certain tasks that need to be conducted for childrens safety and
increased access for sanitation and hygiene. These include:
i).

Disinfection: Particularly for well water sources and storage facilities, they
must disinfected immediately following their construction or repair to
neutralize any contamination from equipment, material, or surface drainage
introduced during construction. The disinfection process shall comply with all
Federal regulation.

ii).

Water Quality Testing: The water supply for schools should be free of
pollutions. Thus, water quality tests have to be made during the drilling,
construction and later on a regular basis as per the requirement stipulated in
Federal Water Quality guidelines. The result of the water quality should be
documented and kept within MfM offices and the relevant sectors.

iii).

Accessibility: All dug or drilled wells shall be located with an adequate


distance from buildings, fence, and school and playground for repair and
maintenance and rehabilitation. Further illustration will also presented on the
sanitation sections.

Section III.

Sanitary Facilities in Schools

In this section dealings with sanitary facilities, namely the latrine and hand-wash
facilities, will be discussed. This detail construction design and specification will
not be discussed in this part. MfM personnel or those working with MfM in
construction of sanitary facilities should consult the manual developed by MoEd
for school WaSH.
3.1.

Key Principles for WaSH Facilities


There are certain principles which are stated in national WaSH strategy and widely
accepted. Though, details of constructions and designs will not discussed in this
manual, the following principles need to be addressed in order to achieve a
CHILD-FRIENDLY WaSH facility:
WASH structures in schools must be safe for users to use - in terms of the
structural stability; in terms of a child not being able to fall through an
oversized drop hole; in terms of children not risking abuse, bullying or attack
when approaching, using or leaving the facilities provided
The detailed design of the toilet must be child friendly. Steps must be easy to
climb. Door handles must be easy to reach. The toilet interior cannot be too
dark. Squatting plates must be designed to accommodate a childs feet
rather than those of an adult. Surfaces must be easy to clean. The drop hole

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must be correctly sized. Too large, it may be unsafe. Too small, cleaning will
be needed after every visit. Ventilation is important to minimize any smell.
Facilities provided must include provision for disabled children, with at least
one cubicle for girls and one for boys arranged accordingly. In terms of
design, ramps and hand rails should be provided, with more internal space
for a caregiver to assist if necessary. Disabled girls and boys should be
consulted with their able bodied peers to get the design right. Girls and boys
should be consulted about the number, location and orientation of school
WASH facilities. This consultation should be organized with girls and boys
separately, discussion facilitated by women and men respectively.
Physically separate facilities must be provided for girls and boys, spaced
apart to ensure that girls do not feel embarrassed but secure when
approaching and using the facilities. Separate hand-washing areas should
also be provided, affording privacy for girls who may need to wash and dry
menstrual cloths.
The orientation of facilities for example, the direction that the toilet
entrance faces, must also take into account the perceived security and safety
of girls. The orientation of the squatting plate should also take this into
account, as well as cultural and religious norms
The location of toilets needs special consideration. Too close, and users may
feel embossed as peers can see them from the class room; the smell from the
vent pipe may be offensive. Too far, and it may take too long to get to the
toilet for a child with a small bladder. Remote toilets are often neglected, and
may be perceived as unsafe by both boys and girls.
3.2.

Latrine Facilities (VIP Refresher)

In almost all schools constructed by MfM VIP type latrine is constructed. In areas
where water is scarce the VIP is very suitable to operate and maintain cleanliness
since it uses relatively little water and certainly they do not depend on regular
water supply. These conditions make VIP technology suitable to almost all
conditions of rural areas. This type latrine is recommended because it is relatively
simple to design, build and maintain. For this reason, MfM will prefers to use VIP
technology for schools built in the rural areas adapting to certain local situations.
Such local situations include:

High ground level

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Areas prone to floods

Hard rock geology

Unstable and low permeability soils

Stable soil, gravel and coarse material

Dry and stable soil


Annex III, provides detailed image and description of how VIP latrines function.

3.3.

Number and Location Latrines

Number of Stands
Number in this case refers to the number of toilet stands (toilet cubicles) or pitholes that are needed. The current Government norm is that applies to primary
schools in Ethiopia is one stand for every 100 girls and one stand for every 150
boys, with physically separate facilities for girls and boys (Sanitation protocol,
MoH, 2005). In other African countries, design ratios of 1:50 1:100 are common,
but these standards are not always met due to resource constraints. This is also
the case in much of rural Ethiopia, where the on the ground average is one stand
per 200 students or more4.
In determining the number and location of toilet stands needed, MfM
and government education office authorities should take into account
the projected population of the school, with a recommended planning
horizon of 3-5 years. Most primary schools in Ethiopia start off relatively small
with 250-300 students, and develop over time to around 600-750 students.
The following table indicates the number of toilet stands required for schools of
different sizes. It is based on a 1:100 toilet stand - student ratio, with both girl and
boys having access to appropriate urinals. The minimum number of stands for
both boys and girls is two, ensuring a degree of emergency capacity.
One important point is that the toilets provided are used by students and staff
alike, with no separate facilities for teachers. This is not just a cost-saving
measure. Teaching staff have an important role play in encouraging the proper use
of school toilets and ensuring their upkeep. Having separate facilities for staff may
undermine this responsibility5.
No. of Boys

Min. No. of Stands

No. of Girls

Min. No. of Stands

4 UNICEF stated By Using appropriately designed latrines the number of toilets stands needed by
one third or more, which also needed to be given consideration.

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Up to 100

Up to 100

100-200

100-200

200-300

200-300

300-400

300-400

400- 500

400- 500

500-600

500-600

600-700

600-700

700-800

700-800

These figures show the minimum number of toilet stands required. If resources
allow, adopting a 1:50 toilet stand / student ratio is preferred, reducing pressure
on toilets, increasing their fill up time, and making their upkeep easier to manage.

