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PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS: RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS

Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2015; 23:19


Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/pip.2573

ACCELERATED PUBLICATION

Solar cell efciency tables (Version 45)


Martin A. Green1*, Keith Emery2, Yoshihiro Hishikawa3, Wilhelm Warta4 and Ewan D. Dunlop5
1

Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO, 80401, USA
3
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Research Center for Photovoltaic Technologies (RCPVT),
Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8568, Japan
4
Department: Solar CellsMaterials and Technology, Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110
Freiburg, Germany
5
European CommissionJoint Research Centre, Renewable Energy Unit, Institute for Energy, Via E. Fermi 2749, IT-21027 Ispra
(VA), Italy
2

ABSTRACT
Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently conrmed efciencies for solar cells and
modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July 2014
are reviewed. Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
KEYWORDS
solar cell efficiency; photovoltaic efficiency; energy conversion efficiency
*Correspondence
Martin A. Green, School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia.
E-mail: m.green@unsw.edu.au
Received 23 October 2014; Accepted 27 October 2014

1. INTRODUCTION
Since January 1993, Progress in Photovoltaics has published six monthly listings of the highest conrmed efciencies for a range of photovoltaic cell and module
technologies [13]. By providing guidelines for inclusion
of results into these tables, this not only provides an
authoritative summary of the current state-of-the-art but
also encourages researchers to seek independent conrmation of results and to report results on a standardised
basis. In Version 33 of these tables [2], results were
updated to the new internationally accepted reference
spectrum (IEC 60904-3, Ed. 2, 2008), where this was
possible.
The most important criterion for inclusion of results into
the tables is that they must have been independently
measured by a recognised test centre listed elsewhere [1].
A distinction is made between three different eligible
denitions of cell area: total area, aperture area and designated illumination area, as also dened elsewhere [1].
Active area efciencies are not included. There are also
certain minimum values of the area sought for the different
device types (above 0.05 cm2 for a concentrator cell, 1 cm2
for a one-sun cell and 800 cm2 for a module).
Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Results are reported for cells and modules made from


different semiconductors and for sub-categories within
each semiconductor grouping (e.g. crystalline, polycrystalline
and thin lm). From Version 36 onwards, spectral response
information is included when available in the form of a plot
of the external quantum efciency (EQE) versus wavelength,
either as absolute values or normalised to the peak measured
value. Currentvoltage (IV) curves have also been included
where possible from Version 38 onwards.

2. NEW RESULTS
Highest conrmed one sun cell and module results are
reported in Tables I and II. Any changes in the tables
from those previously published [3] are set in bold type.
In most cases, a literature reference is provided that
describes either the result reported, or a similar result
(readers identifying improved references are welcome to
submit to the lead author). Table I summarises the best
measurements for cells and submodules, while Table II
shows the best results for modules. Table III contains
what might be described as notable exceptions. While
not conforming to the requirements to be recognised as
1

M. A. Green et al.

Solar cell efficiency tables

Table I. Conrmed terrestrial cell and submodule efciencies measured under the global AM1.5 spectrum (1000 W/m ) at 25 C
(IEC 60904-3: 2008, ASTM G-173-03 global).
Areab
2
(cm )

Efciency
(%)

Classicationa
Silicon
Si (crystalline)

25.6 0.5

143.7 (da) 0.740

Si (multicrystalline)
20.8 0.6
Si (thin transfer submodule) 21.2 0.4
Si (thin lm minimodule)
10.5 0.3
IIIV cells
GaAs (thin lm)
28.8 0.9
GaAs (multicrystalline)
18.4 0.5
InP (crystalline)
22.1 0.7
Thin lm chalcogenide
CIGS (cell)
20.5 0.6
CIGS (minimodule)
18.7 0.6
CdTe (cell)
21.0 0.4
Amorphous/microcrystalline Si
Si (amorphous)
10.2 0.3k
Si (microcrystalline)
11.4 0.3l
Dye sensitised
Dye
11.9 0.4m
Dye (minimodule)
10.0 0.4m

41.8d

82.7
80.3
80.3
72.1

AIST (2/14)

