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INTRODUCTION

The public VS private family


The public family
Value orientation, e.g. moral & religious beliefs

FAMILY POLICY AND


GENDER EQUALITY
GESC2320

DEFINING RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES BETWEEN FAMILY MEMBERS,


GOVERNMENT AND THE STAKEHOLDERS OF THE COMMUNITY AND
SOCIETY
E.g. family policy

The private family


Social claims and rights
What actually family DO to sustain family life
Family/marital relations

GENDER EQUALITY
According to the EU, gender equality refers to the condition
within which:
http://www.arhiv.svlr.gov.si/fileadmin/svlsrp.gov.si/pageuploads/financi_mehanizem_egp/Gender_equality_policy_guide.pdf

all human beings are free to develop their personal abilities and
make choices without the limitations set by strict gender roles; that
the different behavior, aspirations and needs for women and men
are equally considered, valued and favored.
Measures:
A fair distribution of resources between the two sexes
A redistribution of status, social power and caring responsibilities
Freedom from gender-based violence

4 dimensions:

Economic and social rights


Human rights
Prevention from violence
Participation and decision making

GENDER EQUALITY POLICY


It refers to policy, legislation and institutional
arrangements that

Reduce social, economic and political inequalities


Equal access to and benefit equally from an activity
Address and compensate past discrimination

Three dimensions of gender equality policy


Equality in opportunity
Recognized inequality in conditions
Addressed systematic discrimination

Gap in formal rights and the actual exercise of these rights

Formal equality VS substantial equality


Gender mainstreaming: the integration of gender
perspectives and needs in legislation, policies or
programs, in any area and at all levels

FAMILY POLICY
Family policy usually refers to a variety of policies
that address and regulate social and sexual rights
related to:
http://www.swd.gov.hk/en/index/site_pubsvc/page_family/

Partnership
Regulation of marriage law
Defining the spouses rights and responsibilities
Welfare and taxation

Parenthood

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/04/maternity-leave-paid-parental-leave-_n_2617284.html

Reproductive rights
Maternity/paternity benefits
Parental leave
Childcare/elderly care
Child/elderly benefits

FAMILY POLICY AND GENDER EQUALITY

CASE STUDY: IMMIGRATION POLICY, CROSS


BORDER FAMILY & GENDER EQUALITY

Family policy might intendedly and unintendedly


change/reinforce gender relationships, e.g.

Population policy: to
boost up fertility rate to
ease the problem
induced from aging
population
Immigration policy:

Population policy: child birth, elderly, migration


Labor market policy
Employment and poverty
Spill-over effect

150 quotes
Employment under the
Admission Scheme for
Mainland Talents and prof.
Capital investment entrant
scheme
Quality migrant admission
scheme

Whether or not a particular policy will help reduce


gender inequality is an empirical question:
The nature of the policy, its contexts, its range, scope and
provisions, its implementation, and the broader political
context and how different policies impact or offset each other

CROSS BORDER FAMILY ONE


WAY PERMIT
1950 and beforeopen border
1950150 quotes
1980touch-base policy was cancelled
1983decrease to 75
1993increase to 105 (equally distributed to the spouse and children of the
applicant)
1995 till nowincrease to 150
(f the daily OWP quota of 150 places, 60 places are allocated to
children holding Certificate of Entitlement (CoE) who enjoy the right of abode
in Hong Kong, 30 to spouses separated for 10 years or more (long separated
spouses) and their accompanying children, and 60 to applicants belonging to
other categories. Included under other categories are spouses separated for
less than 10 years and their accompanying children, unsupported children who
need to join their relatives in Hong Kong, persons coming to Hong Kong to take
care of their unsupported aged parents (i.e. those with no other children in
Hong Kong) and unsupported elderly people coming to join relatives in Hong
Kong.)