Location
Many schools were visited during the preparation of this manual. A common
problem encountered concerned the location of school toilet blocks in relation to
the classroom and boundary wall. The relative location of boys and girls toilets
(basically, the distance between them) is also very important.
Getting the location right is very important factor in ensuring that toilets are used.
In line with the principles listed earlier, girls and boy students must be consulted.
This consultation should be undertaken separately, the girl group led by a woman,
the boys group led by a male (here it makes sense to enlist the help of teachers).
Factors to consider in locating toilet blocks are set out in the following table.
Inevitably, with all these factors to consider, the location of school toilets is going
to be a compromise. This reinforces the necessity of consultation, with school girls
and boys and their teachers. Drilling a test hole with an auger (or digging a test pit
if this is not available) to see what lies underneath the surface can save
5 MfM does not construct schools for school population less than 400, but for
reason of giving complete estimation is presented in the table. Teachers and
school staff will not have separate latrine building, but can lock and use on
stand/partition for each gender.

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considerable amount of time and money.
Below is a location checklist that should be consulted in the selection process.
Factor

Chec
k

The normal wind direction it is best if the toilets vent pipes are down- wind
of the classrooms

The distance from the toilet block to the class between 30 and 50 meters if
possible. More than 50 meters may be too far for a small child in a desperate
hurry, and in terms of toilet management and upkeep, its best to keep the
toilet nearer rather than far from the classroom

The distance to the boundary wall if the toilet is placed on the boundary,
there may be a risk of students extending their trip to the toilet to a trip
outside the school. Equally, girls in particular may feel insecure here its
best to get their opinion

The need to empty toilet pits when they are full. If the sludge or compost is
to be picked up by a tractor-trailer, then there needs to be enough space for
vehicle access.

The distance between the boys and girls toilets. Again, this is best fixed
with consultation. 15 meters or more may be needed to secure the privacy
and security needed by girls. It is also important to get the relative
orientation of girls and boys toilets blocks right see below

The distance to a well or borehole a minimum of 30 meters is


recommended to avoid any risk of contamination

Future plans to expand the school

Soil conditions avoiding rocky outcrops, unstable ground conditions and


depressions with a shallow water table. Here a small earth auger can be
used to test ground conditions if there is any doubt

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Drainage ensuring that rain water does not flood the pit

In selection location, social and cultural considerations are paramount so again,


its important to consult with boys and girls. In particular, this concerns the
direction the toilets (and here we mean the toilets entrance) faces. For example,
if the entrance of a girls toilet is opposite a classroom or the entrance to the boys
toilet, girls may not want to use it. Alternatively, if the entrance faces a nearby
boundary wall, boys and girls may feel insecure for another set of reasons.
Orientation, like location, is case specific, but consultation is critical to encourage
rather than discourage the use of toilets.
Annex IV shows one possible layout of school WASH facilities. There is no
blueprint, but the changes of the toilets being used are much higher if the
guidance set out above is followed. Inside the toilet block, the orientation of the
squatting slab is also important, for example, respecting religious norms.
3.4.

Hand Washing Facilities


In most schools observed which are constructed by MfM, there are no handwashing facilities immediately outside latrines. But the most basic practice of
WaSH for schools is students should wash their hands after using the toilet or
urinal to avoid the possibility of getting or making others sick by fecal or oral
contamination. It is widely accepted principle that it is absolutely critical to
provide hand-washing facilities, water and soap at toilet itself. Furthermore,
separate and relatively private facilities are needed by adult girls, who may have
to use these facilities to wash sanitary cloths if they happen to be having a
menstruation. To improve this situation the design of sanitation facilities for
schools constructed by MfM is under revisions which consult WaSH design and
construction manual of MoEd (2013). Appropriate hand-washing facilities should
consider:
i.

Location: the hand washing facility should be located very close to the latrine
so that children see it in front as they leave.

ii.

Standard Dimensions: Each facility is made up of a minimum of two stands


(four is preferred), each comprising a 100 liters plastic drum and tap, drain
and soap cage. A concrete structure with varying heights is constructed to
keep plastic barrels for carrying water for hand-washing. The dimensions vary
to suite to the heights of school children. For small children the height while
for older children between age 9 and 15 years will use a 70 cm height of hand
washing facility. If conditions permit in terms of finance and other aspects,
privacy wall for girls can be incorporated as additional design.

iii.

Materials: A plastic container with taps installed on it is used. Soap or ash is


also kept as hand-washing agents and hygienic materials.

iv.

Access: Hand-washing facilities are located within one and half meters
distance from the latrine and it is near and readily available and accessible
for school children using the latrines.

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The drums could be filled by a water pipe from an elevated tank. If piped water
supply is not available, water need to be filled manually, and steps (elevated
ground) are also provided to facilitate this process.

Latrines for boys (left) and girls (right) showing Hand Washing Stands
Section IV.

Waste Management

One of the key issues of WaSH program that need to be addressed in school is on
how to deal with wastes. MfM handover schools with their WaSH facilities, but as
the visits on those handover schools shows the poor waste management is a
problem in many school. A clear waste management system is also an important
component that schools need to prepare for to achieve WaSH friendly schools.
Thus, establishing procedures in dealing with waste management for school to be
handed-over to government is important.
4.1.

Type and Nature of Waste in Schools


Wastes are items that are not needed and which required to be discarded from the
school and the community. Communities handle their waste or trash differently.
Some common methods of managing their waste include landfilling, recycling and
compositing. Other communities strongly embark on waste reeducation and litter
prevention aimed at reducing the production of waste in the first place. Pollution
is also a concern in this regard as it is part of current international trend.
Generally, waste types generated in schools can be grouped as liquid or solid
type. Both of them could be hazardous mostly because they can be
Toxic: waste can be easily decomposed and transformed to be poisonous for
children and animals,
Corrosive: most wastes can easily eat through metals and other valuable items
which cause damage to the school property which can be costly to repair or
replace

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Reactive: Though it is not common in rural primary schools, in some cases
wastes from laboratory and offices can be reactive to create explosions.
Schools are a place where all of the population is children which can be easily
exposed for contamination. This makes the issue more delicate and deal with
waste management delicately. In the next topics of this section the common types
of school wastes, water and garbage, management will be discussed.
4.2. Waste Water Management
It is very obvious how harmful it can be if water waste disposal management is not
well taken care in school context, especially if the major sources of water wastes
are from latrines. If waste water is not properly managed, the school compound
could end up contaminated with puddles of water, possibly contaminated, also
providing mosquitoes that carry disease with a breeding site. But whilst disposing
of waste water efficiently and safely is important, we are also wasting a valuable
resource. So, before deciding on how to dispose of waste water, one should first
consider if and how it could be reused more productively. The following summary
taken from manual of MoE and UNICEF should be consulted in deciding whether
water should consider as wastes, grey water or a valuable resources.