Panasonic HIT, rear


junction [25]
FhG-ISE (11/14)e Trina Solar [4]
NREL (4/14) Solexel (35 m thick) [5,26]
FhG-ISE (8/07)g CSG Solar (<2 m on
glass; 20 cells) [27]

86.5
79.7
85.4

0.9882 (ap) 0.752 35.3d


15.892 (da) 0.701f 35.29f,i
1.0623 (ap) 0.8759 30.25e

77.2
75.6
79.4

1.001 (da) 0.896


1.046 (da) 0.535

16.36e
29.07e

69.8
73.1

AIST (7/14)
AIST (7/14)

AIST [6]
AIST [7]

1.005 (da) 0.744


24.19 (da) 0.718

22.47n
20.46e

71.2
67.7

AIST (9/12)
AIST (6/14)

398.8 (da) 0.697f

18.42f

68.7

AIST (9/12)

Sharp [34]
Fujikura/Tokyo U.
Science [9,10]
Sharp, 26 serial cells [35]

71.4
70.9

AIST (9/14)
AIST (8/14)

Toshiba [11]
Toshiba (4 series cells) [11]

86.7
71.9
70.2

AIST (2/13)
NREL (7/12)
AIST (10/14)

11.0 0.3o
9.5 0.3o

0.993 (da) 0.793 19.40e


25.05 (da) 0.789f 17.01e,f

37.9 1.2
13.4 0.4p
12.7 0.4%k

1.047 (ap) 3.065


1.006 (ap) 1.963
1.000(da) 1.342

14.27j
9.52n
13.45e

NREL (5/12) Alta Devices [28]


NREL (11/95)g RTI, Ge substrate [29]
NREL (4/90)g Spire, epitaxial [30]
NREL (3/14) Solibro, on glass [31]
FhG-ISE (9/13) Solibro, 4 serial cells [32]
Newport (8/14) First Solar, on glass [33]

Sharp [36]
LG Electronics [37]
AIST [8]

(ap) = aperture area; (t) = total area; (da) = designated illumination area.

FhG-ISE = Fraunhofer Institut fr Solare Energiesysteme; AIST = Japanese National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology.
Spectral response and current-voltage curve reported in Version 44 of these tables.

Spectral response and current voltage curve reported in the present version of these tables.

Reported on a per cell basis.

Recalibrated from original measurement.

Spectral response and currentvoltage curve reported in Version 40 of these tables.

Spectral response and currentvoltage curve reported in Version 43 of these tables.

Spectral response and/or currentvoltage curve reported in Version 42 of these tables.

k
l

Description

29.68h
23.2
29.5

0.9927 (ap) 1.122


4.011 (t) 0.994
4.02 (t) 0.878

Test centrec
(date)

CIGS = CuInGaSe2; a-Si = amorphous silicon/hydrogen alloy; nc-Si = nanocrystalline or microcrystalline silicon.

b
c

Jsc
Fill factor
2
(mA/cm ) (%)

243.9 (ap) 0.6626 39.03


239.7 (ap) 0.687f 38.50e,f
94.0 (ap) 0.492f 29.7f

8.8 0.3m

Dye (submodule)
Organic
Organic thin-film
Organic (minimodule)
Multijunction devices
InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs
a-Si/nc-Si/nc-Si (thin-lm)
a-Si/nc-Si (thin-film cell)

Voc
(V)

Stabilised by 1000-h exposure to 1 sun light at 50 C.

Not measured at an external laboratory.

Initial performance (not stabilised). References 12 and 13 review the stability of similar devices.

Spectral response and currentvoltage curve reported in Version 41 of these tables.

Initial performance (not stabilised). References 14 and 15 review the stability of similar devices.

