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You are on page 1of 64

MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM

Mathemati
al Mayhem began in 1988 as a Mathemati
al Journal for and by

High S
hool and University Students. It
ontinues, with the same emphasis,

The Mayhem Editor is Ian VanderBurgh (University of Waterloo). The

other sta members are Monika Khbeis (As ension of Our Lord Se ondary

S hool, Mississauga), Eri Robert (Leo Hayes High S hool, Frederi ton), Larry

Ri e (University of Waterloo), and Ron Lan aster (University of Toronto).

Mayhem Problems

du present

numero

avant le 15 Mars 2009. Les solutions re ues apres

ette date ne seront prises en

ompte que s'il nous reste du temps avant la publi ation des solutions.

Chaque probleme

sera publie dans les deux langues o ielles du Canada

(anglais et fran ais). Dans les numeros

1, 3, 5 et 7, l'anglais pre

edera

le fran ais,

et dans les numeros

2, 4, 6 et 8, le fran ais pre

edera

l'anglais.

La reda tion

souhaite remer ier Jean-Mar Terrier, de l'Universite de

Montreal,

d'avoir traduit les problemes.

M369. Propose par l'Equipe

de Mayhem.

Soit A(0, 0), B(6, 0), C(6, 4) et D(0, 4) les sommets d'un re
tangle.

Par le point P (4, 3), on tra
e d'une part une droite horizontale
oupant BC

en M et AD en N et d'autre part une droite verti
ale
oupant AB en Q et

CD en R. Montrer que AP , DM et BR passent toutes par le m^eme point.

M370. Propose par l'Equipe

de Mayhem.

(a) Montrer que cos(A + B) + cos(A B) = 2 cos A cos B pour tous les

angles A et B .

D

CD

(b) Montrer que cos C + cos D = 2 cos C +

cos

pour tous

2

2

les angles C et D.

(
) Trouver la valeur exa
te de cos 20 + cos 60 + cos 100 + cos 140 ,

sans l'aide d'une
al
ulatri
e.

M371. Propose par Panagiote Ligouras, E
ole

Se
ondaire Leonard

de

Vin
i, No
i, Italie.

Un segment AB de longueur 3
ontient un point C tel que AC = 2. On

onstruit d'un m^eme
ot

^ e de AB deux triangles equilat

eraux

ACF et CBE .

Determiner

l'aire du triangle AKE si K est le point milieu de F C .

450

M372. Propose par l'Equipe

de Mayhem.

satisfaisant x3 = x + 1. Trouver des entiers a, b

7

et c de sorte que x = ax2 + bx + c.

Kendriya Vidyalaya S hool,

Shillong, Inde.

Les ot

^ es

d'un triangle sont mesures

par trois nombres entiers onse u

tifs et le plus grand angle est le double du plus petit. Determiner

la longueur

des ot

^ es

du triangle.

ave p 3. Trouver le nombre de solutions de x3 + y3 = x2 y + xy2 + p2009 , ou x et y sont des entiers.

M375. Propose par Ne ulai Stan iu, E ole

Te hnique Superieure

de Saint

Mu eni Sava, Ber a, Roumanie.

Determiner

toutes les solutions reelles

du systeme

d'equations

1

x2

4

y2

9

z2

= 4;

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9 ;

xyz =

9

2

.................................................................

A re
tangle has verti
es A(0, 0), B(6, 0), C(6, 4), and D(0, 4). A horizontal line is drawn through P (4, 3), meeting BC at M and AD at N . A

verti
al line is drawn through P , meeting AB at Q and CD at R. Prove that

AP , DM , and BR all pass through the same point.

(a) Prove that cos(A + B) + cos(A B)

A and B .

(b) Prove that cos C + cos D = 2 cos

C and D .

= 2 cos A cos B

C +D

2

cos

CD

2

for all angles

(
) Determine the exa
t value of cos 20 + cos 60 + cos 100 + cos 140 ,

without using a
al
ulator.

No i, Italy.

Suppose that the line segment AB has length 3 and C is on AB with

AC = 2. Equilateral triangles ACF and CBE are onstru ted on the same

side of AB . If K is the midpoint of F C , determine the area of AKE .

451

A real number x satises x3

so that x7 = ax2 + bx + c.

= x + 1.

Shillong, India.

The side lengths of a triangle are three onse utive positive integers

and the largest angle in the triangle is twi e the smallest one. Determine the

side lengths of the triangle.

Suppose that p is a xed prime number with p 3. Determine the

number of solutions to x3 + y3 = x2 y + xy2 + p2009 , where x and y are

integers.

High S hool, Ber a, Romania.

Determine all real solutions to the system of equations

1

x2

4

y2

9

z2

= 4;

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9 ;

xyz =

9

2

Mayhem Solutions

M332.

Diminnie, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX, USA.

A losed right ir ular ylinder has an integer radius and an integer

height. The numeri al value of the volume is four times the numeri al value

of its total surfa e area (in luding its top and bottom). Determine the smallest possible volume for the ylinder.

Solution by Cao Minh Quang, Nguyen Binh Khiem High S hool, Vinh Long,

Vietnam.

Let r and h be the radius and the height of the losed right ir ular

ylinder. The volume of su h a ylinder is V = r2 h and the surfa e area is

A = 2r 2 + 2rh.

From the hypotheses, r2 h = 4(2r2 + 2rh), or rh = 8r + 8h, or

rh 8r 8h + 64 = 64, or (r 8)(h 8) = 64. Note that r 8 > 8 and

h 8 > 8. This gives us the following possibilities:

452

r8

h8

r

h

V

1

64

9

72

5832

2

32

10

40

4000

4

16

12

24

3456

8

84

16

16

4096

16

4

24

12

6912

32

2

40

10

16000

64

1

72

9

46656

Also solved by DENISE CORNWELL, student, Angelo State University, San Angelo,

\Abastos",

TX, USA; RICHARD I. HESS, Ran ho Palos Verdes, CA, USA; RICARD PEIRO, IES

Valen ia, Spain; BILLY SUANDITO, Palembang, Indonesia; and TITU ZVONARU, Comane

sti,

Romania. There was 1 in omplete solution submitted.

Anne and Brenda play a game whi h begins with a pile of n toothpi ks.

They alternate turns with Anne going rst. On ea h player's turn, she must

remove 1, 3, or 6 toothpi ks from the pile. The player who removes the last

toothpi k wins the game. For whi h of the values of n from 36 to 40 in lusive

does Brenda have a winning strategy?

Solution by Ri hard I. Hess, Ran ho Palos Verdes, CA, USA, modied by the

editor.

We an build a table of winning and losing positions for Anne. Her

winning positions start with 1, 3, or 6, sin e she an immediately win by

removing all of the toothpi ks.

Starting with 2 toothpi ks, Anne must remove 1 toothpi k, leaving

Brenda with 1, and so Brenda wins. Starting with 4 toothpi ks, Anne must

remove 1 or 3 toothpi ks, leaving Brenda with 3 or 1 (respe tively), and so

Brenda wins by removing all of the toothpi ks.

Starting with 5 toothpi ks, Anne an remove 3 toothpi ks, thus leaving

Brenda with 2 toothpi ks. Sin e 2 is a losing position for whoever goes rst,

then Brenda loses, so Anne wins.

So far, 1, 3, 5, and 6 are winning positions for Anne, while 2 and 4 are

losing positions for Anne.

Starting with a pile of size n, Anne must redu e the pile to one of size

n 1, n 3, or n 6 and pass to Brenda. If the person who goes rst has

a winning strategy starting with a pile of ea h of these sizes, then Anne will

lose. In other words, if Anne has a winning strategy starting with piles of

size n 1, n 3, and n 6, then Anne will lose starting with a pile of size

n, as Brenda an implement Anne's strategy for the smaller pile and win, no

matter what Anne does. If one or more of these pile sizes are su h that the

rst person does not have a winning strategy, then Anne should redu e to

this size, thus preventing Brenda from being able to win, and so Anne herself

will win.

We an examine the ases from n = 7 to n = 40, obtaining the following lists:

453

Winning positions for Anne: 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21,

23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 39.

Losing positions for Anne: 2, 4, 9, 11, 13, 18, 20, 22, 27, 29, 31, 36, 38, 40.

Therefore, Brenda wins for n = 36, 38, 40.

Also solved by JACLYN CHANG, student, Western Canada High S
hool, Calgary, AB.

See the Problem of the Month
olumn in [2007 : 15{17 for a similar problem with a

more detailed explanation.

(a) Determine all integers x for whi h

x3

3x 2

3y 3 + 3

3y 2 + y 2

is an integer.

is an integer.

x3

.

3x 2

3x 9

3x 2 7

7

3A =

=

=1

.

3x 2

3x 2

3x 2

7

Thus, 3x 2 is an integer; that is, 3x 2

is a divisor of 7, so 3x 2 is

one of 1, 7. Sin
e x is an integer, x = 1 or x = 3. This answers part (a).

Now let B be an integer su
h that

B

3y 3 + 3

y 2 2y 3

=

y

3y 2 + y 2

3y 2 + y 2

(y 3)(y + 1)

y3

= y

= y

(y + 1)(3y 2)

3y 2

=

y3

is an integer, 3y

is an integer. From the solution to part (a),

2

y = 1 or y = 3, whi
h answers part (b).

Sin e

II. Solution by Edward T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON.

We show that the only integer solutions to part (a) are x = 1 and x = 3.

x3

Let f (x) = 3x

. Then f (0) = 32 , f (1) = 2, f (2) = 14 , and

2

f (3) = 0. Of these, only f (1) and f (3) are integers.

If x > 3, then f (x) is not an integer, sin
e 3x 2 > x 3 > 0 for

x3

x > 3 and so 0 <

< 1.

3x 2

s+3

where s 1. Then f (x) = f (s) = 3s

.

+2

Sin
e 3s + 2 > s + 3 > 0 for s 1, f (s) is not an integer by a similar

argument so, f (x) is not an integer.

If x

1,

let x

= s

454

Therefore, f (x) is an integer for integer values of x if and only if x = 1

or x = 3.

Also solved by RICARD PEIRO, IES

Nguyen Binh Khiem High S hool, Vinh Long, Vietnam; and TITU ZVONARU, Comane

sti,

Romania. There was one in orre t and one in omplete solution submitted.

In a sequen e of four numbers, the se ond number is twi e the rst

number. Also, the sum of the rst and fourth numbers is 9, the sum of the

se ond and third is 7, and the sum of the squares of the four numbers is 78.

Determine all su h sequen es.

Solution by Denise Cornwell, student, Angelo State University, San Angelo,

TX, USA.

Let a, b, c, and d represent the rst, se ond, third and fourth number,

respe tively. We an now write the given information as b = 2a, a + d = 9,

b + c = 7 and a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = 78.

The rst three equations allow us to rewrite b, c, and d in terms of a,

obtaining b = 2a, c = 7 b = 7 2a, and d = 9 a.

Therefore,

a2 + (2a)2 + (7 2a)2 + (9 a)2

a2 + 4a2 + 49 28a + 4a2 + 81 18a + a2 78

5a2 23a + 26

(5a 13)(a 2)

=

=

=

=

78 ,

0,

0,

0,

hen
e a = 13

or a = 2.

5

Therefore, the sequen
es are a = 13

, b = 26

, c = 95 , d = 32

and

5

5

5

a = 2, b = 4, c = 3, d = 7. Both sequen
es satisfy the given requirements.

Also solved by EDIN AJANOVIC, student, First Bosniak High S
hool, Sarajevo,

Bosnia and Herzegovina; JACLYN CHANG, student, Western Canada High S
hool, Calgary,

AB; RICHARD I. HESS, Ran
ho Palos Verdes, CA, USA; CAO MINH QUANG, Nguyen Binh

Khiem High S
hool, Vinh Long, Vietnam; KUNAL SINGH, student, Kendriya Vidyalaya S
hool,

Shillong, India; BILLY SUANDITO, Palembang, Indonesia; and TITU ZVONARU, Comane

sti,

Romania. There was one in
orre
t and one in
omplete solution submitted.

A latti e point is a point (x, y) in the oordinate plane with ea h of x

and y an integer. Suppose that n is a positive integer. Determine the number

of latti e points inside the region |x| + |y| n.

Solution by Edin Ajanovi , student, First Bosniak High S hool, Sarajevo,

Bosnia and Herzegovina, modied by the editor.

We an rewrite the given inequality as the equations |x| + |y| = 0 and

|x| + |y| = k for 1 k n, where x, y Z.

455

The equation

|x| + |y| = 0

remove the absolute values by splitting into four ases:

This has solutions (k, 0), (k 1, 1), . . . , (1, k 1), (0, k), for a total of k + 1

solutions.

Case 2. The integers x and y satisfy x y = k, where x 0 and

y < 0.

This has solutions (k 1, 1), (k 2, 2), . . . , 1, (k 1) , (0, k), for

a total of k solutions.

Case 3. The integers x and y satisfy x + y = k, where x < 0 and y 0.

This
ase is the same as Case 3, but with the roles of x and y swit
hed, so

there are a total of k solutions here as well.

Case 4. The integers x and y satisfy

x < 0 and y < 0.

x y = k, where

This has solutions

1,

(k

1)

,

2,

(k

2)

,

.

.

.

, (k 2), 2 ,

(k 1), 1 , for a total of k 1 solutions.

Thus, for ea
h k with 1 k n, the

(k + 1) + k + k + (k 1) = 4k solutions.

equation

|x| + |y| = k

has

1+

n

X

4k

1 + 4

k=1

n

X

k=1

1 + 4

k = 1 + 4 (1 + 2 + + n)

n(n + 1)

= 2n2 + 2n + 1 .

2

Also solved by RICARD PEIRO, IES

and two in omplete solutions submitted.

On sides AB and CD of re tangle ABCD with AD

and E are hosen so that AF CE is a rhombus.

(a) If AB = 16 and BC

(b) If AB = x and BC

= 12,

= y,

< AB ,

points F

determine EF .

We present the solution to (b), whi h is a general version of the spe i

ase in (a).

Suppose that AF = F C = CE = EA = m. Let O be the point of

interse tion of diagonals AC and EF of rhombus AF CE . Note that AC

and EF are perpendi ular and bise t ea h other at O.

456

By the Pythagorean Theorem,

CB 2 ,

y2 ,

y2 ,

x2 + y 2 ,

x2 + y 2

=

.

2x

CF 2 F B 2

m2 (x m)2

2

m x2 + 2mx m2

2mx

=

=

=

=

Now, AF

OA =

x2 + y 2

2x

and AC = AB 2 + BC 2 =

1

AC . Thus, by the Pythagorean Theorem again,

2

= m =

OF 2

= AF 2 OA2

2

2

x + y2

=

2x

Also,

!2

p

x2 + y 2

2

x4 + y 4 + 2x2 y 2

x2 + y 2

x4 + y 4 + 2x2 y 2 x4 x2 y 2

4x2

4x2

p

x2 + y 2 .

2 2

y +x y

4x2

Therefore,

OF =

y 4 + x2 y 2

4x2

and

EF = 2 OF =

2y

p

y 2 (y 2 + x2 )

2x

x2 + y 2

2x

p

x2 + y 2

2x

p

x2 + y 2

x

12 162 + 122

12(20)

EF =

=

= 15 .