Waste water or black water refers to water discharged from toilets and
urinals. This may contain very high levels of pathogens and it smells pretty
bad as well.

Grey water is untreated waste water that has not come into contact with high
concentrations of fecal contaminants. In this case, grey water refers to water
from hand washing stands, which may be slightly, but not highly
contaminated.

The way we manage waste water and grey water is very important. If left to
pool on the ground, it may present a health risk not least by providing
mosquitoes with a breeding ground, or attracting domestic animals into the
school compound. Water combines with soil to make mud, which may be fun
for some but this can also put off users from entering the toilet or washing
their hands.

The option described in this manual is one solution. Infiltrate water back into
the ground. This may work in terms of reducing the health risk. But it is also
wasting a valuable resource. If properly handled, grey water can be reused to
for cleaning toilets and urinals, or for watering trees and plants - which can be
sold by the school to augment its budget. Waste water can also be used in
this way, although it needs more careful handling.

The information above provides insight on the type of Assuming the decision is
made to dispose of waste water rather than reuse it, the following information
must be considered.

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The total volume of urine and waste water (from hand-washing stands, from
rainwater and from cleaning the urinal may exceed 800 liters a day for a four
stand sanitation block, designed to meet the needs of 400 students.
The following box takes one through the basic design of an infiltration trench.
In this case, a trench is being used to drain liquid into the ground. Liquid
drains through the sidewalls of the trench rather than the bottom, which
rapidly silts up. The key factor that determines the length of the trench is the
soils infiltration rate (I, here measure in litres per metre squared), which
varies enormously depending on the type of soil. The more clay there is in the
soil, the less liquid it can handle and the lower the value of I.
Infiltration rates for different soil types are tabulated below. For more detail
on how to classify soil type and assess infiltration rate by physical inspection
and the jar test, see Annex A.

Soil Type

4.3.

Infiltration Rate I (l/m2)

Coarse to medium sand

>50

Fine sand, loamy soil

33

Sandy loam

25

Porous silt clay

10

Expansive clay

<10

Multiple Use of Waste Water in Schools


MfM integrates institutional plantation, agro-forestry and other environmental
actions in all of its rural development programs. Schools are also part of this
intervention in the institution based plantation, and agro-forestry. But shortage of
water is a common experience in many of the schools found in the rural areas to
use of water supply for environmental and cleaning facilities. Thus, assessing the
possibility of the multiple use of waste water seems appropriate for schools built
by MfM because it is readily available with some processing and will save cost.
Accordingly multiple use of waste water needs to be part of waste water

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management plan of the schools that will be handed-over by MfM in the effort to
maintain sanitation and hygiene of schools.
However germs and the health related impacts of waste water limits for what
purpose and what kind of water waste they can reuse. In this regard waste water
(gray water) from drinking fountain and hand washing facilities cab be diverted
and stored for use in gardening and greening the environment and cleaning and
flushing toilets. The waste water from these sources has to be subjected to low
level treatment and the use must be done with close support of the health and
water experts.
4.4.

Garbage-Solid Wastes
Garbage are solid wastes which can be paper, organic or of other nature. It is
observed in many school setting the common types are paper, yard waste and
plastics. These solid wastes are produced both by students or school community
which includes teachers and from the offices. The nature of solid wastes
compared to water waste is easier to manage and dispose. The main issue in solid
wastes it to have spots to collect the garbage and timely disposal. Key points that
need to be addressed in solid wastes management include:

Limit production of wastes

Separation of type of wastes

Garbage plastic basket and brooms must to be placed in each classrooms,


staffroom, library and offices

Garbage bins need to be place in selected spots of the school compound

The spots to place garbage bins in school compound must be areas where
children and school staff reach and possible areas where there are high
solid wastes are produced. For example of such areas can be where
students stay in breaks, in latrines, etc.

The solid garbage collected from the classrooms and compound need to be
disposed through in-cremation in already prepared excavated spots in
isolated part of the compound.

Instruct and teach children and school community to throw solid wastes in
garbage basket and cans.

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Section V.
System

Management and Sustainability of School Wash Facilities and

Being aware WaSH facilities are integral part of schools and education, MfM
invested a great deal in latrines and water supplies in each school it involved. But
what is observed is that after hand-over ceremonies are made between Woreda
education offices and MfM, the operational and maintenance responsibilities of
schools community, Woreda and community is neglected. This gives a point of
attention that operational and maintenance responsibility of community and
school management should be included in project or management plan and dealt
with prior and after hand-over.
5.1.

Key Principles in Management of School Wash Facilities


Below a summary is presented regard a key principles that should take into
account by MfM and school administration and community. The principles are
derived from school WaSH manual published by the Ministry of Health, Ministry of
Education, Ministry of Water Resources and UNICEF. The capacity building and
monitoring tasks should address these key principles.
Management starts before Infrastructure: Roles and Responsibilities for school
WASH management must be agreed before work starts on site; this
agreement may take the form of a written declaration witnessed by the local
government Administration, such as Kebele education & training board
Participation is vital in the Management of sanitation facilities in schools
involving boy and girl students, teachers, the school principal / head teacher,
school administration and PTA. Ensuring the participation of students to play
an active role in the planning and upkeep of facilities is extremely important
Oversight during construction is important to ensure that the facilities are
correctly built in the right place, using the right materials.
School management should extend to ensuring that students understand how
to use sanitation facilities avoiding the unintentional soiling of toilet
compartments and unnecessary waste of water, for example.
Responsibilities for daily and weekly cleaning should be agreed. This may
involve organizing students to clean toilets according to a roster, supervised
by a teacher

