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Industrial Design

Tech 147, DSID 129, ME 20

Product Design and Manufacturing


Mechanical Engineering
Department of Technology
Dr. Seth Bates
Forging Terminology

The following terms are critical in describing and understanding forging processes. In addition, many of them are of
general use in understanding design and processing:

Important Forging Terms


Billet

A slug cut from rod to be heated and forged.

Blocker

Preform die or impression, used when part cannot be made in a single operation.

Bottom Die

The stationary half-die.

Cavity

The impression in either the upper or lower die.

Draft

The taper on a vertical surface to facilitate the removal of the forging from the die or
punch.

Fillet

A curved inside corner to increase the strength of an object at the corner and to improve
appearance. Also important as it increases forging die life.

Flash

The excess metal that flows out between the upper and lower dies which is required to
accomplish a desired forging shape.
The line where the flash occurs.

Flash Line
Forging

The production of semi-finished forms from wrought metal blanks hot or cold in closed
dies by a sudden, sharp impact. See "Hammer Forging" and "Hot Press Forging".

Gutter

A slight depression surrounding the cavity in the die to relieve pressure and control flash
flow.

Hammer Forging
Hardness

A forging process in which the piece is deformed by repeated blows.

The resistance of a metal (or other material) to plastic deformation by indentation.


Common methods of measurement are Rockwell, Brinell, Durometer, and Vickers. Plastics
are usually measured on the Rockwell and Durometer scales.

Heat Treatment
A combination of heating and cooling operations, applied to a metal or alloy in the
solid state to produce desired properties, usually from a change in crystal grain size and
structure.
Hot Press Forging
A method of forming parts by pressing a heated slug, cut from wrought material, in
a closed-impression die.
Lubricate

Swabbing or spraying the dies with lubricant to assist in initial flow and to facilitate
ejection of the forging.

Mismatch

Misalignment of forging at flash line caused by die or cavity positioning. (Mismatch


should not exceed allowable tolerances).

Parting Line

The line where the dies come together and the flash is removed.

Shrinkage
Sink

The contraction that occurs when a forging cools.


To cut an impression in a die.

Slug

The blank, cut from wrought material, from which a forging is made, see "BILLET".

Tolerance

The amount by which any characteristic such as dimensional, chemical, physical or


mechanical properties, may vary from that specified.

Tumbling

Rolling in a revolving container to remove sharp edges and improve finish.

Web

The thin section of metal remaining at bottom of a cavity or depression in a forging. The
web may be removed by piercing or machining.