Light soaked under 100 mW/cm white light at 50 C for over 1000 h.

a class record, the cells and modules in this table have


notable characteristics that will be of interest to sections
of the photovoltaic community, with entries based on
their signicance and timeliness.
To encourage discrimination, Table III is limited to
nominally twelve entries with the present authors
having voted for their preferences for inclusion.
2

Readers who have suggestions of results for inclusion


into this table are welcome to contact any of the authors
with full details. Suggestions conforming to the
guidelines will be included on the voting list for a
future issue.
Table IV shows the best results for concentrator cells
and concentrator modules (a smaller number of notable
Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2015; 23:19 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
DOI: 10.1002/pip

M. A. Green et al.

Solar cell efficiency tables

Table II. Conrmed terrestrial module efciencies measured under the global AM1.5 spectrum (1000 W/m ) at a cell temperature of
25 C (IEC 60904-3: 2008, ASTM G-173-03 global).
Classicationa
Si (crystalline)
Si (large crystalline)
Si (multicrystalline)
GaAs (thin lm)
CdTe (thin-lm)
CIGS (Cd free)
CIGS (thin-lm)
a-Si/nc-Si (tandem)
Organic
a

Efc.b (%)

Areac (cm )

Voc (V)

Isc (A)

FFd (%)

Test centre (date)

Description

22.9 0.6
22.4 0.6
18.5 0.4
24.1 1.0
17.5 0.7
17.5 0.5
15.7 0.5
12.2 0.3l
8.7 0.3m

778 (da)
15775 (ap)
14661 (ap)
858.5 (ap)
7021 (ap)
808 (da)
9703 (ap)
14322 (t)
802 (da)

5.60
69.57
38.97
10.89
103.1
47.6
28.24
202.1
17.47

3.97
6.341f
9.149g
2.255h
1.553i
0.408j
7.254k
1.261j
0.569j

80.3
80.1
76.2
84.2
76.6
72.8
72.5
68.8
70.4

Sandia (9/96)e
NREL (8/12)
FhG-ISE (1/12)
NREL (11/12)
NREL (2/14)
AIST (6/14)
NREL (11/10)
ESTI (6/14)
AIST (5/14)

UNSW/Gochermann [38]
SunPower [39]
Q-Cells (60 serial cells) [40]
Alta Devices [41]
First Solar, monolithic [42]
Solar Frontier (70 cells) [16]
Miasole [43]
TEL Solar, Trubbach Labs [17]
Toshiba [11]

CIGSS = CuInGaSSe; a-Si = amorphous silicon/hydrogen alloy; a-SiGe = amorphous silicon/germanium/hydrogen alloy; nc-Si = nanocrystalline or micro-

crystalline silicon.
b
c

Efc. = efciency.

(t) = total area; (ap) = aperture area; (da) = designated illumination area.

FF = ll factor.

Recalibrated from original measurement.

Spectral response and currentvoltage curve reported in Version 42 of these tables.

Spectral response and/or currentvoltage curve reported in Version 40 of these tables.

Spectral response and currentvoltage curve reported in Version 41 of these tables.

Currentvoltage curve reported in the Version 44 of these tables.

Spectral response and/or currentvoltage curve reported in the present version of these tables.

k
l

Spectral response reported in Version 37 of these tables.

Stabilised at the manufacturer for 149 h to the 2% IEC criteria.

Initial performance (not stabilised).

Table III. Notable Exceptions: Top dozen conrmed cell and module results, not class records measured under the global AM1.5
-2
spectrum (1000 Wm ) at 25 C (IEC 60904-3: 2008, ASTM G-173-03 global).
Classicationa
Cells (silicon)
Si (crystalline)
Si (large crystalline)
Si (large multicrystalline)
Cells (IIIV)
GaInP
Cells (chalcogenide)
CIGS (thin-film)
CIGSS (Cd free)
CZTSS (thin lm)
CZTS (thin-lm)
Cells (other)
Perovskite (thin film)
Organic (thin lm)
a

Jsc
Fill
2
Voc (V) (mA/cm ) factor (%)

Test centre
(date)

4.00 (da) 0.706


120.94 (ap) 0.726
242.7 (t)
0.652

42.7d
41.5f
39.0g

82.8
82.8
76.7

20.8 0.6

0.2491 (ap) 1.4550

16.04h

89.3

36.59i
37.06h
35.21f
16.83h

79.3
77.8
69.8
70.9

FhG-ISE (9/14)
AIST (11/12)
Newport (7/13)
AIST (1/13)

24.65i
17.81l

77.0
72.2

Newport (11/14) KRICTk [51]