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Preventative maintenance reduces the risk of breakdown. A system to ensure
regular checking and maintenance needs to be established, probably
involving a contracted worker who needs to receive an adequate financial
incentive
Maintenance extends to organizing the safe emptying of a full latrine pit and
the safe disposal or use of the waste material; and ensuring that
infrastructure and/or systems are in place to bring adequate quantities of
water into the school
Contributions in terms of cash, materials, labor, time and decision making
from the local community and their representatives can engender a sense of
ownership and shared responsibility for the maintenance of the facilities
established
To ensure facilities are fully utilized and hygiene practices respected, a
system needs to be established to pay for cleaners, cleaning materials, spare
parts and soap (even water). This needs to be agreed at the outset with all
parents and schools community pays for cleaners.
5.2. Monitoring School WaSH Facilities
Accomplishment of the physical part of WaSH facilities will not make the school
WaSH a complete process. A worthy monitoring system is crucial to ensure the
proper and continuous functioning of water and sanitation facilities and practices
in schools.
A WaSH program has a cycle of a school year and basically the monitoring
activities deals with follow-up and support to ensure the school commits to
carrying out the tasks necessary for WaSH friendly school in the season. Capacity
building and awareness rising for school leaders, teachers, students
clubs, school committees and PTA need to be organized for their
effective involvement. The table below gives the important monitoring
requirements for effective WaSH system.
Activities

Frequen
cy

Manpower
Assignment/Responsible body

Regular cleaning of the


latrines, classrooms and
compound

Daily

Latrines and compound by cleaners


employed community and classrooms
by students with close supervision by
principals, teachers Kebele education
& training board and community

1.

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2.
Adequate and safe water
supply for children and
school

Daily

MfM, school leaders and community

Inspect the water supply


system
and
sanitary
facilities
for
any
malfunction,
crack,
damage, etc.

Regularl
y
as
deemed
necessar
y

MfM, school leaders and community

Convenience of latrine for


girls usage

Regularl
y
as
deemed
necessar
y

Kebele education & training board,


PTA, Parents and school community

Availability supplies for


solid waste in prescribed
positions

Daily

MfM, school leaders and community

Repair
and
maintain
water supply system,
latrine slab, seat, vent
pipe and fly screen or
any part of the latrine
superstructure

ASAP

School carries out of


sanitation
promotion
activities

As per
the plan

MfM, school leaders, Kebele education


& training board and community

School
supports

Regularl
y as

MfM, school leaders, Kebele education


& training board and community

3.

4.

5.

6.
Hired contractor or trained school
community member.

7.

8.
community
and
sustain

6 Depending on the magnitude of repair MfM can support the school in the
maintenance with the duration retention periods and if MfM project still
operational in the area.

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school wash activities

deemed
necessar
y

Monitoring requires regular reports indicating what has been observed and actions
taken on the facilities, and these reports have to be shared among the school
administration, PTA and partners, Woreda Sector offices on a regular basis. MfM
should also support Kebele education & training board, community, PTA and
school administration to conduct these monitoring activities and elicit
improvement.
5.3.

Financing School WaSH Program


The financial aspect of WaSH program is a crucial factor in implementing
sanitation and hygiene components. MfM construct WaSH facilities that include
latrine and water supply according to the standard designed of its school projects.
As per the procedure MfM will handover schools and WaSH facilities to government
and community. Schools have GEQIP budget allocated from MoE which is primarily
for recurrent costs such as stationary and it too small to cover additional
expenses. The trend of government of Ethiopia encourages for schools to increase
their own income and increase community contribution. MfM can continue support
on maintenance after handing-over depending on the magnitude of the repair and
as long as budget available for that purpose.
This entails the school and the local community will be the principal agents to run
and manage funds for the school WaSH, that mainly concerned with operation and
maintenance of water supply and sanitation facilities. The other reason why funds
should be collected from community is to increase community feeling of
ownership after handover. For this reason schools need to develop their own fund
raising strategy. MfM should also assess what sort of fund raising strategy
the schools are aiming to sustain WaSH program costs from initial stage
of school projects. Some approaches recommended for increasing school
income can be:

Students registration fee, which regularly applied in most schools

Additional contributions for specific actions from parents and school


community

Farming, gardening, animal husbandry etc., from the available land for
income generation activities

Creating various fund raising occasions.

Section VI.

Participation and Linkages with Community and Stakeholders

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Involvement of community and parents is highly imperative to ensure
improvements of sanitation and hygiene in schools and sustainability WaSH
programs. Commonly the main stakeholders in schools are: students,
teachers & school leaders, Kebele education & training board, PTA and
local community. In all stages of WaSH program operations involvement of
community and stakeholders need to be clearly formulated. In the operation of
WaSH programs in schools the important areas that MfM should address to ensure
involvement of community and concerned stakeholders present below.
6.1.

Involving Parents and Community in Planning for Improvements


Parents and community are key partners during planning and implementation. The
Parents and community members often provide unskilled labor and local
construction materials to build school facilities such as fences, sport field, etc.
which is not covered by MfM. Thus involving them in planning can lead to a sense
of ownership among the parents and community members and easily elicit their
contribution. In this regard:

Community and other stakeholders must be involved from the start to assist
them incorporate the school facilities into their overall responsibility. This will
later help to assure employment of cleaners by community and contribution
for maintenances.

Any sort of planning for school hygiene and sanitation improvements need to
be done by involving the community and parents together with other the
parties involved.

Formulating objectives and drawing up an action plan for school WaSH, a


participatory needs assessment has to be undertaken, including assessment
of the health condition of the boys and girls, their hygiene behavior, the
existing facilities, the curriculum in use, the qualification of the teachers, the
available teaching materials and the available budget.

To obtain commitment and consensus from the entire community, the school
parents associations and committee should regularly report their findings
and decisions to the community as a whole.

As much as possible the PTA should equally represent men and women,
social classes and other diversities to ensure a balanced view.

Detailing of community participation process in planning which needs to be


applied in MfM education project is elaborated in section nine.

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6.2.

Main Roles of Community in the Management and Promotion of School WaSH


Parents and community members can have important roles in keeping the school
clean, safe and healthy, and encouraging children to adopt improved hygienic
behavior. The main roles for Kebele education & training board, local committees,
parents and communities that need to be delivered in WaSH program are
described below. MfM education program needs to assess means to ensure
integration of these roles in the implementation of WaSH.

6.3.