16

16

Also solved by EDIN AJANOVIC, student, First Bosniak High S
hool, Sarajevo, Bosnia

and Herzegovina; JACLYN CHANG, student, Western Canada High S
hool, Calgary, AB (part

\Abastos",

(a) only); RICHARD I. HESS, Ran
ho Palos Verdes, CA, USA; RICARD PEIRO, IES

Valen
ia, Spain; CAO MINH QUANG, Nguyen Binh Khiem High S
hool, Vinh Long, Vietnam;

BILLY SUANDITO, Palembang, Indonesia; LUYAN ZHONG-QIAO, Columbia International

College, Hamilton, ON; and TITU ZVONARU, Comane

sti, Romania.

457

Problem of the Month

Ian VanderBurgh

Here is a problem that might seem to be not very interesting initially,

but turns out to have a whole lot of unexpe
ted solutions.

Problem (2005 Canadian Open Mathemati
s

3

0

5

6 2

Challenge) In the grid shown, ea
h row has 2 5

0

1

y

a value assigned to it and ea
h
olumn has a

5

2

x

8

0

value assigned to it. The number in ea
h
ell

0 3

2

3 5

is the sum of its row and
olumn values. For 4 7 2 1 9

example, the \8" is the sum of the value assigned to the 3 row and the value assigned to the 4
olumn. Determine

the values of x and y.

It is tempting rst of all to give labels to the values that are assigned

to the rows and
olumns in order to be able to dive into some algebra. Let's

label the values assigned to the ve
olumns A, B , C , D, E and the values

assigned to the ve rows a, b, c, d, e.

Ea
h entry in the table gives us an equation involving two of these

variables. For example, the 3 in row 4,
olumn 2 gives us d + B = 3,

and the 9 in row 5,
olumn 5, gives us e + E = 9. We
ould pro
eed and

write down 25 equations, one for ea
h entry in the table. These equations

would in
lude 12 variables { the 10 that label the rows and
olumns together

with x and y. We
ould then spend pages and pages wading through algebra

trying to
ome up with the answers. At this point, we would hope that there

has to be a better way. Maybe we should have looked before we leapt!

Here are three neat ways to approa
h this. (As a point of interest, I

was re
ently talking about this problem with a friend while driving and so

neither of us really wanted to do any algebra, and so were for
ed to
ome up

with better ways to do it.)

Solution 1. If we
hoose ve entries from the table whi
h in
lude one from

ea
h row and one from ea
h
olumn, then the sum of these entries is
onstant

no matter how we
hoose the entries, as it is always equal to

rd

th

A + B + C + D + E + a + b + c + d + e.

Can you see why? Here are three ways in whi
h this
an be done (looking at

the underlined numbers in the two grids below and the grid on the following

page):

3

2

5

0

4

0

5

2

3

7

5

0

x

2

2

6

1

8

3

1

2

y

0

5

9

3

2

5

0

4

0

5

2

3

7

5

0

x

2

2

6

1

8

3

1

2

y

0

5

9

458

Therefore,

=

=

3

2

5

0

4

3 + (5) + 2 + 8 + (9)

(4) + (3) + x + 1 + (2)

3 + y + 2 + (2) + 3 ,

0

5

2

3

7

5

0

x

2

2

6

1

8

3

1

2

y

0

5

9

or 1 = x 8 = y + 6. Thus, x = 7 and

y = 7.

Solution 2. Consider the rst two entries in row 1. From the labels above, we

have 3 = A + a and 0 = B + a. Subtra
ting these, we obtain the equation

3 = 3 0 = (A + a) (B + a) = A B .

Noti
e that whenever we take entries in
olumns 1 and 2 from the same

row, their dieren
e will always equal A B , whi
h is equal to 3. Similarly,

sin
e the dieren
e between the 0 and the 5 in the rst row is 5, then every

entry in
olumn 3 will be 5 greater than the entry in
olumn 2 from the same

row. In row 3, we see that x = 2 + 5 = 7.

Also, sin
e the dieren
e between the 6 and the 2 in the rst row is

8, then every entry in
olumn 5 is 8 less than the entry in
olumn 4 from the

same row. In row 2, we see that y = 1 8 = 7. Thus, x = 7 and y = 7.

Solution 3. Consider the sub-grid

0

x

1

8

1 = b + D , 8 = c + D , and x = c + C .

But then 0 + 8 = (b + C) + (c + D) = (c + C) + (b + D) = x + 1, or

x = 7.

In a similar way, by looking at the sub-grid 18 y0 we an show that

1 + 0 = y + 8, or y = 7. Thus, x = 7 and y = 7.

So there are three dierent but neat solutions to the problem. One

footnote to the nal solution is that in fa
t, in any sub-grid of the form

p q

, we must have p + s = q + r. Can you see why?

r s

Another interesting point about this problem is that it might be easier

for those who know less! If we repla
ed the x and the y with \?" and gave

it to someone who didn't know a lot of algebra, they might nd the answers

faster than those of us who go immediately to algebra. Sometimes, the extra

ma
hinery that we have
an get in the way.

As 2008 draws to a
lose, the Mayhem Editor has three enormous sets of

thanks to oer. First, to the Mayhem Sta, espe
ially to Monika Khbeis and

Eri
Robert, for all of their help over the past year. Se
ond, to the Editorin-Chief of CRUX with MAYHEM, Va
lav

Linek, for all of his help and en
ouragement over the past year (as well as for his sharp eyes!). Third, to

the Mayhem readership for their support. Please keep those problems and

solutions
oming!

459

No. 274

R.E. Woodrow

With the Winter break
oming up, I have de
ided to fo
us this issue

mainly on providing problems for your puzzling pleasure, and to give some

time for the mails to deliver the solutions to problems from 2008 numbers

of the Corner to restore the readers' solutions le, whi
h is parti
ularly thin

for the February 2008 number, as you will see later in the
olumn.

To start you o we have the problems proposed but not used at the

47 IMO in Slovenia 2006. My thanks go to Robert Morewood, Canadian

Team Leader at the IMO for
olle
ting them for our use.

th

SLOVENIA 2006

Colombia, Cze h Republi , Estonia, Finland, Fran e, Georgia, Gree e, Hong

Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republi of Korea,

Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Peru, Romania, Russia, Serbia and

Montenegro, Singapore, Slovakia, South Afri a, Sweden, Taiwan, Ukraine,

United Kingdom, United States of Ameri a, Venezuela.

Problem Sele tion Committee. Andrej Bauer, Robert Gerets hlager, Geza

Kos,

Mar in Ku zma, Sventoslav Sav hev.

Algebra

A1. Given an arbitrary real number a0 , dene a sequen
e of real numbers

a0 , a1 , a2 , . . .

by the re ursion

ai+1 = ai {ai } ,

i 0,

Prove that ai = ai+2 for su iently large i.

A2. Let a0

= 1

by the re ursion

= ai ai .

n

X

ank

k=0

k+1

= 0

460

re ursion cn+2 = cn+1 + cn for n 0. Let S be the set of ordered pairs

(x, y) su h that

X

X

x =

cj and y =

cj1

jJ

jJ

for some nite set J of positive integers. Prove that there exist real numbers

, , m, and M with the property that an ordered pair of non-negative

integers (x, y) satises the inequality

m < x + y < M

X

i<j

X

ai aj

n

ai aj .

ai + aj

2(a1 + a2 + + an ) i<j

A5. Let a, b, and c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle. Prove that

b+ca

c+ab

a+bc

3.

b+ c a

c+ a b

a+ b c

Combinatori
s

C1. There are n 2 lamps L1 , L2 , . . . , Ln arranged in a row. Ea
h of them

is either on or o. Initially the lamp L1 is on and all of the other lamps are

o. Ea
h se
ond the state of ea
h lamp
hanges as follows: if the lamp Li

and its neighbours (L1 and Ln ea
h have one neighbor, any other lamp has

two neighbours) are in the same state, then Li is swit
hed o; otherwise, Li

is swit
hed on. Prove that there are

(a) innitely many n for whi
h all of the lamps will eventually be o,

(b) innitely many n for whi
h the lamps will never be all o.

C2. Let S be a nite set of points in the plane su h that no three of them

are on a line. For ea
h
onvex polygon P whose verti
es are in S , let a(P )

be the number of verti
es of P , and let b(P ) be the number of points of S

whi
h are outside of P . Prove that for every real number x

X

P

xa(P ) (1 x)b(P ) = 1 ,

where the sum is taken over all
onvex polygons with verti
es in S . (A line

segment, a point, and the empty set are
onvex polygons of 2, 1, and 0

verti
es, respe
tively.)

461

lie on some of the unit squares so that ea
h row or
olumn
ontains exa
tly

one strawberry;
all this arrangement A.

Let B be another su
h arrangement. Suppose that every grid re
tangle

with one vertex at the top left
orner of the
ake
ontains no fewer strawberries of arrangement B than of arrangement A. Prove that the arrangement

B
an be obtained from A by performing a sequen
e of swaps, where a swap

onsists of sele
ting a grid re
tangle with only two strawberries, situated at

its top right
orner and bottom left
orner, and then moving these two strawberries to the other two
orners of that re
tangle.

su
h that

(a) Ea
h player plays in ea
h round, and every two players meet at most

on
e.

(b) If player A meets player B in round i, player C meets player D in round

i, and player A meets player C in round j , then player B meets player

D in round j .

Determine all pairs (n, k) for whi
h there exists an (n, k)-tournament.

angles of 60 and 120 . Prove that a holey triangle T an be tiled with

diamonds if and only if for ea h k = 1, 2, . . . , n every upward equilateral

triangle of side length k in T ontains at most k holes.

n

C6. Let P be a
onvex polyhedron with no parallel edges and no edge parallel to a fa
e other than the two fa
es it borders. A pair of points on P are

antipodal if there exist two parallel planes ea
h
ontaining one of the points

and su
h that P lies between them. Let A be the number of antipodal pairs

of verti
es and let B be the number of antipodal pairs of mid-points of edges.

Express A B in terms of the numbers of verti
es, edges, and fa
es of P .

Geometry

K and L lie on the line segments

AB and CD , respe tively, su h that

AK : KB = DL : LC . Suppose that

there are points P and Q on the line

segment KL satisfying

D ...p..........................L

C

....p........................................................p

..

...p

.......

....... ...

.... ...... ..................... ..............

.......

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

...

.. .......

.

.........

P ..........................................

...

....

....

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.....

.......

...

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....

..

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.

.

.

.

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p

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.

....

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.

..... ...

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.

.

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.

Q

..... ...

...........

.

.

.

.

.

.

.. ..

..

..p...............................................................p.....................................................................................p

and CQD =

Prove that the points P , Q, B , and C are
on
y
li
.

AP B = BCD

K

ABC .

462

=

=

CAD = DAE ;

ACD = ADE .

P . Prove that the line AP bise ts the

side CD.

in ir le of ABC is tangent to AB and

AC at points K and L, respe tively.

Let J be the in entre of triangle BCD.

Prove that the line KL interse ts the

line segment AJ at its mid-point.

....q

.......... ...

............. .....

.

.

.

............................................................

....... .....

.......

.....

.

.....

...

.

.

...

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....

.

....q K

......... ........

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........................... ..... .....

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.

..

.

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.

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.

.

.. .....

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...

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... ..

..

..... .......J ..q........................................................ ...... ..........

...

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.

.

.

..q....................................................q.....................q..............................................................q............................................................................................q

BC at A1 and to the extensions of

sides AC and AB at B1 and C1 , respe tively. Suppose that the lines

A1 B1 and AB are perpendi ular and

interse t at D. Let E be the foot

of the perpendi ular from C1 to line

DJ . Determine the angles BEA1

and AEB1 .

...

.... ..........................................................

........

...............

.......

............

.....

..........

.

.

....

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1......

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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

B q

qJ

Cq

q q

D B

D and internaly tangent to a ir le

at points E and F , respe tively. Line

t is the ommon tangent of 1 and 2

at D. Let AB be the diameter of

perpendi ular to t, so that A, E , and

O1 are on the same side of t. Prove

that the lines AO1 , BO2 , EF , and t

are on urrent.

..........

.........

AC

q

C1

....

...

.....

E

...

.

............q..................................................................... .....

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

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1

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.................. .........

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q

O

A q

..............

BAC

ABC

.....p

....................................

.........................

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.

A ...p.......................................................

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.

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P .... .. .. .. ..................p

..

...

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.. .. .. .. ....... p....

..

...... D

.. .. .. ... .. .. .. ..

..

.

.

...p..................... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .......

.........

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.

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.............

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............. ....... .....................

............. ... ...........

......p...

q

O

qB

463

the sides BC , CA, AB and let Ta ,

Tb , Tc be the mid-points of the ar s

BC , CA, AB of the ir um ir le of

ABC not ontaining A, B , C , respe tively. For ea h i {a,b,c}, let i

be the ir le with diameter Mi Ti . Let

pi be the ommon external tangent to

j , k su h that {i,j ,k} = {a,b,c}

and su h that i lies on one side of

pi while j , k lie on the other side.

Prove that the lines pa , pb , pc form a

triangle similar to ABC and nd the

ratio of similitude.

Mc

..................................................................

.........

........

...........................................

........

b ....................

b

.....

.

.

.

.

.

....

..

.. ... .....

.

.

.

.

.

.

...

....

.. ...

..

.

.

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...

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.

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.

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......

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.

..

....

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..

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....

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. .

....

...

.... .....

.. ..

...

...

..

.... ..

..

.. ..

.

.

.

.

.. ....

.... ...

.

.

.

.....................c

.

......

...

..... ..

.

.

......

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......

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..

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.....

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.....

..

...

b

.....

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c

....

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a

... ..

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........................................................................................................................................................................................

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....

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a ..............

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...

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.

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......

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...................................................

A..................................

....

......r

........ ....

Tc r

rT

M

r

r

M

M

r

r

Ta

D and a ir le passing through B and

C are externally tangent at the point

P in the interior of the quadrilateral.

Prove that if P AB + P DC 90

and P BA + P CD 90 , then

AB + CD BC + AD .

D

r

....................................

...........

........

........

.....

... ...................................................................................

.....

.

..

...................

.

....

.....

.

...

.

.

... ........

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..

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..

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.....

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.

...

. ....

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

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.

.....

...

..... .....

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...

........................ ...........

....

..

....

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

....

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

..................

.....

... .........

..

................

........

.............. ............................

............

rC

P r

r

B

..r

A

the ir um ir le of triangle ABC again at points A2 , B2 , C2 , respe tively

(that is, A2 6= A, B2 6= B , C2 6= C ). Points A3 , B3 , C3 are symmetri

to A1 , B1 , C1 with respe t to the mid-points of the sides BC , CA, AB

respe tively. Prove that the triangles A2 B2 C2 and A3 B3 C3 are similar.

..............

.................... ................................................... A

............................

...........

.......

.

......... ..................

...........................

.

.

................................

.

.

.................

.

.

..... .........................................

.

.

............

.

.

.

.

.

... ..... .......

.

A2.............

...

... ..... .......

...

.....

... ... ......

.

.......

.

.

.

.

.

.

... .... .....

.....

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

....

... ...

.... ...

....

...

.

.. ..

.

... ...

...

.

.

.

.

.......................... .......

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.. ...

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

............ B1 .....

.

.......

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

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.

.

.

.

.... ...

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.

.

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..

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..

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....

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....

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.

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.

...

...

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.

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.

... .... ....

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...

.. .....

.

.

....

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... .... ....

..

..

.

.

.. C1 .......................................

... ... ...

.

..........

..

.

..

..........

......

..

... .......

..

.... ................. ....

..... ....

... .......

..

... ........

...

.... ..

...

...

...........

..

.

A

.

.

.

1

.

.

.

.

..................................................................................................................................................................................

.

.

.

....

.

......

B.......

..

.

.

.

.

.

......

.

.

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.....

......

...

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.......

.

.

..... .....

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.....

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.. ..

........

