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An introduction to trigonometric functions.

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You are on page 1of 12

xy -

Definition. The unit circle is the circle of radius 1 centered at the origin in the

x 2+ y 2 =1 .

3 6

P( , ) is on the unit circle. (This is easy! You just need

3 3

to show that the point satisfies the equation of the unit circle, that is,

x 2+ y 2 =1 .)

Suppose

(1,0)

positive or in a clockwise direction if t is negative.

is

P( x , y )

obtained in this way is called the terminal point determined by the real number

(1,0)

P( x , y )

t .

and moves counterclockwise all the way around the unit circle and returns to

of ___. To move a quarter of the distance around the circle, it travels a distance of ___. Where

does the point end up when it travels these distances along the circle?

9 7

,

.

4

4

3

t= , ,

,2 .

2

2

4 ,

Example 2. Find the terminal point on the unit circle determined by each real number

t=3

(b)

t=

(c)

t=

2 .

t .

Example 3. Find the terminal point determined by each given real number

(b)

t=

3

4

(c)

t=

t . (a)

t . (a)

t=

5

6

is the shortest distance along the unit circle between the terminal point determined by

and the

x -axis.

associated with

Definition. Let

t=

2

3

(d)

t . (a)

t=

5

6

(b)

t=5.80

t=

7

4

(c)

steps:

,

,

,

,

Q1 , write

Q2 , write

Q3 , write

Q 4 , write

+ ;

;

;

+ .

Q(a , b)

3. Get the values of

appropriate

and

determined by

t

.

,

.

+

,

+ ,

+ ,

t=

29

6 .

Remark. In finding the terminal point for very large t , we express t as a sum

of a multiple of 2 and some other real number c. The terminal point of t is

the same as that of c.

Solution. Since

t=

29

5

=4 +

6

6 , the terminal point of

t=

29

6

5

6 .

Quiz 1

t

is

3 4

( , ) . Find the terminal point

5 5

determined by

(a) t

(b) 5 + t

(c)

101 t

t .

(a)

31

6

(b)

41

4

Trigonometric Functions of Real Numbers

functions of real numbers?

Recall. We previously defined the trigonometric functions of an acute angle

in a right triangle in terms of the lengths of the sides of the right triangle. Note that in a unit

circle, the coordinates of the terminal point of a real number

P'

is the

Exercise. Derive the other trigonometric functions.

is the

is the

y -coordinate of

x -coordinate of

y -coordinate and

P' . Thus,

x -coordinate of its

or equivalently, radians 180 .

+n

1.

+90

()=cos ()

sin

IDENTITIES

360 . We

radians

360

2.

+ 90

=sin ()

cos

Exercise. Given this identity, derive the other four trigonometric functions of

3.

+180

()=sin()

sin

4.

cos(+180 )=cos ()

+90 .

Exercise. Given this identity, derive the other four trigonometric functions of

+18 0 .

5.

+ 270

()=cos ()

sin

6.

+ 270

()=sin ()

cos

Exercise. Given this identity, derive the other four trigonometric functions of

+27 0 .

Quiz 2

Use all of what you have learned to answer the following.

I.

1. The terminal points of

2.

19.99

and

8.7

cos (5 ) <0

3. The midpoint of the line segment whose endpoints are the terminal points of

and 2 is (

,

) .

2

2

5. sec ( 2 ) < sec(3)

II.

x= y .

1. Which of the following is not a coordinate of a point on the unit circle?

A.

(1,0)

B.

2 2

( , )

2

2

C.

1 1

( , )

2 2

D.

3 4

, )

5 5

2. Given that

cos ( ) >0

and

true?

A. The terminal point of

C. The terminal point of lies in the first quadrant.

B. The functions

III.

1. Give all six trigonometric function values of the following real numbers.

(a)

(b)

5

6

(c)

9

4

(d)

13

4

(e)

19

6

(f)

2013

6

(a)

120

(b)

225

(c) 390

(d)

630

(e)

780

(f)

945

(a)

(b)

(c)

IV.

cos (37 ) sin (37 ) tan (37 ) cot ( 37 ) sec (37 ) csc (37 )

5

11

sin ( 150 ) sec ( ) tan (

4

3 )

sec

is

if

2 13 3 13

,

)

13

13

*******************

Well done is better than well said.

-Benjamin Franklin

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