Financial controllers and fund holders. If parental contribution is required for


maintenance, cleaning staff, and supplies of soap and cleaning material, the
parents can oversee the funds through the PTA to overcome any distrust when
they must give payments to the school. Contributions may be provided as
goods, such as one bar of soap or bottle of cleaning liquid brought annually by
each child to the school.

Community-based monitors of operation and maintenance. The community


and the school have many advantages in monitoring WaSH facilities and
system. They will quickly know and report needed repairs and can influence
proper use of facilities by children. In addition information is better reached to
government offices such as education and health authorities when it rose by
community.

School-Home-Community Link in WaSH Practices. Parental and community


involvement ensures that what is learned in school is applied at home,
particularly for younger children who are not in a position to change hygienic
behavior in their homes without their parents commitment. Therefore, it is
imperative to educate all family members on the adoption of appropriate
hygiene skills and get the surrounding community involved in programs for
hygiene, sanitation and water in schools7. To avoid confusion, the initiative
should involve parents in the content of the hygiene education for their young
children and urge them to reinforce the learned behaviors at home. This is
especially important so the content matches the community ethos and avoids
cultural taboos.

Training of School Community


The school community in this sense refers to Kebele education & training board,
PTA, parents and community. Capacity building for school community, particularly
for teachers, is imperative in order to enable them becomes effective promoters
and implementers of school WaSH program. Teachers and other stakeholders
require a certain level of hygiene awareness and commitment. This include:-

7 Health departs in MfM IRDPs are conducting community linked health promotion
activities. The issue of home-community link can be addressed in this process.

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A working knowledge of the relation between water, sanitation, hygiene


behavior and health;

Awareness about their importance as a role model, resulting in proper


hygiene behavior;

Particularly for teaching staff, skills to work with students in a participatory


way;

Commitment to bring about improvement themselves, or to get third


parties involved if necessary

Generally they require the basics of WaSH-Friendly-School concept.


Before the final phase of the WaSH program in schools, which is often in the early
stage after school handover, the capacity building should be organized by MfM in
coordination with its health, WaSH and Education programs. Train the trainer
approach can applied to sustain availability of trained school members who are
well equipped to continue promote and support implementation WaSH in schools.
The possible areas need to be included in capacity building is indicated in Annex II.
Training of teachers and other school community members, who, if motivated and
enthusiastic, are a key element for effective hygiene education, should also
include effective teaching methodologies, e.g. the use of participatory techniques.
For bringing about or facilitating improvements in the water and sanitation
situation, teachers will need to know how and where to apply for assistance, how
to mobilize community members, etc. Mainly in selection of teachers for WaSH,
training the selection should be done carefully. MfM should also involve and assess
teachers selected have the commitment and capacity. Selection criteria include:

Ability to act as a role model and have good contacts in the community,

has a genuine interest in improving school hygiene and sanitation

Willingness to allocate some time for taking school sanitation and hygiene
activities after school hours or break-times.

Care should also be taken that male as well as female teachers get involved
in SSH.

However, teachers may not be able to put their knowledge and commitment to
effective use if the curriculum does not allow for hygiene education, or if school
administration or Woreda do not respond to requests for assistance in the
provision water and sanitation facilities. Training of teachers should therefore

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never be carried out in isolation, which also calls for working with authorities and
community members.
Section VII.

Child Participation and WaSH Education

Ensuring children are healthy and able to learn is an essential part of child-friendly
schools. In relation to WaSH also teaching children how to prevent diarrheal
diseases and other waterborne and sanitation related illnesses is part of it. The
widespread adoption of safe hygiene practices through an interactive, childcentered, participatory approach builds life skills and empowers school children to
make good choices. In operation of WaSH program in schools supported by MfM,
the following components need to be addressed to achieve change in behavior
among children regarding sanitation and hygiene and promotion WaSH objectives.
7.1.

Life Skills-Based Hygiene Education

Good education about hygiene is as important as good sanitary facilities. In


Ethiopian curriculum sanitation and hygiene education is not a subject by its own
rather it is part of wider syllabus of natural science and civic education. In this
situation where school sanitation and hygiene is not a separate subject which is
gradable, there can be cases where key WaSH concepts may not be properly
addressed and practiced in schools.
Thus, other mechanisms of life skills-based education or trainings need to be
employed which allows children to learn about water and sanitation related
behaviors and the reasons why these lead to good health or bad health. Methods
of training or education WaSH MfM can support to be practiced in schools are:
integrated with the curriculum by trained teachers
Training for WaSH or related students clubs
In separate schedule such as during break time or after school hours,
Practical means need to be selected to effectively transmit message and achieve
change in behavior. It begins with and is built upon, what local people know, want
and do. The important idea is that when children understand and think together
about their situations and practices, they can plan and act to prevent diseases,
now and in the future. The training or education should focus on important
concepts of wash friendly schools and make the link between knowledge, attitude
and behavior. The table below is taken for UNICEF guideline in school WaSH
education and it gives summary of key learning goals for development of life skill
in sanitation and hygiene.
Knowledge

Attitudes

Practices

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Safe use of
toilets and
urinals: Diarrhea
and worm
infections are two
main health
concerns that
affect people on a
large scale and
can be improved
through
appropriate toilet
and urinal use.

Exposed excreta
are the leading
cause of spreading
diseases and
making people
sick.
Behaviors can lead
to worm
infections.

Children recognize
the importance of
safe use of toilets
and urinals,
including the safe
disposal of faces
and hygienic anal
cleansing followed
by washing hands
with soap.

Children practice
the safe use of
toilets and urinals,
including the safe
disposal of faces
and hygienic anal
cleansing followed
by washing hands
with soap.
Depending on age,
children maintain
and operate
school toilets and
urinals.

Personal
hygiene: Many
diseases can be
attributed to poor
personal hygiene.

Personal hygiene
impacts diseases.

Children
understand
appropriate
personal
hygiene: washing
hands
with soap (see
separate
point), wearing
shoes or slippers,
cutting nails,
brushing teeth,
combing hair and
the regular
washing of body
and hair.

At all times,
children wash
hands with soap,
wear shoes or
slippers, cut nails,
brush teeth, comb
hair and regularly
wash the body and
hair.

Hand washing
with soap:
Hand washing at
critical moments
reduces the risk of
diarrheal diseases
by 42-48 per cent
and significantly

Hand washing with


soap drastically
reduces diarrheal
diseases and
acute respiratory
diseases.