....

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.......

....

.........

.....

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..... ....

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................

..

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....

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......

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..........................

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.. ..

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....

... .....

......

.. ......

...

.

.

.

...

.

.

.

....

.... ......

..

....

.....

...

.....

..... ....

......

..... ...

.....

......... C2

.......

..........

........ .....

.........

......

.................

.................. ......................

.............

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

................................

..............

..

.....

.......

B2 .......................

.......

........

..........

.........

.

.

.

............

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.....

........................

........................................

rC

464

Number Theory

N1. Given x (0, 1) let y (0, 1) be the number whose n digit after the

th

de
imal point is the (2 ) digit after the de
imal point of x. Prove that if x

is a rational number, then y is a rational number.

n

th

1

f (n) =

n

n

n

n

+

+ +

1

2

n

x7 1

= y5 1 .

x1

N4. Let a and b be relatively prime integers with 1 < b < a . Dene the

weight of an integer c, denoted by w(c), to be the minimum possible value

of |x| + |y| taken over all pairs of integers x and y su
h that

ax + by = c .

Find all lo al hampions and determine their number.

N5. Prove that for every positive integer n, there exists an integer m su
h

that 2m + m is divisible by n.

My thanks go to Robert Morewood, Canadian Team Leader at the IMO, for

olle ting them for our use.

Final Round

(x + y 2 )(x2 + y) = (x + y)3 .

465

losed be ause of a te hni al problem and the 12 people are redire ted to

another one. In how many dierent ways an the new queue be formed if

ea h person maintains the same position as before, or is one step loser to

the front, or is one step farther from the front?

3. In the triangle ABC the angle bise tor from A interse ts the side BC

in the point D and the angle bise tor from C interse ts the side AB in the

point E . The angle at B is greater than 60 . Prove that AE + CD < AC .

4. The polynomial f (x) is of degree four. The zeroes of f are real and form

an arithmeti progression, that is, the zeroes are a, a + d, a + 2d, and a + 3d

where a and d are real numbers. Prove that the three zeroes of f (x) also

form an arithmeti progression.

5. Ea h square on a 2005 2005 hessboard is painted either bla k or white.

This is done in su h a way that ea h 2 2 \sub- hessboard" ontains an odd

number of bla k squares. Show that the number of bla k squares among the

four orner squares is even. In how many dierent ways an the hessboard

be painted so that the above ondition is satised?

is proje
ted orthogonally into a plane. Determine the largest possible area

and the least possible area of the image.

Mathemati al Olympiad dis ussed at [2007 : 151; 2008 : 88-89.

th

from B su h that |AB| = |AC| and su h that BC is tangent to T at B .

Suppose that the bise tor of ABC meets AC at a point D inside T . Show

that ABC > 72 .

C

........

........ ....

........

...

........

.

.

.

.

..

.

.

..

........

..

.....................................................................

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

..

.

.

.

.

............. .............

.......

..

.

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..

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.

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.

.

.

.

.

.

........

..

.....

..... ......

..

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..

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.

.

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.

.......

.....

..

.....

......

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.

.

.....

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.....

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... .............

.

.

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.

.

.

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.... ....

.....

... ............

...

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.... ...

.....

. .........

.

.

...

.

.

.

.

.

.

....

.... ...

.. ............

.

..

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

....

. ...

. ..

.

..... .........

...

..... .........

.... .....

.. ................

..... .....

... ....................

.

.... ...

.. ...........

.........

.......... ....

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............

..

..

..........

.

.

.

.

.............

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.....

...

.

.

..............

......

...

..............

..............

..

..

..............

.............

.....

.............................

...

..

...

..

...

..

.

.

..

..

......

..

...

Hamilton, ON.

Let D 6= B be the se ond point of

interse tion of BD with the ir le T .

Let ABD = DBC = . Sin e

AB = AC , we have ACB = 2 .

Also, BC is tangent to the ir le and

AB is a hord, hen e D AB = .

Let ABO = .

466

Sin
e BC is tangent to T , we have 2 + = 90 . Adding the angles

in the isos
eles triangle ABC yields 4 + CAB = 180 . From these two

equations it follows that CAB = 2 . Sin
e D is inside T we have

= D AB > CAB = 2 ,

2

5

2 + > 90 , or

> 90 . Hen
e, > 36 and ABC = 2 > 72 .

2

2

and therefore

Italian Olympiad [2007: 149{150; 208: 84{85.

6. Let P be a point inside the triangle ABC . Say that the lines AP , BP ,

and CP meet the sides of ABC at A , B , and C , respe
tively. Let

x =

AP

P A

y =

BP

P B

z =

CP

P C

The result is a theorem of Euler featured in the Crux Mathemati orum

arti le \Euler's Triangle Theorem" by G.C. Shephard in [1999 : 148{153.

Euler's proof is very neat, even ni er than any of the solutions found in Crux

Mathemati orum. It an be lo ated in Edward Sandifer's book, How Euler

Did It, and on his webpage: http://www.maa.org/news/howeulerdidit.html

li k on \19 Century Triangle Geometry".

th

February 2008 number of the Corner. First a solution to a problem of the

11 Form, Final Round, XXXI Russian Mathemati al Olympiad given in the

Corner at [2008: 20{21.

th

f (1) > 0 su h

that

for all x, y R?

: R R

with

Suppose that f is su h a fun tion. Let a0

for n 1. Then

2

=1

1

a0

and an

= an1 +

2f (1) .

1

an1

467

As an indu
tion step, assume that f 2 (an ) 2nf (1) for some n 1. Then

1

f 2 (an+1 ) = f 2 an +

an

1

an

2

f (an ) + 2f (1) 2(n + 1)f (1) ,

f 2 (an ) + 2f (1) + f 2

ompleting the indu
tion. Hen
e f 2 (an ) 2nf (1) for all n

di
ting the fa
ts that f (1) > 0 and f is bounded.

1,

ontra-

And to
omplete our les for the Corner, we look at a problem of the

Taiwan Mathemati
al Olympiad, Sele
ted Problems 2005, given in [2008:

21{22.

ABC , and the distan es from P to the three sides are p, q , and r , respe tively. Prove that

a2 + b2 + c2

R

,

18

pqr

Solved by Arkady Alt, San Jose, CA, USA; Mi
hel Bataille, Rouen, Fran
e;

and George Tsapakidis, Agrinio, Gree
e. We give Bataille's write-up.

Let F denote the area of ABC . We have the well-known relation

abc

2F =

, but also from the denition of p, q, and r we have the equation

2R

2F = ap + bq + cr . Thus, the proposed inequality is equivalent to

abc

2(ap + bq + cr)

or

a2 + b2 + c2

18 3 pqr

and

and the inequality (1) now follows from

a2 + b2 + c2 3

a2 b2 c2

pqr .

ap + bq + cr 3

(1)

p

3

abcpqr ,

3

3

a2 b2 c2 abc 3 pqr .

That
ompletes the Corner for this number, and this Volume. As Joanne

Canape, who has been translating my s
ribbles into beautiful LTEX has de
ided that twenty-plus years is enough, I want to thank her too for all the

help over the time we've worked together.

A

468

BOOK REVIEW

The Symmetries of Things

By John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, and Chaim Goodman{Strauss, published

by AK Peters, Wellesley, MA, 2008

ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5, hard over, 423+xxv pages, US$75.00

Reviewed by J. Chris Fisher, University of Regina, Regina, SK

The authors set themselves the ambitious goal of produ ing a book that

appeals to everybody. As far as I an tell from a single reading, they have

su eeded admirably. The rst thing anybody would noti e about the book

is that it is lled with beautiful and fas inating photographs and omputer

drawings. No spe ial knowledge is required for admiring beauty; this book

would be as mu h at home on the living room oee table as on the o e

shelf. Of ourse, it is primarily a mathemati s book.

The ontents have been organized into three parts. The rst of them

des ribes and enumerates the symmetries found in repeating patterns on surfa es; it is written at a level suitable for Crux with Mayhem readers. This part

might well serve as a textbook for a geometry ourse dire ted at university

students spe ializing in mathemati s, edu ation, physi al s ien e, or omputer s ien e. What makes the authors' approa h both novel and elementary

is the introdu tion of what they all the orbifold signature notation. Groups

are not needed here; the on ept an be easily des ribed and qui kly mastered. Here is the idea.

A point in a pattern where two mirrors of symmetry

meet at an angle of m

is
alled kaleidos
opi
and is denoted by m; points

having rotational symmetry of order m (but no kaleidos
opi
symmetry) are

alled gyrational and are denoted by m (with no asterisk). If a region has

an oppositely oriented image in the pattern that is not explained by mirrors,

then these two regions must be related by a glide re
e
tion, whi
h here is

alled a mira
le (short for \mirrorless
rossing", they say), denoted by .

To identify the signature of any repeating

plane pattern one writes down the symbols

...

starting from the middle and working out...

...

ward. First lo
ate mirror lines and ea
h

..

...

kind of kaleidos
opi
point, if any (where two

3

....................

...........

points are of the same kind if they are related

6 ..................................... ..... ....

.

.

.

.

.

.

..r

.

................................

by a symmetry of the pattern); list them after

..

.. .. ... ... ..

2

the asterisk in de
reasing order. Next lo
ate

any gyrational points and order them before

any asterisk. Then look for mira
les. Typi
al

signatures are 632 for a pattern whose symmetry is explained by three kinds

of mirrors

that meet in pairs at angles of 6 , 3 , and 2 ;

632

632 (having no asterisk) for a pattern with

...

...

...

.

.

.

...

...

...

...

...

...

... ....

... ....

... ....

... ...

... ..

......

.

.

.

.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................

. .

..

. ..

... ...

... .....

... ...

..

...

... ....

... .....

...

..

..

...

...

...

.

.

.

.

...

.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

..

...

...

...

..

..

...

.

.

...

.

.

.

.

...

...

.

..

...

.

.

.

.

.

...

.

...

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

... .

... ..

... ...

... ...

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

...........................................................................................................................................................................................

.

.

.

.

.

.

. ..

. ..

... ....

... ....

...

...

..

...

..

...

..

...

...

...

...

...

...

.

..

...

.

.

...

.

...

..

.

.

..

.

.

.

.

.

.

...

...

.

...

...

...

...

...

...

..

..

...

..

...

... .....

... ....

... .....

... ..

... ...

... ..

......

.

.

.

.

..........................................................................................................................................................................................................

.

... ...

... ...

... ...

... .....

... .....

... .....

..

..

..

...

...

...

469

6{fold, 3{fold, and 2{fold gyrational points but no re
e
tions or

222 for a pattern with two kinds of kaleidos
opi
points where

mira
les;

a pair of

mirrors interse
t at right angles, and one point where there is a half-turn

symmetry but no mirror.

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...

...

...

...

....

....

....

....

...

...

...

...

....

....

....

....

..

....

....

....

..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.....

.....

.....

.....

.....

....

....

....

....

....

...

...

...

...

...

..

.

....

....

....

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..

..

.

.

.

.

...

...

....

....

.

.

.

....

.....

....................................................................

...

...

..

...

...

..

..

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..

..

.

....

....

.

....

....

.... ......................................................... .....

....

....

....

....

....

....

.

....

....

.

....

.

.

..

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...

...

.

.

.

.

....

....

....

....

.

.

.

...

...

....

....

....

....

....

....

....

..

..

..

..

..

.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...

.....

.....

.....

.....

.

..

.

....

....

.

....

...

...

...

....

...

....

....

....

....

....

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2

2

632

222

Unlike most other notation systems that have been devised for des
ribing plane symmetry, these orbifold signatures
an also be used to des
ribe

frieze patterns and spheri
al patterns. (We learn in Part III that they work

equally well for des
ribing hyperboli
patterns.) But how does one know that

the resulting lists of 17 signatures for plane patterns, 7 signatures for frieze

patterns, and 14 signatures for spheri
al patterns are
orre
t and
omplete?

There is a \Magi
Theorem" that assigns a
ost to every symbol in the signature in su
h a way that plane patterns and frieze patterns
ost exa
tly $2

while spheri
al patterns
ost a bit less. That theorem tells us immediately

whi
h signatures are feasible. To establish the Magi
Theorem, a pattern

on the surfa
e is asso
iated with a folded surfa
e they
all an orbifold. The

orbifold is obtained by identifying points related by a symmetry of the pattern (whereby points of an orbit are folded atop of one another so that a

single representative point of every orbit lives on the orbifold). This sounds

a bit s
ary, but the authors manage to explain the details in a gentle way

using suitable pi
tures and simple examples. They then state the Classi
ation Theorem for Surfa
es and provide Conway's elementary and intuitive Zip

proof. They also prove that these surfa
es
an be distinguished using Euler's

formula (involving the numbers of verti
es, edges, and fa
es of a suitable map

on the surfa
e), whi
h they also prove. Sin
e the orbifolds are easily
lassied

using Euler's formula, the
orresponding patterns are thereby
lassied.

Remarkably, all the proofs should satisfy the professional mathemati
ian even though they are dire
ted at an elementary audien
e. The authors

a
hieve this feat by repeatedly redu
ing te
hni
al di
ulties down to problems that are postponed to the following
hapter. This way they present

one
on
ept at a time, as
ompared to the typi
al textbook's initial barrage

of poorly motivated denitions and lemmas. Their proofs are every bit as

brilliant as their notation. The illustrations are not just beautiful, but they

470

have been
arefully
hosen to
larify the exposition. I really appre
iated

the authors' de
ision to repeat pi
tures that they require for illustrating new

ideas | instead of making the reader turn ba
k to a pi
ture on an earlier

page, they reprodu
ed a smaller version of it whenever needed. The authors

learly have fun
oining whimsi
al new words; their terminology will not appeal to everybody, but the informal nature of their dis
ussions makes for

enjoyable reading. I rather liked the word mira
le in pla
e of the standard,

but awkward and misleading term glide re
e
tion; however I saw little need

for gyrational in pla
e of rotational or wandering in pla
e of translation. We

will have to wait to see whi
h words
at
h on.

What I have des
ribed so far is the
ontent of the 116 pages of the

rst nine
hapters. Originally, a
ording to the prefa
e, this was all that

the authors had intended to write. But they de
ided it was worthwhile to

extend the signature to
olour symmetry, and the book grew from there.

For a
areful reading of Part II the reader needs some group theory and

a bit of mathemati
al maturity. The authors' main goal for this part is to

present their analysis and notation for
olour symmetry. They enumerate the

p{fold
olour types for plane, spheri
al, and frieze patterns (for all primes

p). The
omplete
lassi
ations appear in a book for the rst time. Along

the way the authors show how their orbifold notation
orresponds to previous
lassi
ation systems, whi
h gives them the opportunity to dis
uss the

short
omings of those systems. Also in this part, they enumerate the isohedral tilings of the sphere and plane, and they extend to n = 2009 the

Bes
he-Ei
k-O'Brien table of the number of abstra
t groups of ea
h order n.

The informative lists of Part II
an probably be understood by readers

who might not take an interest in the a
ompanying te
hni
al arguments.

Similar
omments apply to Part III, whi
h the authors expe
t to be
ompletely

understood only by a few professional mathemati
ians. Still, as they point

out, mu
h of Part III
an protably be explored by other readers, while many

more will enjoy inspe
ting the pretty pi
tures. Here, among other things, the

authors dis
uss hyperboli
groups and Ar
himedean polyhedra and tilings;

they list the 219
rystallographi
spa
e groups (and explain why
hemists

distinguish 230 groups), and they provide a
omplete list for the rst time in

print of the 4{dimensional Ar
himedean polytopes. Apparently they
ould

have kept writing, but they de
ided to leave something for the rest of us to

do. Their nal words are, \A universe awaits | Go forth!"

