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# Trigonometric Functions:

## The Unit Circle

xy -

Definition. The unit circle is the circle of radius 1 centered at the origin in the

x 2+ y 2 =1 .

## Example 1. Show that the point

3 6
P( , ) is on the unit circle. (This is easy! You just need
3 3

to show that the point satisfies the equation of the unit circle, that is,

x 2+ y 2 =1 .)

Suppose

(1,0)

## and moving in a counterclockwise direction if

positive or in a clockwise direction if t is negative.

is

P( x , y )

## on the unit circle. The point

obtained in this way is called the terminal point determined by the real number

(1,0)

P( x , y )

t .

## C=2 r =2 ( 1 )=2 . So if a point starts at

and moves counterclockwise all the way around the unit circle and returns to

## 2 . To move halfway around the circle, it travels a distance

of ___. To move a quarter of the distance around the circle, it travels a distance of ___. Where
does the point end up when it travels these distances along the circle?

9 7
,
.
4
4

3
t= , ,
,2 .
2
2

## can determine the same terminal point, e.g .

4 ,

Example 2. Find the terminal point on the unit circle determined by each real number

t=3

(b)

t=

(c)

t=

2 .

## Terminal points for some special values of

t .

Example 3. Find the terminal point determined by each given real number
(b)

t=

3
4

(c)

t=

t . (a)

t . (a)

t=

5
6

## The Reference Number

is the shortest distance along the unit circle between the terminal point determined by

and the

x -axis.

associated with

Definition. Let

t=

2
3

(d)

t . (a)

t=

5
6

(b)

t=5.80

t=

7
4

(c)

steps:

,
,
,
,

Q1 , write
Q2 , write
Q3 , write
Q 4 , write
+ ;
;
;
+ .

Q(a , b)

## 2. Find the terminal point

3. Get the values of

appropriate

and

determined by

t
.

,
.

+
,
+ ,
+ ,

## Example 5. Find the terminal point determined by

t=

29
6 .

Remark. In finding the terminal point for very large t , we express t as a sum
of a multiple of 2 and some other real number c. The terminal point of t is
the same as that of c.

Solution. Since

t=

29
5
=4 +
6
6 , the terminal point of

t=

29
6

5
6 .

Quiz 1
t

## 1. Suppose that the terminal point determined by

is

3 4
( , ) . Find the terminal point
5 5

determined by

(a) t
(b) 5 + t
(c)

101 t

t .
(a)

31
6

## and the terminal point determined by

(b)

41
4
Trigonometric Functions of Real Numbers

## How do we relate the concept of terminal points to finding the trigonometric

functions of real numbers?
Recall. We previously defined the trigonometric functions of an acute angle

in a right triangle in terms of the lengths of the sides of the right triangle. Note that in a unit
circle, the coordinates of the terminal point of a real number

P'

is the

## terminal point in the unit circle.

Exercise. Derive the other trigonometric functions.

## Values of the Trigonometric Functions

is the

is the

y -coordinate of

x -coordinate of

y -coordinate and

P' . Thus,

x -coordinate of its

## define another unit for measuring angles, called the radian, as

+n

1.

+90
()=cos ()
sin

IDENTITIES

360 . We

360

2.

+ 90
=sin ()
cos

Exercise. Given this identity, derive the other four trigonometric functions of

3.

+180
()=sin()
sin

4.

cos(+180 )=cos ()

+90 .

Exercise. Given this identity, derive the other four trigonometric functions of

+18 0 .

5.

+ 270
()=cos ()
sin

6.

+ 270
()=sin ()
cos

Exercise. Given this identity, derive the other four trigonometric functions of

+27 0 .

Quiz 2
Use all of what you have learned to answer the following.

I.

## Determine if the following statements are true or false.

1. The terminal points of

2.

19.99

and

8.7

## lie in the same quadrant.

cos (5 ) <0

3. The midpoint of the line segment whose endpoints are the terminal points of
and 2 is (

,
) .
2
2

## 4. If cos ( x )=cos ( y ) then

5. sec ( 2 ) < sec(3)

II.

x= y .

## Choose the letter of the correct answer

1. Which of the following is not a coordinate of a point on the unit circle?
A.

(1,0)

B.

2 2
( , )
2
2

C.

1 1
( , )
2 2

D.

3 4
, )
5 5

2. Given that

cos ( ) >0

and

## cot()<0 , which of the following statements is

true?
A. The terminal point of

## sin ( ) , tan ( ) , and csc ( ) are all negative.

C. The terminal point of lies in the first quadrant.
B. The functions

## D. All of the above

III.
1. Give all six trigonometric function values of the following real numbers.
(a)

(b)

5
6

(c)

9
4

(d)

13
4

(e)

19
6

(f)

2013
6

(a)

120

(b)

225

(c) 390
(d)

630

(e)

780

(f)

945

## 3. Determine the exact value of

(a)
(b)
(c)

IV.

cos (37 ) sin (37 ) tan (37 ) cot ( 37 ) sec (37 ) csc (37 )

## ( 53 )+cot ( 56 )+2 tan ( 76 )

5
11
sin ( 150 ) sec ( ) tan (
4
3 )
sec

## (a) the terminal point of

is

if

2 13 3 13
,
)
13
13

*******************
Well done is better than well said.
-Benjamin Franklin
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