Children
understand
the importance of
hand washing with
soap after toilet
use, before and
after eating,
before preparing

Hands are washed


with
soap after toilet
use,
before and after
eating,
before preparing
food and after

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reduces the
incidence of acute
respiratory
diseases.

food and after


cleaning babies.

cleaning babies.

Female and male


hygiene (for
adolescents):
Genital and
menstrual hygiene
is important for
the health
condition of
women and
reproductive
health in general.

Menstrual blood is
not dirty,
unhygienic or
unclean. It is
simply blood and
tissue sloughed
from the lining of
the uterus. The
odor during
menstruation is
caused by bad
hygiene of the
genitals.
The symptoms of
bladder and
kidney infections
must be
recognized and
treated.

Both men and


women see the
importance of
washing the
genitals daily with
mild soap and
water.
During
menstruation,
women use sterile
pads and wipe
genitals from front
to back after
defecation.

Both men and


women wash the
genitals daily with
mild soap and
water.
During
menstruation,
women use sterile
pads and wipe
genitals from front
to back after
defecation.

Waste
management
and water
drainage:
Appropriate
handling of
solid waste and
stagnant
water helps in pest
control
and limits
breeding
mosquitoes and
flies

There are health


risks in the noncollection of solid
waste and in
standing water.

Children link
collection and
treatment of solid
waste with overall
health risks. They
understand the
relationship
between standing
water and insect
breeding.

Solid waste is
collected
and treated;
standing water is
drained.

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Water
treatment,
handling and
storage:
Through testing
and treatment,
water can be
made safe from
fecal or chemical
contamination.

Where possible,
communities
should collect
water from a safe
source and store it
safely.
If the source is not
safe, water must
be treated through
boiling, filtering,
solar or chemical
disinfection.

Communities
understand
the necessity of
treating
unsafe water
through
boiling, filtering,
solar or chemical
disinfection

If the source is not


safe, children
always treat the
water through
boiling, filtering,
solar or chemical
disinfection.
Boiling is too
dangerous for
younger children.

Food hygiene:
Eating healthy
food is essential
for the well-being
and survival of
each human
being. Eating
contaminated
food (also known
as food
poisoning) can be
a significant
source of diarrheal
diseases.

Food hygiene and


diseases are
linked.
Food should be
stored
appropriately.
There are
recognizable signs
when food is
spoiled.

Children know how


to store food
appropriately and
recognize common
signs of spoiled
food.

Raw fruits and


vegetables and
raw meat, poultry
or fish are treated
and stored
appropriately.

Other important points which provide guidance in delivery of WaSH education for
children are:

It is recommended to develop focused information-and action-oriented


WaSH messages in schools. This will help to ensure delivery of good
sanitation and hygiene education and apparently achieve change in students
behavior. Effective hygiene education for children is not just teaching facts
about health risks and bad hygiene practices.

The life skills approach focuses on changing childrens hygiene behavior and
the hygiene behavior of their families and wider community with a view to
improving their quality of life.

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7.2.

In addition to ensure that all aspects of appropriate hygiene behaviors are


addressed, hygiene education focuses on the development of:

Knowledge and understanding of practical and theoretical information


on hygiene. For example, all children know that illnesses like diarrhea
and worm infections result from poor hygiene practices such as not
washing hands with soap after visiting a toilet.

Attitudes and personal opinions about hygiene that influence actions


and responses to unhygienic situations. For example, children want to
be clean and healthy. Older children feel responsible and confident to
help others, particularly younger children, practice good hygiene.

Practical skills to carry out specific hygiene behaviors. For example,


children wash hands to prevent illness and infection. They avoid
contamination with solid waste and help bury or burn it.

Development of WaSH Teaching Aids and IEC Materials

The other important approach which used to implement WaSH education especially
in countries where sanitation and hygiene education is not a separate subject is to
develop or adapt teaching aids or IEC materials. In addition, experience has also
shown that for bringing about changes in behavior traditional classroom teaching is
not effective and alternative ways of bringing about the necessary changes will
have to be found. For this reason MfM should encourage in schools built for child
centered teaching means such as use of teaching aids and IEC materials need to be
effectively used. The following points need to be given attention and used as a
guide in preparation of teaching aids and IEC materials on WaSH: Focused information- and action-oriented messages must be discussed
with school community, government education and health offices in the
preparation of teaching aids and IEC materials. These key messages
includes; prevention of diarrhea disease and worm infections, use a
latrine regularly and keep it clean, wash hands with soap before
feeding brothers and sisters or eating and after defecation, cover your
food, etc.
Teaching aid and IEC material has to be practical and make the link between
knowledge, attitude and behavior.
The message in the materials should make use of local communication
methods and also the message need to be relevant, simple and
understandable in the local context and locally acceptable

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The messages in teaching aids and IEC should stimulate reflection by students
about their behavior and it should repeat and reinforce messages over time
and in a variety of ways
It is important, not only that good quality materials are developed, but
also that they are properly distributed and used by teachers and
children. However, before large scale distribution, teaching aids and
IEC materials need to be tested.
Teaching materials and IEC should be based and built upon the existing
situation in schools.
Responsible MfM office to facilitate IEC and teaching aids should go
through the existing textbooks, often the science books, to include
information related to health, for instance on hand-wash appropriate for
the level of the children.
7.3.

Establishing School WaSH Club

Children can spread messages they have learned from teachers, health worker
and other sources or they can act like teachers and promoters. In operating school
WaSH children have special advantages and special roles in spreading health
messages to others, because children often like to spend more time with each
other than with adults. Thus, it will be very valuable to organize a club of WaSH in
each schools supported by MfM for children where children can share messages
and learn from each other and eventually practice WaSH principles.
The main objective of establishing a WASH Club is to offer school children
opportunities to raise their awareness about and develop skills related to water,
hygiene, and sanitation through fun and practical activities. The WASH Club can
support them in changing conditions in their schools as well as in becoming
agents of change in hygiene and sanitation in their families and communities.
Some examples where children should do within the club include:

Students checking each other for personal hygiene.