I thank Bru
e Shawyer for inviting me to serve as Book Review Editor. I am

grateful to the late Jim Totten for guiding me during his tenure; Bru
e Crofoot

for insightful
ommentary; Va
lav

Linek for re
ent support; Shawn Godin for

leadership with Mayhem. Thanks go to all the reviewers, but espe
ially this

trio: Chris Fisher, a dependable sour
e of thought provoking reviews usually

on
erning geometry; Ed Barbeau, an e
le
ti
mathemati
ian who is eager to

help; and my su
essor, Amar Sodhi. Amar's passion for mathemati
s will

shine as he assumes this role. Wel
ome Amar! Thanks to the CRUX with

MAYHEM
ommunity for an enjoyable journey. | John Grant M
Loughlin

471

Old Idaho Usual Here

using at most 10 distin t letters, su h as DON ALD COXET ER. Can one

subsititute distin t digits for the 10 letters so as to make the resulting base

10 number divisible by d? The answer depends on d. If d has 100 digits then

the answer is learly NO. If d = 100 then the answer is again NO, sin e ER

annot be 00. If d is 2, the answer is learly YES: just let the units digit be

even; d = 5 or d = 10 are just as easy.

Kildonan proved that divisibility by d = 3 an always be a hieved and

R. Israel and R. I. Hess extended this to d = 9; the ase of d = 7 was

left unresolved. In this note we settle all ases. The reader interested in an

immediate hallenge should try to prove that divisibility by d = 45 is always

possible. This appears to be the hardest ase.

To phrase things pre isely, a word is a string made from 10 or fewer

distin t letters; for ea h word and ea h possible substitution of distin t digits

for the letters, there is an asso iated value: the base 10 number one gets

after making the substitution. If all substitutions yield a value for the word

w that is not divisible by d, then w is alled a blo ker for d. If any word

ending (on the right) with w fails to be divisible by d, then w is alled a

strong blo ker for d. An integer d is alled attainable if the value of every

su iently long word an be made divisible by d by some substitution of

distin t digits for letters. Thus d is not attainable if there exist arbitrarily

long blo kers. The use of arbitrarily long strings is important be ause, for

example, AB is a blo ker for 101, but only be ause it is too short. An integer

d is strongly attainable if the value of every word an be made divisible by d

by an appropriate substitution.

In this paper we will nd all attainable integers; moreover, they are

all strongly attainable. Note that any divisor of an attainable number is

attainable.

Some ases, su h as d = 2, d = 5, or d = 10 are extremely easy to

attain, and it is just about as easy to attain d = 4 or d = 8. It takes a little

work to show that d = 3 and d = 9 are attainable (proofs given below). Our

main theorem resolves the attainability status of all integers.

Theorem 1 An integer is attainable if and only if it divides one of the integers

or 80.

to introdu e the ideas needed later. We use the well known fa t that when

d is 3 or 9, then d divides a number if and only if d divides the sum of its

digits.

Copyright

c 2008

472

The number d = 3 is attainable (Kildonan [1). Given a word, let

the 10 letters be grouped as Ai , Bi , and Ci , where ea
h Ai has a multipli
ity

(perhaps 0) that is divisible by 3, ea
h Bi has a multipli
ity of the form 3k+1,

and ea
h Ci has a multipli
ity of the form 3k + 2. Look for one, two, or three

pairs among the Bi and repla
e them with digits 1 and 2, and 4 and 5 for the

se
ond pair, and 7 and 8 for the third pair. Then look for pairs of the Ci

and repla
e them with digits in any of the still-available pairs among (1, 2),

(4, 5), and (7, 8). These substitutions take
are of Bi Ci ex
ept possibly

four letters (sin
e we used three pairs) and we
an substitute 0, 3, 6, and 9

for them. The letters Ai
an be assigned the remaining digits in any order.

Thus, the nal number has a digit sum divisible by d = 3.

The number d = 9 is attainable (Solution II by Israel and Hess [1).

Suppose a word has length n. Suppose some letter o
urs k times, where

n k is not divisible by 3. Assign 9 to this letter and assign 0 to 8 arbitrarily

to the other letters. Let the value of the resulting number be v (mod 9).

Now repla
e ea
h digit from 0 to 8 by the next higher digit, wrapping ba
k

to 0 in the
ase of 8. This adds n k to the value modulo 9. But n k is

relatively prime to 9, so we
an do this v/(n k) times, where the division

uses the inverse of n k modulo 9, in order to obtain the value 0 modulo 9.

The other
ase is that every letter has a multipli
ity k n (mod 3).

If in fa
t every multipli
ity is
ongruent to n (mod 9), then any assignment

will yield a value
ongruent to n(0 + 1 + + 9) = 45n 0 (mod 9).

Otherwise there is a multipli
ity k n (mod 3) but k 6 n (mod 9), and

then we pro
eed as in the rst half of the proof: assign 9 to this letter, 0 to

8 to the other letters, and then
y
li
ally permute the values 0 to 8. Ea
h

permutation adds n k modulo 9 and this will eventually transform the

value v, whi
h is divisible by 3, to a value divisible by 9, be
ause 3 divides

n k but 9 does not.

Now to the proof of Theorem 1, whi
h follows from these four lemmas.

Lemma 1 Any integer divisible by a prime greater than 5 is not attainable.

Lemma 2 The largest attainable powers of 2, 3, and 5 are 16, 9, and

respe
tively.

Lemma 3 The numbers 36, 48, 75, 90, 100, and 120 are not attainable.

Lemma 4 The numbers 18, 24, 45, 50, 60, and 80 are attainable.

25,

The ordering of these lemmas indi
ates how Theorem 1 was found. First

the
ases of d = 7 and d = 11 were settled and that led to the general result

of Lemma 1. It followed that the only
andidates for attainability had the

form 2a 3b 5c . On
e the powers of 2, 3, and 5 were resolved (Lemma 2), the

andidate list was redu
ed to the 45 divisors of 3600 = 16 9 25. Resolving

the situation for those divisors, with some
omputer help, led to Lemmas 3

and 4. Finally, the
omputer sear
hes were eliminated and the whole thing

was redone by hand. Theorem 1 follows from the lemmas be
ause Lemmas

3 and 4 settle the status of all 45 divisors of 3600.

473

A key idea is that the ten digits sum

blo
ker

to 45. So we begin with Lemma 3, d

AAB

whi
h shows how unattainability is 27

ABBAB

proved. We use the fa
t that an in- 32

(ABCDEF GHJ )5 J 4 K

teger is
ongruent modulo 9 (hen
e 36

modulo 3) to the sum of its digits. 48 (ABCDEF GH)2 KKJ K

AABA

Let A, B , C , D, E , F , G, H , J , 75

90

A6 (BCDEF GHJ )7 J K

K be the ten letters and let w g be

AB

the
on
atenation of g
opies of word 100

120

ABCDEF GHJ J J K

w . The table at right lists the blo
kBBA

ers needed for Lemmas 2 and 3; most 125

were found by a
omputer sear
h.

We show that the words in the table are blo
kers. The easiest
ase is

d = 100, sin
e the value of any word ending in AB is not divisible by 100.

Case 1. The number d = 36
an be blo
ked. We have

(ABCDEF GHJ )5 J 4 K K + 4J + 5(45 K) 4J 4K (mod 9)

is divisible by 4. Extension on the left by A9i preserves the value modulo 36,

be ause 111111111 is divisible by 9.

Case 2. The number d = 48 an be blo ked. The rightmost 4 digits of the

word (ABCDEF GH)2 KKJ K must be one of 0080, 2272, 4464, 6656, or

8848, as these are the only words of the form KKJ K that are divisible by

16. However, now the value of the word modulo 3 is one of the entries

below, where we work with ve tors and ignore K whi h o urs three times:

2 (45, 45, 45, 45, 45) (8, 7, 6, 5, 4) (0, 2, 4, 6, 8) + (8, 7, 6, 5, 4)

= (82, 79, 76, 73, 70) ,

modulo 48.

Case 3. The number d = 75 an be blo ked. Here we have the ongruen e

AABA 51A + 10B (mod 75). Multiplying by 53 transforms the ongruen e to 3A + 5B 0 (mod 75). However, 3 3A + 5B 69, so

the ongruen e is never satised. Left extension by A3i preserves the value

modulo 75.

Case 4. The number d = 90 an be blo ked. We have

A6 (BCDEF GHJ )7 J K 6A + 7(45 A) + J (mod 9)

annot be divisible by 9 be ause 0 is already assigned to K . Left extension

by A9i preserves the value modulo 9.

474

Case 5. The number d = 120
an be blo
ked. We have

ABCDEF GHJ J J K 45 + 2J 2J (mod 3)

However, J J K must be either 440 or 880 to obtain divisibility by 40, therefore, 2J is either 8 or 16, and so is not divisible by 3. Left extension by A3i

preserves the value modulo 120.

Case 6. The number d = 32
an be blo
ked. Any word ending in ABBAB

has a value satisfying 10010A + 1101B 26A + 13B (mod 32). If this is

ongruent to 0 modulo 32, then we may
an
el 13, leaving 2A+B . However,

this sum is between 1 and 18 + 8 = 26, so it is not divisible by 32.

Case 7. The number d = 125
an be blo
ked. A number is divisible by 125 if

and only if it ends in 125, 250, 375, 500, 625, 750, 875, or 000. Thus, BBA

is a strong blo
ker for 125.

Case 8. The number d = 27
an be blo
ked. The value of AAB satises the

ongruen
e 110A + B 2A + B (mod 27). However, 1 2A + B 26,

whi
h is not divisible by 27. This shows nonattainability, be
ause we
an add

the prex A27i , whi
h leaves the value modulo 27 un
hanged.

Next we prove Lemma 1. Our rst proof of this was a little
ompli
ated

(see the Proposition that follows), but when we fo
used on words involving two letters only we dis
overed Theorem 2, whi
h yields Lemma 1 in all

ases ex
ept d = 7. Re
all Euler's theorem, that a(d) 1 (mod d) when

gcd(a, d) = 1. It follows that if d is
oprime to 10, then there is a smallest

positive integer, denoted by ordd (10), su
h that 10ord (10) 1 (mod d).

d

Proof: Assume rst that k = 1 so that w is just Ae1 B . If 3 does not divide

d then the value of w satises the
ongruen
e

B+A

e1

X

i=1

Sin e

10i = B A + A

10e 1

B A (mod d)

9

d > 81. Suppose the value of w , in the formula just given, is a multiple of d.

Then multiplying by 9 yields 9(B A) + A (10e 1) = 9Kd, and hen e d

divides 9(B A). However, A 6= B and 81 9(B A) 81, so d > 81

annot divide 9(B A), a ontradi tion.

There remain the ases where 3 divides d and 11 d 81, namely

d {21, 27, 33, 39, 51, 57, 63, 69, 81}. Suppose that d is one of these

but d 6= 21, 27, 81; then ordd (10) = ord3d (10). This means that from

B A + A (10e 1) /9 = Kd, we have 9(B A) + A (10e 1) = 3K(3d),

when e 3d divides 9(B A). Thus, d divides 3(B A), whi h means that

d 27, a ontradi tion.

475

For d = 21 the value of w modulo 21 is B A, whi
h is not divisible by

For d = 27 the value of w modulo 27 is 2A + B and 1 2A + B 26,

so the value is not divisible by d. For d = 81 the value of w modulo 81 is

8A + B and 1 8A + B 80, so the value is not divisible by d.

The extension to the
ase of general k is straightforward.

21.

The pre
eding result blo
ks all primes greater than 10. We need to deal

also with d = 7. One
an give an alternate
onstru
tion in the general
ase

that in
ludes d = 7, and we give the following without proof.

Proposition Suppose that d is
oprime to 10 and d does not divide 9. Let

w = KJ K e HK e GK e F K e EK e DK e CK e BK e AK e ,

ongruent to 9(d 2+ 1)

1.

(mod d), and so is not divisible by d.

is

approa h led to the mu h shorter example OLD IDAHO USUAL HERE ,

its value is always 3 45 (mod 7). This 17- hara ter word is thus a blo ker

for d = 7, and it an be made arbitrarily long by prepending E 6 .

On to Lemma 2. The positive results for d = 16 and d = 25 are not

di ult, but they are omitted as they follow from the ases of d = 80 and

d = 50 (proved below); the ase of d = 9 was dis ussed earlier, as were the

negative results for d = 32, 27, and 125. It remains only to prove Lemma 4.

Case 1. The number d = 50 is strongly attainable. Just use 00 or 50 for the

rightmost two digits.

Case 2. The number d = 80 is strongly attainable. Assign 0 to the rightmost

letter; 8 to the next new letter that o urs reading from the right, 4 to the

next one, and 2 to the next one after that. The value is then divisible by 16

and also by 5; divisibility by 80 is only ae ted by the four rightmost digits.

Case 3. The number d = 18 is strongly attainable. Given a word, nd an

assignment that makes it divisible by 9. If the rightmost digit is even, we are

done. Otherwise, repla e this digit y with 9 y. This preserves divisibility

by 9 and makes the rightmost digit even.

Case 4. The number d = 60 is strongly attainable. The word ends in either

AA or BA. In either ase, assign 0 to A and 6 to B . Let the eight remaining

letters be grouped as Ai , Bi , and Ci as in the proof for d = 3. Use the pairs

(1, 2), (4, 5), and (7, 8) on whatever pairs of letters an be found within Bi

or within Ci . This leaves at most two single letters in the B and C groups.

Use 3 and 9 for the two singletons, and any remaining digits for the A group.

The nal value is then divisible by 3, 4, and 5.

Case 5. The number d = 24 is strongly attainable. The idea is to modify the

proof for d = 3 so as to guarantee divisibility by 8. Re alling the proof that

d = 3 is strongly attainable, all two letters mat hed if they are repla ed in

476

that proof by 1 and 2, or by 4 and 5, or by 7 and 8. If the word ends in AAA

just make sure A is either 0 or 8. The remaining
ases are that the word ends

in one of the patterns ABC , ABB , BBA, or ABA.

If the ending is ABC with A and C mat
hed, then use 152 or 192,

depending on whether B is part of a mat
hed pair or not. If A and C are

unmat
hed use 320 or 360 a
ording as B is part of a mat
hed pair or not.

If the ending is ABB with A and B mat
hed, then use 488, sin
e the

mat
hing
an use 4 and 8 as well as 1 and 2. If both A and B are unmat
hed,

then use 600. If A is mat
hed and B is not, use 800. If B is mat
hed and A

is not, use 088.

If the ending is BBA, then pro
eed as if the ending was ABB , but use

instead 448, 336, 008, and 880 for the four sub
ases.

If the ending is ABA, then pro
eed similarly, using 848, 696, 808, and

080 for the four sub
ases.

Case 6. The number d = 45 is strongly attainable. Let m(X) denote the

multipli
ity of the letter X in the given word redu
ed modulo 9; let X denote

the digit assigned to X . Let A be the rightmost letter and assign 0 to it, thus

ensuring divisibility by 5.

Assume rst that the multipli
ities of at least eight of the nine remaining digits are all mutually
ongruent modulo 3, and assign 9 to the other

letter. Let the m-values of the eight letters be 3ai + c, where ea
h ai is a

non-negative integerPand c {0, 1, 2}. Let Li be the digits assigned to these

eight letters.

Li = 36P

, whi
h 9 divides, the value modulo 9 of the

P Sin
e

word is 3 ai Li . So we want ai Li to be divisible by 3. Assign the pairs

(1, 2), (4, 5), and (7, 8) to pairs of letters with equal ai . Assign 3 and 6 to

the remaining two. The total is then divisible by 9 and therefore by 45.