AIST (10/12) Mitsubishi Chemical [52]

21.7 0.7
19.7 0.5
12.6 0.3
8.5 0.2j

0.4972 (da)
0.496 (da)
0.4209 (ap)
0.2382 (da)

0.7963
0.683
0.5134
0.708

20.1 0.4j 0. 0955 (ap) 1.059


11.1 0.3j
0.159 (ap) 0.867
ySey;

Sandia (3/99)e
FhG ISE (2/14)
FhG ISE (3/11)

Description

25.0 0.5
25.0 0.7
19.5 0.4

CIGSS = CuInGaSSe; CZTSS = Cu2ZnSnS4

b
c

Areab
2
(cm )

Efciency
(%)

NREL (5/13)

UNSW PERL top/rear contacts [44]


Sunpower rear junction [45]
Q-Cells, laser red contacts [46]
NREL, high bandgap [47]
ZSW on glass [18]
Showa Shell/Tokyo U. of Science [48]
IBM solution grown [49]
Toyota Central R&D Labs [50]

CZTS = Cu2ZnSnS4.

(ap) = aperture area; (t) = total area; (da) = designated illumination area.

AIST, Japanese National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; NREL, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; FhG-ISE, Fraunhofer-

Institut fr Solare Energiesysteme; ESTI, European Solar Test Installation.


d

Spectral response reported in Version 36 of these tables.

Recalibrated from original measurement.

Spectral response and currentvoltage curves reported in Version 44 of these tables.

Spectral response reported in Version 37 of these tables.

Spectral response and currentvoltage curves reported in Version 42 of these tables.

Spectral response and/or currentvoltage curves reported in the present version of these tables.

Stability not investigated.

k
l

Korean Research Institute of Chemical Technology.

Spectral response and currentvoltage curves reported in Version 41 of these tables.

Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2015; 23:19 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
DOI: 10.1002/pip

M. A. Green et al.

Solar cell efficiency tables

Table IV. Terrestrial concentrator cell and module efciencies measured under the ASTM G-173-03 direct beam AM1.5 spectrum at a
cell temperature of 25 C.
Efc.a (%)

Areab (cm )

Intensityc
(suns)

Test centre
(date)

29.1 1.3d,e
27.6 1.2f
23.3 1.2d,g

0.0505 (da)
1.00 (da)
0.09902 (ap)

117
92
15

FhG-ISE (3/10)
FhG-ISE (11/04)
NREL (3/14)

46.0 2.2h

0.0520 (da)

508

AIST (10/14)

Soitec/CEA/FhG-ISE bonded [55]

40.4 2.8i

287 (ap)

365

NREL (11/14)

UNSW split spectrum [56]

20.5 0.8d

1875 (ap)

79

35.9 1.8k
36.7 2.6d,l

1092 (ap)
829.6 (ap)

N/A
N/A

NREL (8/13)
FhG-ISE (5/14)

20.0 (da)
25(ap)

11
2.5m

Sandia (9/90)j
ESTI (9/08)

Classication
Single cells
GaAs
Si
CIGS (thin lm)
Multijunction cells
GaInP/GaAs; GaInAsP/GaInAs
Submodule
GaInP/GaInAs/Ge; Si
Modules
Si
Three junction
Four junction
Notable exceptions
Si (large area)
Luminescent submodule
a

21.7 0.7
7.1 0.2

Fraunhofer ISE
Amonix back-contact [53]
NREL[54]

Sandia/UNSW/ENTECH
(12 cells) [57]
Amonix [58]
Fraunhofer ISE [24]
UNSW laser grooved [59]
ECN Petten, GaAs cells [60]

(da) = designated illumination area; (ap) = aperture area.


-2

One sun corresponds to direct irradiance of 1000 Wm .

Not measured at an external laboratory.

Spectral response reported in Version 36 of these tables.

Sandia (4/89)j

Description

Efc. = efciency.

b
c

Measured under a low aerosol optical depth spectrum similar to ASTM G-173-03 direct [61].

Spectral response and currentvoltage curve reported in Version 44 of these tables.