Organizing extracurricular activities such as essay competitions, quiz


contests, plays and dramas, drawing competition, songs, debates, school
radio program, etc.

Work with MfM, Woreda Health and Education offices to promote WaSH at
community level.

Fundamental issues that MfM WaSH program should employ as a guideline in


support of establishing WaSH clubs are presented bellow in the bulletins.

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But who should be school WaSH Club Member?
To meet such broad objectives of making the school WASH-friendly with an active
outreach program in the community, WASH Club membership should represent
students from all grades with teacher guidance. The WASH Club can organize itself
into committees according to the various WASH-friendly elements and appoint
committee leaders or chairs. It is recommended to follow this principle:
i.

Students from grade 1 to 4...1 from each section

ii.

Students from grade 5 to 8...2 from each section

iii.

Teachers who are trained in WaSH

How the Selection or Election of the WASH Club Members should be


done?
Selection of members can be done two ways:
i.

Teachers who understand the responsibilities and the possible contributions


required can ask 1-2 students from each grade level to volunteer.

ii.

Each class can elect 1-2 responsible and trustworthy classmates to


represent them as WASH Club members.

How should the WaSH Club be organized?


As a general principle, the club will have a chairperson who will be responsible to
guide, plan, and harmonize club activities and a secretary who will keep records
and correspondence. If needed, a treasurer will collect, account for, and keep
funds in a safe place, and committees will have different tasks and responsibilities
(see examples of committees and of roles and responsibilities below).
WASH Clubs meet after school and develop a program of action with guidance
from willing teachers. The club will train and mobilize students and at the same
time work in harmony with the school administration and PTA. Schools have a
number of areas for improvement and upkeep. The WaSH Club should therefore
consider all the necessary activities in its action plan and should empower
students to carry them out.
What are the main Roles and Responsibilities of School WASH Club
Members?

Recruit more volunteer club members


Train new club members

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Mobilize the school community to conduct clean up, tree planting, and other
beautifying activities
Inspect water points, latrines, and hand washing stands so that they are
kept clean, safe, and attractive
Organize fundraising programs to raise money to construct facilities, buy
soap, maintain facilities, etc.
Arrange outreach program and work with communities on that includes
clean up campaigns, latrine construction, rehabilitation of community water
sources and other locally important WASH improvement activities

Training of WASH Club Members


Primarily selected teachers (usually two teachers per school) are trained by MfM
health, WaSH and Education department in coordination with Woreda sector
offices8. The trained teachers can in return train WaSH club member OR MfM can
directly train the school WaSH club members. There are three main WASH
practices which often given focus in the content of the program these are safe
storage and treatment of drinking water, proper use of improved latrines, and
proper hand washing with soap at critical times. Clubs/students can also be
responsible for the proper operation and maintenance of facilities in the school, up
to a point (and depending on the complexity of the WASH technological options at
the schools built by MfM).
Section VIII.

School WaSH Program Planning for Improvements

Planning of improvements includes setting objectives, defining results and making


an action plan. It is important that participatory approach applied during the
assessment and also subsequent phases of WaSH Program developments. The
important components that MfM need to address in development of school WaSH
program is discussed below.
8.1.

Participatory Assessment of the Current Condition, Needs and Problems

As mentioned in earlier formulating objectives and drawing up an action plan for


school sanitation and hygiene, a participatory needs assessment has to be
undertaken, including assessment of the health condition of the boys and girls,
their hygiene behavior, the existing facilities, the curriculum in use, the
qualification of the teachers, the available teaching materials and the available
budget. Although teachers or school committee member may point at the need for
it, the problem analysis and needs assessment should be initiated by MfM
together with Woreda and school heads in during the inception of the program.
Doing the analysis or assessment in a participatory way means that students,
community members and possibly health center staff are actively involved in its
design and execution. This not only has the advantage of getting useful and
precise data, it also starts to motivate those involved to develop activities to
improve school WaSH. The involvement of children in this stage is also crucial.
Experience shows that childrens involvement may be the first step towards their
ready participation in the program. In addition, behavior changes may already
8 Further detailed contents of dealing with health components are available from
MfM health departments and Woreda Health offices.

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start to occur during the analysis and assessment period. MfM, thus, must use the
Information gathered for setting up a community hygiene education and
development of school WaSH program.
8.2. Setting Objective
The information obtained from participatory needs assessment on School WaSH
should help MfM and community to select objectives to improve school sanitation
and hygiene program. The main points that need to be given attention include:-

8.3.

The process of setting of objectives is needed to be done with all the parties
involved: PTA, Woreda education and health office, Kebele office, teachers and
other concerned.

It is crucial at this stage to formulate clear objectives, ensuring a proper mix


of objectives related to hardware (water and Sanitation facilities) and
objectives related to software (their use, and behavior changes). Ensuring
integration of software and hardware is for the purpose of ultimately directing
towards achieving behavior change.

Objectives need to be Specific, Measurable, Applicable, Realistic and Timebound (SMART). They have to take into account the available or expected
budget and manpower.

In order to stimulate collaboration with government education and health


offices the objectives should, match with the objectives of has in the field of
hygiene education.

Making Action Plan


After setting objectives, action plans can be made with all parties involved:
students, teachers, parents, community members and project staff. The
involvement of students and teachers is particularly important, since they have a
crucial role to play in implementing the program. Other points need to be given
attention in making action plan includes:

Should budget and manpower not be available, the action plan has to include
activities geared towards obtaining them.

As discussed earlier it is advisable to have a substantial financial or manpower


contribution from both school and community, because this will enhance the
sense of ownership and responsibility for facilities.

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Other point of crucial importance is the setting of a time frame and the
allocation of responsibilities.

Through time findings from ongoing monitoring and periodic assessment of


the achievements may call for adjustment of the plans at any time.

MfM should prepare action together with community and stakeholders the
community during the inception of the project. This will be most likely when
MfM plan to construct new school in the area. However, afterwards the school
and community need to regularly update their annual action planes.

Generally, however, from MfM intervention perspective action plan of School


WaSH program can be divided in three phases:I.

During inception period, which includes participatory need assessment

II.

In the planning stage

III.

During implantation stage, which is largely refers the period when school is
constructed

IV.