In the other
ase we
an
hoose a letter, K say, with m(K) not
ongruent modulo 3 to the length of the word; therefore S , the sum of the mul = 9.

tipli
ities of the nine letters other than K , is not divisible by 3. Let K

= 1 and

Case 6a. There is a letter, say B , with m(B) = m(A). Then let B

assign the remaining digits arbitrarily.

Case 6b. There is no letter as in Case 6a. Then we
an nd two letters among

B , C , D , E , F , G, H , J , say C and D , with m(C) 6 m(D) (mod 3).

Consider B ; we know m(B) 6= m(A). Set B to be the non-negative residue

modulo 9 of m(D) m(C) and note that B A m(D) m(C) (mod 9)

whi
h is not divisible by 3. Assign unused digits to the letters C and D so that

D

m(B) m(A) (mod 9); there are enough digits left for this to be

C

possible. Assign the remaining digits arbitrarily.

Now we
an treat both
ases to get the result. The assignment produ
es

some total value, redu
ed modulo 9 to v. If v 6= 0 then repla
e ea
h digit

between 0 and 8 by the next higher digit, wrapping ba
k to 0 in the
ase of 8.

modulo

This adds S to the value modulo 9 and does not alter B A or C D

9. But S is relatively prime to 9, so we
an do this v/S times, where the

division uses the inverse modulo 9 of S , in order to a
hieve divisibility by 9.

If A is 0 or 5, then we are done.

477

If A is 3 or 6, then swit
h digits of A and B , where we know that B is

not divisible by 3; this is be
ause the value modulo 3 of B A, whi
h starts

out nonzero, does not
hange in the translational step. If we are in Case 6b,

; the net
hange is

then also swit
h C and D

A

m(A) m(B) + C

D

m(D) m(C)

B

A

D

C

+ C

D

B

A

0 (mod 9) ,

B

so divisibility by 9 is preserved.

As A is now not divisible by 3, we
an multiply ea
h digit less than 9

by 5/A (mod 9). This preserves divisibility by 9 and makes A = 5. The

total is now divisible by 45. The proof that d = 45 is strongly attainable

is
omplete, as is the proof Lemma 4, and thus the proof of Theorem 1 is

omplete.

There are several variations to this problem that one might
onsider,

su
h as using bases other than 10. Another variant is to restri
t the alphabet

to the two letters A and B . We use the terms 2-attainable and 2-blo
ker in

this
ontext. Using te
hniques similar to those presented, we obtained the

following result.

Theorem 3 A number is 2-attainable if and only if it divides one of 24, 50,

or 90.

The negative part of the proof required nding a 2-blo
ker for ea
h

reader might enjoy nding them; they are

all short, of length at most 7.

A knowledgment

Referen es

June 1994, pp. 168{170.

Robert Israel

University of British Columbia

Van ouver, BC, Canada

israel@math.ubc.ca

Stan Wagon

Ma
alester College

St. Paul, MN, USA

wagon@macalester.edu

Stephen Morris

Newbury, Berkshire, England

stephenmor@gmail.com

478

A Limit of an Improper Integral Depending

on One Parameter

Iesus C. Diniz

In this arti
le we will
al
ulate the following limit of an improper integral that depends on one parameter R+

lim

0+

exp K(x + l)n Knxn1 dx ,

This is an interesting example where one annot inter hange the order

of the limit and the integral. Through a ni e appli ation of elementary tools

su h as hange of variables in integrals and the Binomial Theorem, one is

able to obtain this limit.

This problem arose in the al ulation of a lower bound for a probability of theoreti al interest in the study of multidimensional Poisson point

pro esses, namely

lim

0+

exp vn (1) (r + l)n r n vn (1)nr n1 exp vn (1)r n dr ,

where vn (1) is the volume of the n{dimensional unit ball, is the Poisson

intensity, l is the distan
e between two distinguished points in Rn , and r

is the distan
e from the rst point to the
losest o
urren
e in the Poisson

point pro
ess. We shall show that this limit is equal to 1.

Proposition For all positive real numbers K and l, and for ea
h positive in-

teger n we have

lim

0+

exp K (x + l)n Knxn1 dx = 1 .

lim

0+

=

=

exp K(x + l) K dx

lim exp K(x + l)

0+

0+

Copyright

c 2008

479

Making rst the
hange of variable

v = Kxn ,

dv = Knxn1 dx ,

Z

h

1

n i

1

exp v n + (ln K) n

dv .

1

u n = v n + (ln K) n

dv =

we obtain

lim

0+

lim

0+

lim

0+

du ,

h

1

n i

1

exp v n + (ln K) n

dv

exp (u)

ln K

( n1 1)

u

( n1 1)

u

v

du

n n1 n1

l K

exp (u) 1

du ,

ln K

n1

X

n k

n1

k l K n

(1)

du

u

0+ ln K

k

k=0

n nk

n1

X n 1 Z

l K

1 + lim

exp (u) (1)k

du .

0+

u

k

ln K

k=1

lim

exp (u)

1

w = un

dw =

1 ( n1 1)

u

du ,

n

1 + lim

0+

n1

X

k=1

k Z

n1

1

n

n lK

exp w n w n1k dw .

1

k

lK n

lim

0+

exp (w n ) w n1k dw

lK n

is zero for ea h k {1 , 2, . . . ,

n 1}.

(1)

480

To do this, we make a nal
hange of variables

z = n w ,

dz = n dw ,

whi h yields

Z

k

n

exp (w n ) w n1k dw

1

lK n

1

(ln K) n

< n

exp z n z n1k dz

exp z n z n1k dz .

(2)

It now su
es for us to show that the last integral in (2) is nite for

ea
h k {1, 2, . . . , n 1}.

Setting

Z

1

C =

exp (z n ) z n1k dz

Z

exp z n z n1k dz

z n1 , we nally obtain

Z

C +

exp z n z n1 dz

1

= C +

1

ne

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by FAPESP grant 0415864-1.

The author also thanks J.C.S. de Miranda for many dis
ussions about

this problem.

Iesus C Diniz

Institute of Mathemati
s and Statisti
s

University of S~ao Paulo

S~ao Paulo, Brazil

iesus@usp.br

481

Sliding Down In
lines with Fixed Des
ent

Time: a Converse to Galileo's Law of Chords

Je Babb

Suppose that a ve
tor is an
hored at the origin and lies along the positive x-axis. Consider rotating the ve
tor
ounter
lo
kwise about the origin

through an angle A, with 0 < A < . Consider a parti
le of mass m whi
h

is initially at rest and then slides, under gravity and without fri
tion, from a

starting point on the in
lined ve
tor down towards the origin. Let DA denote

the distan
e of the starting point from the origin. For ea
h value of A, suppose that DA is
hosen to ensure that the parti
le requires exa
tly T se
onds

to rea
h the origin. Determine the
urve
hara
terized by the starting points

of the parti
les.

For the parti
le under
onsideration, let dA (t) be the distan
e travelled

along the ve
tor at time t, vA (t) = dA (t) be the velo
ity along the ve
tor at

(t) be the a eleration along the ve tor at time t.

Note that by denition, DA = dA (T ).

If aA (t) is some onstant K , then

dA (t) =

K 2

t .

2

(1)

This may be
onrmed by integrating aA (t) twi
e with respe
t to time and

applying the initial
onditions dA (0) = 0 and vA (0) = 0 to obtain zero for

both
onstants of integration.

Sin
e the parti
le is sliding down a fri
tionless in
line in the Earth's

gravitational eld, the
omponent of a
eleration along the in
line is

K = g sin A, where g is the a
eleration due to gravity at the Earth's surfa
e.

If the des
ent time is xed at T se
onds, then

DA = dA (T ) =

g

2

T 2 sin A .

(2)

as (x, y), where x = r cos and y = r sin . Consider the following equation, whi h is expressed in polar oordinates as

r = 2c sin ,

where r

yields

Copyright

> 0

and 0

< < .

r 2 = 2cr sin

c 2008

(3)

(4)

482

By setting x = r cos and y

Cartesian
oordinates as

= r sin ,

x2 + y 2 = 2cy .

Subtra
ting 2cy from ea
h side and
ompleting the square on y2 2cy yields

x2 + (y c)2 = c2

(5)

whi
h is the equation of a
ir
le of radius c
entred at the point (0, c).

Thus, as depi
ted in the gure at right,

the lo
us of points dened by equation (2) is

a
ir
le

resting

upon the origin (0, 0),
entred

g 2

at 0, 4 T on the verti
al axis, and of radius

g 2

T .

4

On an histori
al note, the motivation for

r 0, g T 2

this problem arose while
onsidering the Law

4

of Chords, whi
h was stated and proven by

Galileo Galilei in his 1638 masterpie
e Dialogues Con
erning Two New S
ien
es. Galileo

onsidered rates of des
ent along a verti
al
irA

le and, with his Proposition VI, established

the Law of Chords (see [1, p. 212):

If from the highest or lowest point in a verti
al
ir
le there be

drawn any in
lined planes meeting the
ir
umferen
e, the times

of des
ent along these
hords are ea
h equal to the other.

Galileo's proof of the Law of Chords is presented via a series of geometri
propositions, whi
h require familiarity with many of Eu
lid's theorems.

The question the author wished to address was whether the verti
al

ir
le is the only
urve with the property that des
ent time to the lowest

point on the
urve is
onstant for all
hords. This paper demonstrates that

the verti
al
ir
le, or one of its
omponent ar
s interse
ting at the lowest

point of the
ir
le, is indeed the only su
h
urve.

....

...

....

.

.

........................................................

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.........

......

.

.

.

.

.......

.

.

.

....

.......

.....

.

.

.

.

...

.....

.....

....

....

....

....

.

.

.

.

.

....

..

...

.

.

.

.

...

...

...

...

.

.

...

..

...

.

.

..

.....

....

..

..

...

....

..

...

...

...

...

....

...

..

....

....

..

...

....

..

.

...

.

.

...

.......

.

.

.

.

.

.. ..

..

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

..

.

... ...

..

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

..

....

...

..

.....

....

...

...

....

...

..

....

...

....

....

..

...

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

....

.

.

....

....

....

.....

...

......

.....

....

.....

.... ...

.....

..... .... ...........

...

.......

........

.. .......

........

.

..........

.....

... ......

.....

........... ...

..............................................................................................................................................................................................

Referen es

[1 Galilei, Galileo. 1638/1952 Dialogues Con
erning Two New S
ien
es,

translated by H. Crew and A. de Salvio, En
y
lopaedia Britanni
a,

Chi
ago, 1952.

Je Babb

Department of Mathemati
s and Statisti
s

University of Winnipeg

Winnipeg, MB, R3B 2E9

Canada

j.babb@uwinnipeg.ca

483

PROBLEMS

Toutes solutions aux problemes

dans
e numero

doivent nous parvenir au plus

tard le 1er juin 2009. Une etoile

() apres

le numero

indique que le probleme

a et

e

soumis sans solution.

Chaque probleme

sera publie dans les deux langues o
ielles du Canada

(anglais et fran
ais). Dans les numeros

1, 3, 5 et 7, l'anglais pre

edera

le fran
ais,

et dans les numeros

2, 4, 6 et 8, le fran
ais pre

edera

l'anglais. Dans la se
tion des

solutions, le probleme

sera publie dans la langue de la prin
ipale solution present

ee.

La reda
tion

souhaite remer
ier Rolland Gaudet, de College

universitaire de

Saint-Bonifa
e, Winnipeg, MB et Jean-Mar
Terrier, de l'Universite de Montreal,

d'avoir traduit les problemes.

^ es

respe
tifs a, b et c, et soit M un de

Soit ABC un triangle de
ot

ses points interieur.

Les droites AM , BM et CM
oupent respe
tivement

les
ot

^ es

opposes

aux points A1 , B1 et C1 . Les droites passant par M et

perpendi
ulaires aux
ot

^ es

oupent respe
tivement BC , CA et AB en A2 ,

B2 , et C2 . Soit p1 , p2 et p3 les distan
es respe
tives de M aux
ot

^ es

BC ,

CA et AB . Montrer que

[A2 B2 C2 ]

[A1 B1 C1 ]

2a2 b2 c2

l'aire du triangle KLM .

a

p1

b

p2

c

p3

par x0 = a et xn+1 = 4xn x2n

pour tout n 0. Montrer qu'il existe un nombre inni de valeurs a R

telles que la suite (xn ) est periodique.

Montrer que si A, B , C et D sont les solutions de

X

3 5

5

8

alors A2007 + B 2007 + C 2007 + D2007 = O, ou O est la matri
e nulle de taille

2 2.

Soit ABCD un quadrilatere

angle droit en P , et soit respe tivement I , J , K et L les milieux de AB , BC ,

CD et DA. Montrer que les er les (P IJ ), (P J K), (P KL) et (P LI) sont

ongruents si et seulement si ABCD est y lique.

484

Soit A, B , C , D et E on y liques ave respe tivement V et W sur les

a CB par V

droites AB et AD. Montrer que si la droite CE , la parallele

et la parallele

a CD par W sont on ourantes, alors les triangles EV B et

EW D sont semblables. La re iproque

est-elle vraie ?

Soit le triangle ABC , ou

demi perim

etre.

Montrer que

a = BC , b = AC , c = AB

et ou s est le

y+z

A

z+x

B

x+y

C

9

2

x

a(s a)

y

b(s b)

z

c(c a)

s

en radians et x, y et z sont des nombres

reels

positifs quel onques.

edre

; designons

par hA et mA les longueurs resSoit ABCD un tetra

pe tives de la hauteur et de la mediane

issues du sommet A sur la fa e

opposee

BCD. Si V est le volume du tetra

edre,

montrer que

128

(hA + hB + hC + hD )(m2A + m2B + m2C + m2D ) V

3

d'Osaka, Japon.

Soit le triangle ABC ; denotons

par H son ortho entre et par R le rayon

de son er le ir ons rit. Montrer que 4R3 (l2 +m2 +n2 )R lmn = 0,

ou AH = l, BH = m et CH = n.

Soit n un entier positif et, pour i, j et k dans {1, 2, . . . , n}, posons

aijk

1 + mod(k i + j 1, n) + nmod(i j + k 1, n)

+ n2 mod(i + j + k 2, n) ,

de a modulo n, hoisi parmi 0, 1, . . . , n 1.

Pour quels n le ube portant les valeurs aijk est-il un ube magique ? (I i,

le mot \magique" se ref

ere

au fait que la somme des aijk est onstante si

deux des indi es restent xes et l'autre varie, et de plus que les sommes des

diagonales prin ipales du ube sont aussi egales

a ette m^eme onstante.)

485

Catalogne, Bar elone, Espagne.

Evaluer

1

lim

n n2

n2 x2

dx .

2 + xx

St. John's, NL.

Soit l'equation

j

n

10

j k

n

2n

n 10

10log10 n =

10

(b) determiner

toute autre solution entiere

et positive de ette equation.

Roumanie.

Montrer qu'il n'existe au une fon tion positive et deux fois dierentiable

f : [0, ) R telle que f (x)f (x) + 1 0 pour tout x 0.

3400. Propose par Yakub N. Aliyev, Universite d'Etat de Bakou, Bakou,

Azerbadjan.

Pour des entiers positifs m et k, posons (m)k = m(1 + 10 + 102 +

+ 10k1 ) ; par exemple, (1)2 = 11 et (3)4 = 3333. Determiner

tous les

nombres reels

tels que

j

10n

k

j

k

p

5 9

(1)2n + = (3)2n

6

le plus grand entier ne

depassant

pas x.