Spectral response and currentvoltage curve reported in present version of these tables.
2

Measured outdoors at 883.7 W/m direct irradiance, pressure-corrected airmass of 2.5 and cell temperature referenced to 25C.

Recalibrated from original measurement.

k
l

Referenced to 1000 W/m direct irradiance and 25 C cell temperature using the prevailing solar spectrum and an in-house procedure for temperature translation.

Measured under IEC 62670-1 reference conditions following the current IEC power rating draft 62670-3.

Geometric concentration.

exceptions for concentrator cells and modules additionally is included in Table IV).
Seventeen new results are reported in the present version of
these tables. The rst new result in Table I reports a new record for a multicrystalline silicon solar cell, the cell type presently manufactured in the highest volume. An efciency of
20.8% has been measured by the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar
Energy Systems (FhG-ISE) for a full-sized (244-cm2) cell fabricated by Trina Solar [4] on a standard HP (high performance)
multicrystalline wafer using PERC (passivatived emitter and
rear cell) technology. The second new result is for a thin-lm
transfer crystalline silicon (c-Si) cell. An improved efciency
of 21.2% has been measured by the National Renewable
Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a moderate area (240-cm2)
submodule fabricated by Solexel [5] using silicon cells
reported to be only 35 microns thick. The third new result
in Table I is 21.0% efciency for a 1.06-cm2 CdTe cell fabricated by First Solar and measured at Newport Technology and
Applications Center. This becomes the highest conrmed
efciency for a thin-lm polycrystalline cell of this size.
Improved results are also reported for both amorphous and
microcrystalline silicon thin-lm cells. A slight improvement
to 10.2% stabilised efciency is reported for a 1-cm2 amorphous silicon (a-Si) cell fabricated and measured by the
4

Japanese National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science


and Technology (AIST) [6]. A larger increase to 11.4% efciency is also reported for a 1-cm2 microcrystalline silicon cell
(also, perhaps more accurately, known as a nanocrystalline,
nc-Si, cell) fabricated and measured by AIST, improving
upon the previous result from the same group [7]. These
improvements doubtlessly contributed to another new result
in Table I by the same institute, the demonstration of 12.7%
stabilised efciency for a 1-cm2 a-Si/nc-Si tandem cell [8].
Another slight improvement to a landmark 10.0% initial
efciency is reported for a 24-cm2 dye-sensitised thin-lm
minimodule fabricated by the Fujikura/Tokyo University of
Science and measured by AIST [9,10]. A larger increase to
11.0% initial efciency is also reported for a 1-cm2 organic
thin-lm solar cell fabricated by Toshiba and measured by
AIST. Toshiba also fabricated an improved 9.5% initial efciency organic cell minimodule (25 cm2) as again measured
by AIST, improving upon the companys previous result
[11]. Along with other emerging technology devices, the
stabilities of the dye-sensitised and organic devices were
not investigated, although the stability of related devices is
reported elsewhere [1215].
Three new module results are reported in Table II. The
rst is 17.5% efciency for a small CIGS (copper indium
Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2015; 23:19 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
DOI: 10.1002/pip

M. A. Green et al.

Solar cell efficiency tables

gallium selenide) Cd-free module (808 cm2) fabricated by


Solar Frontier [16] and measured by AIST. Another signicant new result in Table II is a new performance record for
a large area (1.4 m2) amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon (a-Si/nc-Si) module fabricated by TEL Solar, Trubbach
Labs [17] and measured at 12.2% total area efciency at
the European Solar Test Installation (ESTI). The module
consisted of 142 multijunction cells in series and was
stabilised at the manufacturer. A third signicant new result
is 8.7% initial efciency for a small organic cell module
(802 cm2) fabricated by Toshiba [11] and measured by
AIST. This is the rst time an organic module of this size
has been reported in these tables. As before, the stability of
this module was not investigated, although the stability of
related devices is reported elsewhere [14,15].
Table III, notable exceptions, reports two new results
for small area cells. The rst new result documents a large increase to 21.7% efciency for a small area 0.5-cm2 CIGS cell
fabricated by the Zentrum fr Sonnenenergie-und WasserForschung (ZSW) [18] and measured by the Fraunhofer
Institute for Solar Energy Systems (FhG-ISE). The second