After Handover of WaSH facilities


In each phase, the roles of MfM and other stakeholders need to be clearly
identified and communicated. Annex I provides the table format that need to be
used for regular action plan of School WaSH and the related main activities.

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Annex I.

School WaSH Program Regular Action Plan


I. In school project initiation stage
Activity

role of MfM

Identify key
stakeholders

Conduct the
assessment

Conduct participatory
assessment of hygiene
and sanitation in
schools

Initiate and lead


the process,
ensure
involvement of
key stakeholders

Participate in
the assessment,
mobilize
community,

Participate in the
assessment, mobilize
community,

In the inception of
school planning
for two to three
days

Sort key areas for


improvement in school
and community WaSH

Initiate and lead


the process,
ensure
involvement of key
stakeholders

Participate in the
assessment,
mobilize
community,

Participate in the
assessment, mobilize
community,

In the inception of
school planning
for two to three
days

S.
No

1.

2.

3.

II. In school project planning stage

role of Kebele
Education &
training board,
Education
office and
school
leadership

role of PTA, Parent


and community

Time Frame

In the inception
phase

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S.
No

Activity

role of MfM

role of School

role of community

Identify water supply


options

Conduct survey
assessments,
Initiate and lead
the process,
ensure
involvement of key
stakeholders

Participate in the
assessment,
mobilize
community,

Participate in the
assessment, mobilize
community,

In the inception of
school planning
for two to three
days

3.

Identify key focus areas


to improve school
WaSH

Conduct
assessments,
Initiate and lead
the process,
ensure
involvement of key
stakeholders

Participate in the
assessment,
mobilize
community,

Participate in the
assessment, mobilize
community,

In the inception of
school planning
for two to three
days

4.

Decide of role and


responsibility of
stakeholder

Initiate and lead


the process,
ensure
involvement of key
stakeholders

Participate in the
assessment,
mobilize
community,

Participate in the
assessment, mobilize
community,

In the inception of
school planning
for two to three
days

5.

Decide on School
income means

Initiate and lead


the process,

Participate in the
assessment,

Participate in the
assessment, mobilize

In the inception of
school planning

1.

2.

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6.

Formulate WaSH plan

ensure
involvement of key
stakeholders

mobilize
community,

community,

for two to three


days

Initiate and lead


the process,
ensure
involvement of key
stakeholders

Participate in the
assessment,
mobilize
community,

Participate in the
assessment, mobilize
community,

In the inception of
school planning
for two to three
days

III. In school project implementation stage


S.
No

Activity

role of MfM

role of School

role of community

1.

Organize Community
WaSH committee

Initiate and lead


the process,
ensure
involvement of key
stakeholders

Participate in the
assessment,
mobilize
community,

Participate in the
assessment, mobilize
community,

In the inception of
school planning
for two to three
days

2.

Identify gap and


provide training for
teachers, school
principals, Kebele and
Woreda office and PTA

Organize and
provide training

Participate and
provide suitable
condition for
training, and
conduct follow up

Participate and provide


suitable condition for
training, and conduct
follow up

For a week during


the process of
school
construction

provide training

Recruit students

3.

Establish students

Follow up after

For a week during

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4.

5.

WaSH club

and follow-ups
after trainings

Construction of
schools and WaSH
facilities

Construct as per
the design

Monitoring activities

Monitoring
activities as
prescribed in the
manual

and follow-ups
after training

Participate

trainings

Participate

Monitoring
activities as
prescribed in the
manual

Monitoring activities
as prescribed in the
manual

IV. In school project completion stage


S.
No

Activity

role of MfM

role of School

role of community

Conduct monitoring
and supervision

Monitoring
activities as
prescribed in the
manual

Monitoring activities
as prescribed in the
manual

1.

Monitoring
activities as
prescribed in the
manual

2.

Follow-ups and
capacity building

Follow up and
train to fill gaps

the process of
school
construction
In the
construction
phase

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Annex II.

Outlines for training of teachers , PTA and community members on WaSH

Discovering the Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Situation in Our School

Why are clean drinking water, using latrines, and washing hands important?

School ignition: Walk about (identify where children defecate, what water they
drink, what toilet and hand washing facilities exist)

Understanding the WASH Problem

Consequences of feces contamination and poor infrastructure and hygiene

What Can We Do about the WASH Problem?

Overview of three key practices and simple techniques (tippy taps, SODIS)

Critical WASH PracticesCorrect Hand Washing and Tool

Correct hand washing practice and tools

How to wash hands correctly

How to make a water-saving hand washing device

Critical WASH PracticesMaking Drinking Water Safe from Source to Mouth

The water safety chain

Pros and cons of different water treatment methods

How to treat water with solar disinfection

Critical WASH PracticesUsing Hygienic Latrines (Models for Schools)

How to Make Our School WASH-Friendly

Introduction to elements of a WASH-Friendly School

Planning for making our school WASH-Friendly

WASH themes into classroom teaching and participatory WaSH education

WASH school clubs

Conducting inspection and monitoring

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Annex III.

VIP Latrine Description

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Like a simple pit, the basic VIP separates humans from excreta (urine and faces),
which fall into a pit through a drop hole. Liquid leaches through the pit walls, and
solid material breaks down. Unlike a simple pit design, however, the VIP has two
critical features which make it safer and less smelly.
Firstly, the vent pipe causes an updraft that draws fumes up from the pit. The
effect is more pronounced when wind passes over the top of the pipe, so it should
extend about the roof line. As air is drawn out of the pit, it is replaced from air
from the cubicle which is effectively ventilated. Air vents must be built in to the
cubicle to ensure that fresh air gets in, typically above and below the door. As
simple smoke test can be used to see how the air flows - drop some smoking
grass down the pit and see what happens.
Secondly, whilst flies can enter the pit through the drop hole, and breed there,
they cannot escape, as they are attached to the sunlight at the top of the vent
pipe. This is brighter than the light entering the pipe from the drop hole. Escape
from the vent pipe is prevented by a wire mesh they fall back and die in the pit.
If the interior of the cubicle is too light, flies would indeed fly up through the drop
hole and out, carrying faces with them. If the cubicle is too dark, children will be
scared to use it, so the right balance has to be found.
Annex IV.

Lay out of school WaSH facility

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