.................................................................

Let ABC be a triangle with a, b, and c the lengths of the sides opposite

the verti
es A, B , and C , respe
tively, and let M be an interior point of

ABC . The lines AM , BM , and CM interse
t the opposite sides at the

points A1 , B1 , and C1 , respe
tively. Lines through M perpendi
ular to the

sides of ABC interse
t BC , CA, and AB at A2 , B2 , and C2 , respe
tively.

Let p1 , p2 , and p3 be the distan
es from M to the sides BC , CA, and AB ,

respe
tively. Prove that

[A2 B2 C2 ]

[A1 B1 C1 ]

2a2 b2 c2

a

p1

b

p2

c

p3

486

for all n 0. Prove that there exist innitely many a R su h that the

sequen e (xn ) is periodi .

Prove that if A, B , C , and D are the solutions of

X

3 5

5

8

in right angles at P , and let I , J , K , and L be the mid-points of AB , BC ,

CD , and DA, respe tively. Show that the ir les (P IJ ), (P J K), (P KL),

and (P LI) are ongruent if and only if ABCD is y li .

respe tively. Show that if the line CE , the parallel to CB through V ,

and the parallel to CD through W are on urrent, then triangles EV B and

EW D are similar. Does the onverse hold?

AD ,

y+z

A

z+x

B

x+y

C

9

2,

x

a(s a)

y

b(s b)

z

c(c a)

s

where the angles A, B , and C are measured in radians and x, y, and z are

any positive real numbers.

Let ABCD be a tetrahedron with hA and mA the lengths of the altitude and the median from vertex A to the opposite fa
e BCD, respe
tively.

If V is the volume of the tetrahedron, prove that

128

3

Let triangle ABC have ortho
entre H and
ir
umradius R. Prove that

4R3 (l2 + m2 + n2 )R lmn = 0, where AH = l, BH = m, and

CH = n.

487

aijk

1 + mod(k i + j 1, n) + nmod(i j + k 1, n)

+ n2 mod(i + j + k 2, n) ,

For whi h n is the ube with entries aijk a magi ube? (Here "magi " means

that the sum of aijk is onstant if two indi es are xed and the third index

varies, and also the sums along the great diagonals of the ube are equal to

this onstant.)

3397.

de

Catalunya, Bar elona, Spain.

Evaluate

Z n 2

1

n x2

lim 2

dx .

x

n

n

2+x

3398. Proposed by Bru
e Shawyer, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL.

Given the equation

j

n

10

j k

n

2n

n 10

10log10 n =

10

Romania.

Prove that there does not exist a positive, twi e dierentiable fun tion

f : [0, ) R su h that f (x)f (x) + 1 0 for all x 0.

3400. Proposed by Yakub N. Aliyev, Baku State University, Baku, Azer-

baijan.

For positive integers m and k let (m)k = m(1+10+102 + +10k1 ),

for example, (1)2 = 11 and (3)4 = 3333. Find all real numbers su
h that

j

10n

k

j

k

p

5 9

(1)2n + = (3)2n

6

holds for ea h positive integer n, where x is the greatest integer not ex eeding x.

488

SOLUTIONS

No problem is ever permanently
losed. The editor is always pleased

to
onsider for publi
ation new solutions or new insights on past problems.

3229. [2007 : 170, 172; 2007 : 179{181 Proposed by Mihaly Ben
ze,

Brasov, Romania.

(a) Let x and y be positive real numbers, and let n be a positive integer.

Prove that

n

(x + y)

n

X

k=0

1

n nk k

x

y

k

n+1+2

n ni

X

X

i=1 k=0

n

k

n

k+i

(n + 1)2 .

integer. Determine the minimum value of

(x1 + x2 + + xk )n

i1 ++ik =n

i1 , . . . , ik 0

i1 !i2 ! ik !

St. John's, NL.

We may assume that x1 + x2 + + xk = 1 without loss of generality.

The minimum o urs when x1 = x2 = = xk = k1 . We will obtain

this as a onsequen e of a more general proposition. For onvenien e, let

X = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xk ) be a ve tor in Rk+ (that is, xi > 0 for all i) and let

Q = (q1 , q2 , . . . , qk ) be a multi-index with non-negative integer entries qi .

Let

|Q|

|X|

Q!

XQ

Finally, let = {X

dimension k 1.

n

X

i=1

n

X

qi ;

xi ;

i=1

= q1 !q2 ! qk ! ;

Rk+ : |X| = 1}

489

Theorem 1 With the above notation, let

X

P (X) =

|Q|=n

cQ

XQ

be a homogeneous rational fun
tion of degree n in the variables xi . Suppose that cQ 0 for ea
h Q and that P (X) is a symmetri
fun
tion, that

is, inter
hanging any xi and xj does not
hange the value of P (X). Then

the minimum value of P (X) over the simplex exists and is attained when

1

x1 = x2 = = xk = .

k

Proof. If P (X) is identi
ally zero, then there is nothing to prove, so we assume at least one
oe
ient cQ is not zero. Note that P (x) has a minimum

value, sin
e P (X) is
ontinuous on and tends to innity as any of the

xi approa
hes 0. Suppose that the minimum o
urs at a point with at least

two unequal
oordinates. Without loss of generality (due to the symmetry of

P (X)) we may assume that x1 > x2 . We will show that by slightly de
reasing x1 and slightly in
reasing x2 (while keeping all other variables and the

sum x1 + x2 un
hanged) the value of P (X) will be
ome smaller,
ontrary to

our assumption. Fixing x3 , x4 , . . . , xn
auses P (X) to be
ome a symmetri

fun
tion of two variables

X

F (u, v) = P (u, v, x3 , . . . , xn ) =

j+sn

Aj,s

uj v s

is non-negative and at least one of these is positive, and that Aj,s = As,j .

Thus, F (u, v) is a linear ombination with non-negative oe ients, not all

zero, of fun tions of the form

Fj,s (u, v) =

us v j

where j and s are non-negative integers with j+s n.

and v(t)

= x2 + t,

so that

d Fj,s

uj v s

du

= 1

dt

and

d

Fj,s u(t), v(t)

dt

u(t), v(t)

dt

=

=

dv

= 1.

dt

It su es to prove that

is negative at t = 0. We have

Fj,s u, v

Fj,s u, v

u

v

j

s

1

s

j

1

u

v uj v s

u

v us v j

d2 Fj,s u(t), v(t)

=

dt2

!

j

s

j

s 2

1

+ 2 +

+

2

j

u

v

u

v

u vs

j

s

+ 2 +

2

v

u

j

s

v

u

2 !

1

us v j

490

d2 F

dF

uv

> 0. Sin
e

= 0 when u = v (this o
urs when t =

),

dt2

dt

2

dF

follows that dt < 0 when t = 0. We have obtained a
ontradi
tion by

Hen e,

it

assuming x1 > x2 at a point a
hieving the minimum. This proves that the

minimum o
urs when all the xi are equal.

It follows that the minimum sought in part (b) is

kn

i1 !i2 ! . . . ik !

n!

i1 ++ik =n

i1 ,...,ik 0

Regarding part (a) Sadov remarks that

min

x+y=1

n

X

k=0

n

k

xnk yk

= 2

n

X

j =0

n = n + 1 + 2

j

n1

X nj

X

j =0 i=0

n

j

n

i+j

where the rst equality follows Theorem 1 and the last expression is the minimum obtained

by Bataille [2007 : 179{181. He notes that the rst equality yields a minimum of at least

2n+1 ,
onsiderably

improving the lower bound of (n + 1)2 if n > 4. He observes that if

bi = ni xni yi , then by the AM{HM Inequality

(x + y)n

1 X 1 1

1 X

,

bi =

n+1

bi

n+1

n+1

hen
e (x + y)2 b1

(n + 1)2 , whi
h yields a qui
k proof of part (a).

i

Sadov
omments that the fun
tion P (X) in Theorem 1 is S
hur-
onvex, referring to [1

for the denition of this term and appli
ations. He indi
ates that the AM-GM Inequality and

Pthe

AM{HM Inequality
an be obtained by taking P (X) = (x1 x2 xn )1 and P (X) = xi

in Theorem 1, respe
tively.

He mentions that parti
ular
ases (and other theorems of a more general nature) of

Theorem 1
an be found in [2, Chapter 3, Se
tion G, Examples G.1.k and G.1.m; though he

believes that Theorem 1 is present somewhere in the existing literature.

Finally, he refers to [3, Se
tion 2.18, for a treatment of (the related) Muirhead's

Inequality.

P

Referen es

[1 M.L. Clevenson and W. Watkins, Majorization and the Birthday Inequality, Math.

Magazine, vol. 64, No. 3 (1991), pp. 183{188.

[2 A. Marshall and I. Olkin, Inequalities: Theory of Majorization and Its Appli
ations,

A
ademi
Press, 1979.

[3 G.H. Hardy, J.E. Littlewood, and G. Polya, Inequalities, Cambridge University Press,

1952.

Let ABC be a triangle for whi h there exists a point D in its interior

su h that DAB = DCA and DBA = DAC . Let E and F be points

on the lines AB and CA, respe tively, su h that AB = BE and CA = AF .

Prove that the points A, E , D, and F are on y li .

491

A
omposite of similar solutions by John G. Heuver, Grande Prairie, AB and

George Tsapakidis, Agrinio, Gree
e.

Triangles ADC and BDA are similar (be
ause their angles are assumed

to be equal), when
e

CD

CA

2CA

CF

=

=

=

AD

AB

2AB

AE

while the adja ent sides are proportional from the previous step), so that

AF D (= CF D) = AED . Noting that E and F both lie on the same

side of AD, we on lude that A, E , F , and D lie on the same ir le, as

desired.

Also solved by GEORGE APOSTOLOPOULOS, Messolonghi, Gree
e; SEFKET

University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina; RICARDO

ARSLANAGIC,

BARROSO CAMPOS, University of Seville, Seville, Spain; MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen,

Fran
e; CHIP CURTIS, Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO, USA; APOSTOLIS

K. DEMIS, Varvakeio High S
hool, Athens, Gree
e; OLIVER GEUPEL, Bruhl,

NRW, Germany;

GEOFFREY A. KANDALL, Hamden, CT, USA; ANDREA MUNARO, student, University of

Trento, Trento, Italy; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA; TITU ZVONARU,

Comane

sti, Romania; and the proposer.

Bataille
omments that D
an be
onstru
ted as the point inside ABC where the
ir
le

F AE interse
ts the
ir
le through B, C, and the
ir
um
entre O. It lies on the rst
ir
le by

the result of this problem. It lies on the se
ond
ir
le be
ause BOC = BDC = 2 BAC

as follows: on the one hand the angle at A is ins
ribed in the
ir
le BAC that is
entred at O

and is therefore 12 BOC; on the other hand the similar triangles ADC and BDA t together

at A and at D in su
h a way that the two exterior angles at D (that form BDC) sum to twi
e

the sum of the two interior angles at A (that form BAC).

AD and BC by a and b, respe tively. Let M be the mid-point of CD , and

let P and Q be the mid-points of AM and BM , respe tively. If N is the

interse tion of DP and CQ, prove that N belongs to the interior of ABM

if and only if 1 < a < 3.

3

There is a misleading subtlety in the statement of the problem: we shall

see that the on lusion fails should AD = BC ; in other words, our trapezoid

ABCD must not be a parallelogram.

Sin e all of the onditions of the problem are invariant under an ane

transformation, we an assume without loss of generality that

AB AD

and

AB = 4 .

and with B on the positive x{axis and D on the positive y{axis; then A, B ,

492

C , and D

have
oordinates

A(0, 0) , B(4, 0) , C(4, b) , D(0, a) ,

are

a+b

a+b

a+b

M 2,

, P 1,

, Q 3,

,

2

y =

when e N

b 3a

4

x + a

and

y =

= DP CQ has
oordinates

4b (a b)2

,

N

a+b a+b

3b a

4

x + a 2b ,

is positive. The y{ oordinate of N satises

y { oordinate

(a b)2

0,

a+b

1, a point on line DP is on the same side of AM as B if and only if its

x{ oordinate ex eeds 1. Lastly, sin e Q = CQ BM has x{ oordinate 3,

a point on line CQ is on the same side of BM as A if and only if its

x{ oordinate is less than 3. Therefore, N is within the interior of ABM

if and only if a 6= b and 1 <

4b

< 3.

a+b

1

a

<

< 3,

3

b

of ABM as long as a 6= b.

Also solved by ROY BARBARA, Lebanese University, Fanar, Lebanon; MICHEL

BATAILLE, Rouen, Fran e; CHIP CURTIS, Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO, USA;

IES Alvarez

FRANCISCO JAVIER GARC I A CAPITAN,

Cubero, Priego de Cordoba,

Spain; OLIVER

GEUPEL, Bruhl,

NRW, Germany; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA; TITU

ZVONARU, Comane

sti, Romania; and the proposer.

su h that the sum of the squares of the distan es of the points A, B , and C

from any line through P is onstant.

493

Solution by Mi
hel Bataille, Rouen, Fran
e.

We will introdu
e a Cartesian
oordinate system. Label the points as

A(0, a), B(b, 0), C(b, 0), and P (u, v), where a and b are positive and u and

v are variables. The equation of a line through P is x cos + y sin = p,

where p = u cos + v sin and is an arbitrary real number. Let d(Q, )

denote the distan
e between a point Q and the line , and let

S = d(A, )2 + d(B, )2 + d(C, )2 .

We then have

d(C, ) = (p b cos )2 . After a simple al ulation, we obtain

3(u2 v 2 )

a2

2

S = (cos 2)

+ av

+b

2

2

3(u2 + v 2 )

a2

+ (sin 2)(3uv au) +

av +

+ b2 .

2

2

2

and

and

3uv au = 0

whi h gives

u = 0

or

and

3v 2 + 2av a2 + 2b2 = 0 ,

(1)

a2

2a2

2

v =

and 3 u

(2)

+

a2 + 2b2 = 0 .

3

9

3

and the oordinates of P are

!

!

p

p

a + 2(3b2 a2 )

a 2(3b2 a2 )

or

.

0,

0,

3

3

and the oordinates of P are

!

!

p

p

2(a2 3b2 ) a

2(a2 3b2 ) a

,

or

,

.

3

3

3

3

a

for P . Otherwise, there are two solutions for P :

P

!

p

2(3b2 a2 )

3

(if A > 60 ) ,

!

p

2(a2 3b2 ) a

,

3

3

(if A < 60 ) .

0,

494

In both
ases, the two solutions are symmetri
about the
entroid of the

triangle; in the rst
ase, the two points lie on the median through A and

in the se
ond
ase the two points lie on a line parallel to BC and passing

through the
entroid of ABC .

Lebanese University, Fanar, Lebanon; CHIP CURTIS, Missouri Southern State University,

Joplin, MO, USA; FRANCISCO JAVIER GARC I A CAPITAN,

IES Alvarez

Cubero, Priego de

Cordoba,

Spain; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbru k, Austria; V ACLAV

Y,

Big Rapids, MI, USA (2 solutions); SKIDMORE COLLEGE PROBLEM SOLVING

KONECN

GROUP, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA; GEORGE TSAPAKIDIS, Agrinio, Gree e;

PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA; TITU ZVONARU, Comane

sti, Romania;

and the proposer.

3292. [2007 : 485, 488 Proposed by Mihaly Ben
ze, Brasov, Romania.

Let a, b, c, and d be arbitrary real numbers. Show that

11a2 + 11b2 + 221c2 + 131d2 + 22ab + 202cd + 48c + 6

98ac + 98bc + 38ad + 38bd + 12a + 12b + 12d .