ONE-WAY PERMIT HOLDERS ENTERING


HONG KONG BY SEX, 1986-2011
70000

Family re-union has been the prime reason

1996

2001

2006

2011

2.3

3.5

2.9

2.4

1.7

1.6

1.3

1.1

5.1

4.2

3.5

Total

50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0

1986

1991

1996

2001

2006

2011

16143

16585

40984

35143

34299

30135

10842

10197

20195

18512

19871

13244

Total

26985

26782

61179

53655

54170

43379

Migrant women: Age between 25-44


Source: HK Census and Statistics Dept (2012), Women and Men in
Hong Kong: Key Statistics, p.26

POPULATION BY PLACE OF BIRTH,


SEX IN HK (%), 1996-2011*

60000

*Excluding Foreign Domestic Helpers


Source: HK Census and Statistics Dept (2012), Women and Men in
Hong Kong: Key Statistics, p.18-19.

24
HTTP://WWW.BASICLAW.GOV.HK/EN/BASICLAWTEXT/CHAPTER_3.HTML


()
()

*() ()()
()

() ()

() ()()

BL, ARTICLE 24
The above-mentioned residents shall have the
right of abode in the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region and shall be qualified to
obtain, in accordance with the laws of the
Region, permanent identity cards which state
their right of abode.
The non-permanent residents of the Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region shall be persons
who are qualified to obtain Hong Kong identity
cards in accordance with the laws of the
Region but have no right of abode.

2004 Policy Address: Promoting new growth:

Study how immigration and related policies can


support further development of education, medical
and health care industries to serve people in the
Mainland and elsewhere in Asia
http://www.policyaddress.gov.hk/pa04/eng/hightli
ghts2.htm

The launch of Individual Visit Scheme since


2003 has induced the birth rush

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF CROSS


BORDER MARRIAGES

THE BIRTH RUSH

, 2000-10

HK grooms +
mainland
brides
HK brides +
mainland
grooms
Total

1986

1991

1996

2001

2006

2011

15,776

21,220

24,564

18,380

27,145

20,167

675

1,390

1,821

2,359

6,483

6,785

16,451

22,610

26,385

20,739

33,628

26,952

Source: HK Census and Statistics Dept (2013), Women and Men in


Hong Kong: Key Statistics, p.43.

THE CROSS BORDER FAMILY AND ITS


SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS
The CB family is largely the
product of various public policies,
particularly the immigration policy
The situation of the CB family
Types of cross border family
The challenges to the CB family
Video: 2012228- 2 2

REMARKS
The policy effect of a particular family policy could
be off set by another family policy
Policy goal: strive for gender egalitarian; policy outcome:
traditional gender ideology reinforced

Various public policies have unintended created a


certain type of family with their own problems and
concerns
Yet, insufficient, if not none, family policies help to ease the
pain of these families

CASE STUDY: CHINA

ONE CHILD POLICY

Childbirth: from promotion to restriction


Childbirth promoted by Maoism
One child policy

No restriction before 1979


Declining fertility rate before 1970s
1979-1983: draconian execution
1983-present:
slight moderation to rural families and ethnic minorities
harsh execution varies from place to place
As key performance Indicator for local cadres

ONE CHILD POLICY

TOTAL FERTILITY RATE 1980-2005

The One-Child Policys Effect on Chinese Fertility http://braddlibby.wordpress.com/2011/07/07/the-onechild-policys-effect-on-chinese-fertility/

ONE CHILD POLICY


Social Implications:
Conciliation
Confrontation
Violence: physical attack on rural birth planning cadres
Rightful resistance : lawsuit against the state
Evasion/bribe to take away intrauterine device (IUD)

Accommodation
One son or two-children policy
Ultrasound B machine: sex selection

ONE CHILDPOLICY

ONE CHILD POLICY

Anderson, S. and D. Ray (2010). "Missing Women: Age and


Disease." The Review of Economic Studies 77(4): 1262-1300.

RURAL/URBAN DEVIDE
While daughters in rural villages suffered, urban
daughters benefit from the one child policy
Fong, V. L. (2002). "China's One-Child Policy and the
Empowerment of Urban Daughters." American
Anthropologist 104(4): 1098-1109.