new result in Table III is 20.1% efciency for a very small


area 0.1-cm2 organic-inorganic halide perovskite cell fabricated by the Korean Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT) and measured at Newport Technology and
Applications Center. In both cases, cell area is too small for
classication as an outright record. Solar cell efciency targets in governmental research programs generally have been
specied in terms of a cell area of 1 cm2 or larger, for example, in US [19], Japanese [20] and European [21] programs.
Cells of smaller area bypass some of the contacting and
material uniformity issues encountered with larger area
devices, as well as being more prone to measurement error
due to peripheral effects if encapsulated under glass.
As has been apparent from earlier versions of these
tables [13], very rapid progress has been made over recent
years in improving the efciency of series-connected multiple junction solar cell stacks operating under concentrated
sunlight. Accurately determining the performance of these
devices is a challenging measurement problem. The improved current matching between the cells in the stack that
contributes to this improved performance together with the

Figure 1. (a) External quantum efciency (EQE) for the new silicon,
CdTe, CIGS and concentrator cell results in this issue (* asterisk denotes normalized values; others are absolute values); (b) corresponding current densityvoltage (JV) curves (concentrator cell current
2
density normalised to 1kW/m ).

Figure 2. (a) External quantum efciency (EQE) for the new


amorphous (a-Si) and nanocrystalline (nc-Si) silicon results in this
issue (* asterisk denotes normalized values; others are absolute
values); (b) corresponding current densityvoltage (JV) curves.

Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2015; 23:19 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
DOI: 10.1002/pip

M. A. Green et al.

Solar cell efficiency tables

increasing number of cells in the stack have placed increased


demands on the spectral accuracy of the ash simulators used
to measure the performance at high illumination intensities
[22,23]. As an interim measure, the present authors have
agreed that compatible measurements at two of our designated test centres will be a requirement for performance certication of such concentrator cell stacks and for a new result
to be entered into these tables. A number of recent multiple
junction concentrator cell results are therefore in the pipeline
while such multiple measurements are being nalised.
Table IV also reports two new results for concentrating
modules and submodules, with performance based on outdoor measurements. A landmark 40.4% efciency has been
measured in outdoor testing by NREL for a 287-cm2 splitspectrum concentrator submodule fabricated by the University of New South Wales (UNSW), using commercial
GaInP/GaInAs/Ge and Si cells manufactured by Spectrolab
and SunPower, respectively. A new record of 36.7% is reported for an 830-cm2 photovoltaic module using a four cell
stack [24]. The module was fabricated and measured at the
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (FhG-ISE).

This is the highest efciency for any reasonably sized solar


energy converter to date.
The EQE spectra for the new Si, CIGS, CdTe and concentrator results reported in the present issue of these tables
are shown in Figure 1(a). Figure 1(b) shows the current
densityvoltage (JV) curves for the same devices. Figure 2
(a) shows the EQE for the new a-Si, nc-Si and a-Si/nc-Si cell
and module results, with Figure 2(b) showing their current
densityvoltage (JV) curves. Figure 3(a) shows the EQE
for the new organic, perovskite and dye-sensitised results,
while Figure 3(b) shows the corresponding current density
voltage (JV) curves.
For the case of modules or multijunction cells, the
measured currentvoltage data have been reported on a
per cell basis (measured voltage has been divided by the
known or estimated number of cells in series, while measured
current has been multiplied by this quantity and divided by
the module area).

3. DISCLAIMER
While the information provided in the tables is provided in
good faith, the authors, editors and publishers cannot accept direct responsibility for any errors or omissions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics commenced operation in February 2013 with support from
the Australian Government through the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA). The Australian Government does not accept responsibility for the views,
information or advice expressed herein. The work by K.
Emery was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy
under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the
National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

REFERENCES

Figure 3. (a) External quantum efciency (EQE) for the new


perovskite, dye sensitised and organic (OPV) results in this
issue (* asterisk denotes normalized values; others are absolute
values); (b) corresponding current densityvoltage (JV) curves.

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