NRW, Germany.

The proof is by ontradi tion. Assume that

11a2 + 11b2 + 221c2 + 131d2 + 22ab + 202cd + 48c + 6

< 98ac + 98bc + 38ad + 38bd + 12a + 12b + 12d .

p

q

=

=

11b2 + 221c2 + 131d2 + 202cd + 48c + 6 98bc 38bd

12b 12d .

Then f (a) < 0, and the leading
oe
ient of f is positive, hen
e f has two

distin
t real roots; that is, the dis
riminant of f is positive. By
omputing

the dis
riminant, we nd p2 44q = 120(c+6d1)2 0, a
ontradi
tion.

Also solved by APOSTOLIS K. DEMIS, Varvakeio High S
hool, Athens, Gree
e; MICHEL

BATAILLE, Rouen, Fran
e; CHIP CURTIS, Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO, USA;

RICHARD I. HESS, Ran
ho Palos Verdes, CA, E-U;

WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium,

Innsbru
k, Austria; KEE-WAI LAU, Hong Kong, China; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, Bayside, NY, USA;

STAN WAGON, Ma
alester College, St. Paul, MN, USA; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La

Mirada, CA, USA; and the proposer.

495

3293. [2007 : 485, 488 Proposed by Mihaly Ben
ze, Brasov, Romania.

Prove that

n arcsin

Y

k=1

9k + 2

3

27k + 54k 2 + 36k + 8

arctan

3k + 1

= 3n .

Douglass L. Grant, Cape Breton University, Sydney, NS, modied by the

editor.

For ea h k = 1, 2, . . . , n let Pk denote the orresponding fa tor under

the produ t sign. We prove that in fa t, Pk = 3 for ea h k.

3

Note rst that 27k

+ 54k2 + 36k + 8 = (3k + 2)3 . For xed k, let

1

= tan1

. Then tan = 1

implies sin = 1 .

3k + 1

3k + 1

3k + 2

0 < tan

1

2

< tan

From

sin(3)

we obtain

= 3 sin 4 sin3

4

9k + 2

3

p

= p

=

3

3k + 2

(3k + 2)

(3k + 2)3

sin1

sin1

9k + 2

!

9k + 2

p

= sin1 (sin 3) = 3 ,

(3k + 2)3

3

= 3.

Also solved by GEORGE APOSTOLOPOULOS, Messolonghi, Gree
e; SEFKET

University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina; DIONNE BAILEY,

ARSLANAGIC,

ELSIE CAMPBELL, CHARLES DIMINNIE, and KARL HAVLAK, Angelo State University, San

Angelo, TX, USA; ROY BARBARA, Lebanese University, Fanar, Lebanon; CHIP CURTIS,

Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO, USA; OLEH FAYNSHTEYN, Leipzig,

student, Sarajevo

Germany; OLIVER GEUPEL, Bruhl,

NRW, Germany; SALEM MALIKIC,

College, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina; HENRY RICARDO, Medgar Evers College

(CUNY ), Brooklyn, NY, USA; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, Bayside, NY, USA; GEORGE TSAPAKIDIS,

Agrinio, Gree
e; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA; TITU ZVONARU,

Comane

sti, Romania; and the proposer.

496

3294. [2007 : 486, 488 Proposed by Mihaly Ben
ze, Brasov, Romania.

For all positive integers m and n, show that

m(m + 1)n2 (n + 1)2 (2n2 + 2n 1) n(n + 1)m2 (m + 1)2 (2m2 + 2m 1)

is divisible by 720.

Solution by Chip Curtis, Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO,

USA.

Let f (k) = k(k + 1) 2k2 + 2k 1 . Write

A (m, n)

= m (m + 1) n2 (n + 1)2 2n2 + 2n 1

n (n + 1) m2 (m + 1)2 2m2 + 2m 1

= mn (m + 1) (n + 1) [f (n) f (m)] .

Let C(m, n)

A(m, n) = C(m, n) D(m, n). Sin e 720 = 24 32 5, it su es to show

A(m, n) is divisible by 16, 9, and 5.

that

that

(a) Divisibility by 16. The residues of f (n) modulo 4 are given in the following table.

n (mod 4) 0

f (n) (mod 4) 0

1 2

2 2

3

0

is divisible by 8 and D(m, n) is divisible by 2, so that A(m, n) is

divisible by 16.

(ii) Otherwise, C(m, n) is divisible by 4 and D(m, n) is divisible by

4, and therefore, A(m, n) is divisible by 16.

(b) Divisibility by 9. The residues of f (n) modulo 9 are given in the next

table.

n (mod 9)

f (n) (mod 9)

0 1

0 6

2 3

3 6

4 5

6 6

6 7

3 6

8

0

(mod 9), so that A(m, n) is divisible by 9.

(ii) If n 2 or 6 (mod 9), or m 2 or 6 (mod 9), then C(m, n)

and D(m, n) are ea h divisible by 3, and therefore, A(m, n) is

divisible by 9.

(iii) Otherwise, f (n) 6 (mod 9) and f (m) 6 (mod 9), so that

D(m, n) is divisible by 9. Thus, A(m, n) is divisible by 9.

497

(
) Divisibility by 5. The residues of f (n) modulo 5 are given in the table

below.

n (mod 9)

f (n) (mod 9)

0 1

0 1

2 3

1 1

4

0

divisible by 5, so that A(m, n) is divisible by 5.

(ii) Otherwise, D(m, n) is divisible by 5, and therefore, A(m, n) is

divisible by 5.

University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and

Also solved by SEFKET

ARSLANAGIC,

Herzegovina; ROY BARBARA, Lebanese University, Fanar, Lebanon; MICHEL BATAILLE,

Rouen, Fran e; BRIAN D. BEASLEY, Presbyterian College, Clinton, SC, USA; OLIVER GEUPEL,

Bruhl,

NRW, Germany; RICHARD I. HESS, Ran ho Palos Verdes, CA, USA; WALTHER JANOUS,

Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbru k, Austria; ANDREA MUNARO, student, University of Trento,

Trento, Italy; MICHAEL PARMENTER, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's,

NL; SKIDMORE COLLEGE PROBLEM SOLVING GROUP, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs,

NY, USA; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA; KONSTANTINE ZELATOR,

University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA; TITU ZVONARU, Comane

sti, Romania; and the

proposer.

Let u : R R be a bounded fun tion. For x > 0, let

and

Prove that

f (x)

g(x)

=

=

sup {u(t) xet : t R} .

x0+

by the editor.

The proof onsists of showing that both limits are equal to the limit

L = lim sup u(t), whi h exists sin e the fun tion u(t) is bounded. Let K be

t

su h that |u(t)| < K for all t R. Given any > 0 and any t0 > 0, we have

(i) there exists some t > t0 su h that L < u(t), and

(ii) there exists some t1 > t0 su
h that for all t > t1 , u(t) < L + .

Let > 0 be given. For a xed x > 0 we have t

lim xet = 0, so there exists

t0 > 0 su
h that xet < for any t > t0 . By part (i), there exists t > t0

su
h that L < u(t), hen
e

L 2 < u(t) xet g(x) .

498

On the other hand, there exists t1 R su
h that u(t) < L + for all

Sin
e et > 0, let M > 0 be su
h that K M et < L + . We

laim that if x > M , then g(x) L + . For this it su
es to show that

u(t) xet < L + whenever x > M and t R.

Indeed, if x > M and t t1 , then u(t) xet < K M et < L + ,

while if x > M and t > t1 , then u(t) xet < u(t) < L + .

Therefore, for x > M we have L 2 < g(x) < L + 2, hen
e

lim g(x) = L.

x

Finally, writing S(v) = sup {u(t) : t > v} and making two
hanges of

variable in the limit yields

t > t1 .

lim f (x) =

x0+

lim S ln(1/x) = lim S(ln y) = lim S(z) = L .

x0+

NRW, Germany; and the proposer.

Find the greatest onstant K su h that

b2 c2

c2 a2

a2 b2

+

+

> K

a2 (a b)(a c)

b2 (b c)(b a)

c2 (c a)(c b)

Solution by Peter Y. Woo, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA, expanded

by the editor.

We prove that K = 10.

Let L denote the left side of the given inequality. Sin e L is ompletely

symmetri in a, b, and c, we may assume without loss of generality that

a < b < c.

Note rst that L = P

where Q = a2 b2 c2 (b a)(c a)(c b) and

Q

P = b4 c4 (c b) c4 a4 (c a) + a4 b4 (b a).

Observing that P = 0 when c = b or b = a or c = a, we nd by

straightforward but tedious omputations that

P

= b4 c4 (c b) a4 c5 b5 + a5 c4 b4

= (c b) b4 c4 a4 c4 + c3 b + c2 b2 + cb3 + b4

+ a5 c3 + c2 b + cb2 + b3

499

=

=

(c b) c4 b4 a4 + a4 (a b) c3 + c2 b + cb2 + b3

(c b)(b a) c4 b3 + b2 a + ba2 + a3

a4 c3 + c2 b + cb2 + b3

(c b)(b a) b3 c4 a4 + cb2 a c3 a2

+ c2 ba2 c2 a2 + c3 a3 (c a)

(c b)(b a)(c a) b3 c3 + c2 a + ca2 + a3

+ cb2 a c2 + ca + a2 + c2 ba2 (c + a) + c3 a3 .

Hen
e,

W

P

W

= 2 2 2,

Q

a b c

where

b3 c3 + c2 a + ca2 + a3

+ cb2 a c2 + ca + a2

+ c2 ba2 (c + a) + c3 a3 .

readily see that W 10 a20 b20 c20 1/10 = 10a2 b2 c2 , from whi h it follows

that L 10. Sin e a, b, and c are distin t, equality annot hold. Thus,

L > 10.

Finally, if we set a = 1, b = 1 + , and c = 1 + 2 and let 0+ ,

then the value of L an be made arbitrarily lose to 10 from the right. Hen e,

K = 10.

Also solved by CHIP CURTIS, Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO, USA;

OLIVER GEUPEL, Bruhl,

NRW, Germany; RICHARD I. HESS, Ran ho Palos Verdes, CA, USA;

and the proposer. There were one in orre t and three in omplete solutions (whi h only showed

that L > 10 and then on luded immediately that K = 10).

Chelmsford, MA, USA.

1+ 5

sin A + sin B sin C

2

500

Solution by D.J. Smeenk, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands.

The following are equivalent

1+ 5

sin A + sin B sin C

;

2

5

(the angle is approximately 26.6 ). The last inequality then be omes

5 sin(A + ) + cos(B C) 1 + 5 .

Equality holds when A = arcsin 2 63.4 and B = C 58.3 .

5

University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia

Also solved by SEFKET

ARSLANAGIC,

and Herzegovina; ROY BARBARA, Lebanese University, Fanar, Lebanon; MICHEL

BATAILLE, Rouen, Fran
e; BRIAN D. BEASLEY, Presbyterian College, Clinton, SC,

USA; CHIP CURTIS, Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO, USA; APOSTOLIS

K. DEMIS, Varvakeio High S
hool, Athens, Gree
e; OLEH FAYNSHTEYN, Leipzig,

Germany; OLIVER GEUPEL, Bruhl,

NRW, Germany; RICHARD I. HESS, Ran
ho Palos Verdes,

Y,

CA, USA; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbru
k, Austria; V ACLAV

KONECN

Big Rapids, MI, USA; KEE-WAI LAU, Hong Kong, China; THANOS MAGKOS, 3rd High S
hool

student, Sarajevo College, Sarajevo, Bosnia and

of Kozani, Kozani, Gree
e; SALEM MALIKIC,

Herzegovina; JUAN-BOSCO ROMERO MARQUEZ,

Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain;

JOEL SCHLOSBERG, Bayside, NY, USA; SKIDMORE COLLEGE PROBLEM SOLVING GROUP,

Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA; PANOS E. TSAOUSSOGLOU, Athens, Gree
e;

GEORGE TSAPAKIDIS, Agrinio, Gree
e; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA, USA;

KONSTANTINE ZELATOR, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA; TITU ZVONARU, Comane

sti,

Romania; and the proposer. There was one in
orre
t solution submitted.

Janous proved a more general result, namely, for > 0

sin A + sin B sin C

1

4 2 +1

1+

42 + 1

2

and B = C.

Chelmsford, MA, USA.

Let ABC be a triangle of area

opposite vertex A. Prove that

1

2

in whi h

a2 + csc A

5.

that some CRUX with MAYHEM reader will nd a simpler solution.

501

Solution by Kee-Wai Lau, Hong Kong, China.

Let b = AC , c = AB and let S denote the area of triangle ABC .

Sin
e S = 12 bc sin A = 12 , we obtain bc = csc A 1.

By the Law of Cosines we have (regardless of the sign of cos A) that

a2 + csc A

= a2 + bc = b2 + c2 2bc cos A + bc

q

2

2

b + c 2bc 1 sin2 A + bc

p

= b2 + c2 2 b2 c2 (bc sin A)2 + bc

p

= b2 + bc + c2 2 b2 c2 1

p

3bc 2 b2 c2 1 .

(y 3x)2 = 4(x2 1) we get 5x2 6xy + y 2 + 4 = 0. Sin e x is real, the

(6y)2 20(y 2 + 4) 0, or 16y 2 80 0, from whi h we

Thus,

obtain y 5. The result now follows by setting x = bc.

University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina; MICHEL

SEFKET

ARSLANAGIC,

BATAILLE, Rouen, Fran e; ROY BARBARA, Lebanese University, Fanar, Lebanon; CHIP

CURTIS, Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO, USA; APOSTOLIS K. DEMIS,

Varvakeio High S hool, Athens, Gree e (two solutions); OLEH FAYNSHTEYN, Leipzig,

Germany; OLIVER GEUPEL, Bruhl,

NRW, Germany; RICHARD I. HESS, Ran ho Palos Verdes,

Y,

Big Rapids, MI, USA; SOTIRIS LOURIDAS, Aegaleo, Gree e;

CA, USA; V ACLAV

KONECN

PANOS E. TSAOUSSOGLOU, Athens, Gree e; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada,

CA, USA; KONSTANTINE ZELATOR, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA; TITU ZVONARU,

Comane

sti, Romania; and the proposer. There was one in orre t solution submitted.

From

dedu e that equality holds if and only if b = c

q the proof given above, it is easy to

and a = 4 45 , in whi h ase A = cos1 23 48.19 . This was pointed out by Barbara,

Geupel, Hess, Kone ny,

Tsapakidis, and Zvonaru.

Both Barbara

and Demis generalized to

an arbitrary triangle of area k > 0, proving that

3299. [2007 : 487, 489 Proposed by Vi
tor Oxman, Western Galilee College, Israel.

Given positive real numbers a, b, and wb , show that

(a) if a triangle ABC exists with BC = a, CA = b, and the length of

the interior bise
tor of angle B equal to wb , then it is unique up to

isomorphism;

(b) for the existen
e of su
h a triangle in (a), it is ne
essary and su
ient

that

2a |a wb |

b >

0;

2a wb

we have b > |a wb | + 12 ha .

502

Solution by Mi
hel Bataille, Rouen, Fran
e.

(a) For
onvenien
e we write w = wb . Let the interior bise
tor of B

meet AC at W . We assume that ABC exists with BC = a, CA = b, and

BW = w , and shall produ
e a (impli
itly dened) formula for the third side

2ac cos B

2

c = AB . We re
all that w =

, so that

a+c

B

aw

w =

2

c

2a cos

standard formula

ab

WC =

,

a+c

a2 b2

(a + c)2

W C 2 = a2 + w 2 2aw cos

we therefore have

B

;

2

B

aw 2

= a2 w 2a cos

w = a2

2

c

using the

is the de reasing fun tion on (0, ) given by

f (x) =

ab2

w2

+

(a + x)2

x

Thus, if a triangle ABC with the given parameters does exist, then its side

lengths are uniquely determined, and (a) is proved.

(b) First, it is easy to see that the two given inequalities are equivalent

to the
onjun
tion of the following three inequalities

w < 2a ;

(1)

that the solution c of f (x) = a satises |a b| < c < a + b; that is,

f |a b|

> a > f (a + b) .

(2)

To show that (1) and (2) are equivalent, we rst suppose that the inequalities

in (1) hold. The inequality f (a + b) < a redu
es to the equivalent inequality

(2a + b)w < 2a(a + b), whi
h holds by (1). As for f |a b| > a, it is

equivalent to

ab2 |a b| + w 2 a + |a b|

2

> a |a b| a + |a b|

2

b < a sin e then it be omes w(2a b) > 2a(a b), whi h holds by (1). We

have proved that (1) implies (2).

Conversely, we assume that (2) holds (that is, that a triangle ABC

w

c

B

with the given parameters exists). Then 2a

=

cos ; hen e w < 2a.

a+c

2

503

Moreover, from f (a + b) < a we obtain (2a + b)w < 2a(a +

b). As for the

ondition 2a(a b) < (2a b)w, it follows from f |a b| > a if a > b,

and from (2a w)(a b) < aw if a b (be
ause 2a > w, the left side is

negative). The desired equivalen
e follows.

(
) Note that b > |a w| + 21 ha is equivalent to

ab > a |a w| + Area(ABC) ;

c

B

that is, to ab > a |a w| + a +

w sin . Sin
e a |a w| <

2

2

(from part (b)), the latter will
ertainly hold if

b (a + c) sin

or to

2 cos

or nally to

B

2 sin

2

A+C

2

1 cos

cos

AC

2

(2a w)b

2

B

2

AC

2

Also solved by CHIP CURTIS, Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO, USA;

OLIVER GEUPEL, Bruhl,

NRW, Germany; PETER Y. WOO, Biola University, La Mirada, CA,

USA (part (
) only); and the proposer.

Parts (a) and (b) of our problem appear on page 11 of D.S. Mitrinovi
et al., Re
ent

Advan
es in Geometri
Inequalities, Kluwer A
ademi
Publishers, 1989 as the rst of 40 existen
e

results from a 1952 paper (in Cze
h) by G. Petrov.

In addition to his solution, Oxman also addressed the question of
onstru
tibility. Exer
ise 4 on page 142 of Gunter

Ewald's Geometry: An Introdu
tion (Wadsworth Publ., 1971) says

that in general a triangle
annot be
onstru
ted by ruler and
ompass given the lengths a, b,

and wb , even when that triangle exists. The author suggests that the proof of his
laim
an be

simplied by taking both the given side lengths equal to 1. The formula f(x) = 1 from part

(a) of the featured solution (with a = b = 1, and w2
hosen to be rational) is a
ubi
equation

with rational
oe
ients. One simply has to
hoose a value of w for whi
h the resulting
ubi
equation has no rational root. The theory of Eu
lidean
onstru
tions then tells us that the

positive root, namely c,
annot be
onstru
ted by using ruler and
ompass.

3300. [2007 : 487, 489 Proposed by Arkady Alt, San Jose, CA, USA.

Let a, b, and

dene

Fn =

X bn + cn

3(an + bn + cn )

a+b+c

b+c

y
li

(b) Prove or disprove that Fn 0 for n 6.

504

Solution by Cao Minh Quang, Nguyen Binh Khiem High S
hool, Vinh Long,

Vietnam.

Sin
e F1 = 0, we take n > 1. We note that xn1 yn1 (x y) 0

for all positive x and y, with equality if and only if x = y. We have

(a + b + c)Fn

3 (an + bn + cn ) (a + b + c)

(an + bn + cn )

=

=

X bn + cn

b+c

y
li

X a (bn + cn )

b+c

y
li

X

a (bn + cn )

an

b+c

y
li

"

#

X ab an1 bn1

ac an1 cn1

+

(b + c)

(b + c)

y
li

X ab an1 bn1 (a b)

0.

(b + c)(c + a)

y
li

University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and

Also solved by SEFKET

ARSLANAGIC,

^

Herzegovina; ROY BARBARA, Lebanese University, Fanar, Lebanon; VASILE CIRTOAJE,

University of Ploiesti, Romania; CHIP CURTIS, Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO,

USA; NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki, Gree e; OLIVER GEUPEL, Bruhl,

NRW, Germany;

WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbru k, Austria; PANOS E. TSAOUSSOGLOU,

Athens, Gree e (part (a) only); STAN WAGON, Ma alester College, St. Paul, MN, USA (part (a)

only); TITU ZVONARU, Comane

sti, Romania; and the proposer.

C^rtoaje mentioned that this problem was posted (together with a solution similar to

the one featured above) by Wolfgang Berndt (Spanferkel) on the Mathlinks Forum website

http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=607167 in August 2006. Barbara, C^rtoaje,

and Dergiades proved the following generalization: If a1 , a2 , . . . , am are positive real numbers, m 2, and

Fn =

n

n

X an + + an

m(an

m

1 + a2 + + am )

2

a1 + a2 + + am

a2 + + am

y li

then Fn 0 for all n 1. Alt ultimately proved that if a, b, c, p, and q are positive real

numbers and

F (p, q) =

X ap + bp

3(ap + bp + cp )

aq + bq + cq

aq + bq

y
li

Andy Liu & Bruce Shawyer, Editors

who left indelible marks on the problemist community. After working in industry and academe in the United States, he spent the last thirty of his eighty

four years in Canada. He was famous for his Quickies, problems that have

quick and neat solutions. In this book you will find all of the problems that he

proposed for CRUX with MAYHEM, including all of his Quickies. His problems covered a very wide range of topics, and show a great deal of insight

into what is possible in these areas. The problems are arranged into sets

according to topic,and the lightly edited solutions are as published in CRUX

with MAYHEM.

Problems from Murray Klamkin: The Canadian Collection is published

by the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) in collaboration with the

Canadian Mathematical Society (CMS). It is the first volume in the Canadian

Collection.

Call (301) 617-7800

ISBN 9780-88385-828-8,

(CMS members get member price for this book. Be sure to mention you are a CMS member when you call.)

506

This marks my rst year as Editor/Co-Editor of CRUX with MAYHEM, and

my rst year end nale. As I write in this spa e, whi h Jim Totten wrote in just

one year ago, I am reminded of him and the non-permanen e of things. Just as

the surf swirls sand and pebbles on a bea h, so does time alter words and ourselves.

Islands disappear and are built up somewhere else. When I remember Jim's in redible

enthusiasm and passion for mathemati s and his outrea h work, I am moved. An

o ean is there for us to feel its power and its ool refreshing spray, to play in it and

be leansed by its soothing sound.

Whi h reminds me that issues of CRUX with MAYHEM are now delayed by

several weeks! My apologies to all the readers for this onsiderable delay, and in

2009 we will work hard to lose the gap.

Many people have served this past year (I will borrow Jim's habit of apitalizing

their names). First, I shall forever be grateful to the late JIM TOTTEN for all the

support he gave me during the time I Co-Edited with him (until the end of February,

2008). After Jim's sudden passing on Mar h 9, 2008, three individuals in parti ular

ame to my res ue. I thank CHRIS FISHER for his humour and good spirits in those

tough early days. I thank BRUCE CROFOOT for his solid support as Mission Control in

the CRUX o e at Thompson Rivers University and for listening to me when I needed

someone to talk to. I thank BRUCE SHAWYER for his ontinuing help and advi e on

CRUX with MAYHEM, indeed for ee tively stepping into the role of Editor-at-Large

(whi h Jim was going to take up after stepping down as Editor-in-Chief). I also thank

Bru e S. for his hospitality in Newfoundland and for providing me with a mu h needed

sense of ontinuity.

I thank the members of the Editorial Board for their hard work and for bringing their unique talents to CRUX: JEFF HOOPER, the Asso iate Editor, for his areful

reading and sound judgment; IAN VANDERBURGH, the MAYHEM Editor, whose

Problem of the Month olumn is a joy to read and who is ahead of s hedule (!);

ROBERT BILINSKI, for serving as Skoliad Editor for the past four years; ROBERT

WOODROW, for handling the Olympiad Corner on top of his immense administrative

duties; JOHN GRANT M LOUGHLIN, for his solid support as Book Reviews Editor

and for his fantasti proof reading skills. This is John's last issue as Book Reviews Editor, but he will ontinue as the Guest Editor for the Jim Totten spe ial issue of May,

2009. I wel ome AMAR SODHI to the Board who is taking over as Book Reviews

Editor from John. I thank my olleague here in Winnipeg and Arti les Editor JAMES

CURRIE, for taking on the position and then turning a ba klog of arti les into a ornu opia. I thank the Problems Editors for their ontinuing support and hard work:

ILIYA BLUSKOV, CHRIS FISHER, MARIA TORRES, and EDWARD WANG. The job of

being a Problems Editor is perhaps one of the most di ult on the Board, with tight

deadlines and a deluge of problem proposals and solutions in all areas of mathemati s oming from all over the world et hed, s rawled, or digitally re orded on every

on eivable medium known to man. A big thank you to the four of you.

I thank GRAHAM WRIGHT, the Managing Editor, for his solid support and also

for providing that vital sense of ontinuity.

Others who are not on the Editorial Board but whose work is just as ru ial are

MONIKA KHBEIS and ERIC ROBERT who serve on the Mayhem sta; a big thank

you Monika and Eri . I thank JEAN-MARC TERRIER for translating the problems

that appear in CRUX with MAYHEM. The Canadian Mathemati al So iety re ently

honoured Jean-Mar at the 2008 Winter Meeting for his many years of servi e. It is

507

well deserved! I look forward to working with Jean-Mar
in the New Year. As well,

I wel
ome ROLLAND GAUDET of College

Universitaire Saint-Bonifa
e, Winnipeg.

Rolland is also helping with translations, espe
ially in times of
risis! I thank our

past CRUX editor BILL SANDS for his proof reading and sound advi
e.

My
olleagues in the Dept. of Mathemati
s and Statisti
s have lent their support. Those who have taken pity on this Editor-in-Chief are ANNA STOKKE, ROSS

STOKKE, TERRY VISENTIN, and JEFF BABB. Our se
retary, JULIE BEAVER, has also

helped out in a pin
h as little emergen
ies have arisen. I thank the previous Dean

of S
ien
e, GABOR KUNSTATTER, for his understanding and foresight in supporting

CRUX with MAYHEM at the University of Winnipeg.

The LATEX expertise of JOANNE CANAPE at the University of Calgary, and TAO

GONG and JUNE ALEONG at Wilfrid Laurier University goes a long way to produ
ing

high quality
opy. Joanne is nishing up her work in this area, so after my one year

of servi
e here I thank her for giving twenty! I wel
ome JILL AINSWORTH on board

who is taking over from Joanne to prepare the Olympiads.

Thanks go to the University of Toronto Press and to Thistle Printing, in parti
ular TAMI EHRLICH. The quality nished
opy and the purple
overs are just lovely.

I thank you MICHAEL DOOB and CRAIG PLATT for te
hni
al support, and JUDI

BORWEIN for putting CRUX on the net.

Someone spe
ial who has helped me through my rst year with her
areful proof

reading and knowledge of geometry is CHARLENE PAWLUCK. Thank you for sharing

your
opy of Eu
lid with me, and so mu
h more.

Finally, I thank you, the readers, for all that you have done for me and for the

journal. CRUX with MAYHEM is built from your
ontributions and all the time,
are

and
reativity that you put into your submissions is re
e
ted in these pages. I wish I

ould mention all the truly marvellous people that I have gotten to know in the last

year, but this margin is too small to hold all the names and praises.

I
lose with a
all for a new Skoliad Editor. Please refer anyone to us you may

think is suitable. Skoliad is missing from this issue, but will be ba
k next year; from

now on please send all Skoliad materials dire
tly to the Editor-in-Chief (or resend

your past submissions if you did not re
eive a reply from us).

I wish ea
h of you the very best in 2009 in all areas of life,

Va
lav

(Vazz) Linek

with Mathemati al Mayhem

Former Editors / An iens Reda teurs:

Bru e L.R. Shawyer, James E. Totten

Crux Mathemati orum

Founding Editors / Reda teurs-fondateurs:

Leopold

Sauve & Frederi k G.B. Maskell

Former Editors / An iens Reda teurs:

G.W. Sands, R.E. Woodrow, Bru e L.R. Shawyer

Mathemati al Mayhem

Founding Editors / Reda teurs-fondateurs:

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Former Editors / An iens Reda teurs:

Philip Jong, Je Higham, J.P. Grossman,

Andre Chang, Naoki Sato, Cyrus Hsia, Shawn Godin, Je Hooper

508

Contributor Proles

February

Peter Y. Woo ................................................... 1

Skoliad Robert Bilinski

February

No. 107 ......................................................... 2

Mar h

No. 108 ....................................................... 65

April

No. 109 ...................................................... 129

May

No. 110 ...................................................... 195

September No. 111 ...................................................... 257

O tober

No. 112 ...................................................... 321

November No. 113 ...................................................... 385

Mathemati al Mayhem Ian VanderBurgh

February

.................................................................. 8

Mar h

................................................................. 69

April

............................................................... 136

May

............................................................... 200

September ............................................................... 266

O tober

............................................................... 327

November ................................................................ 396

De ember

............................................................... 449

Mayhem Problems

February

M326{M331 .................................................... 8

Mar h

M332{M337 ................................................... 69

April

M338{M343 ................................................. 136

May

M344{M349 ................................................. 200

September M350{M356 ................................................. 266

O tober

M357{M362 ................................................. 327

November M363{M368 ................................................. 396

De ember M369{M375 ................................................. 449

Mayhem Solutions

February

M276{M281 ................................................... 10

Mar h

M282{M287 ................................................... 71

April

M288{M293 ................................................. 138

May

M294{M300 ................................................. 202

September M301{M312 ................................................. 268

O tober

M313{M324 ................................................. 329

November M325{M331 ................................................. 398

De ember M332{M337 ................................................. 451

Problem of the Month Ian VanderBurgh

February

................................................................. 15

Mar h

................................................................. 76

April

............................................................... 144

May

............................................................... 208

September ............................................................... 279

O tober

............................................................... 338

November ................................................................ 404

De ember

............................................................... 457

509

Mayhem Arti
les

Adding Up

Bru
e Shawyer ............................................................ 406

The Olympiad Corner R.E. Woodrow

February

No. 267 ....................................................... 18

Mar
h

No. 268 ....................................................... 79

April

No. 269 ...................................................... 147

May

No. 270 ...................................................... 211

September No. 271 ...................................................... 282

O
tober

No. 272 ...................................................... 341

November No. 273 ...................................................... 408

De
ember No. 274 ...................................................... 459

Book Reviews John Grant M
Loughlin

How Euler Did It

by C. Edward Sandifer

Reviewed by J. Chris Fisher ............................................... 34

Nonplussed! Mathemati
al Proof of Implausible Ideas

by Julian Havil

Reviewed by Robert D. Poodia
k .......................................... 36

Math Through the Ages: A Gentle History for Tea
hers and Others

by William P. Berlingho and Fernando Q. Gouv^ea

Reviewed by John Grant M
Loughlin....................................... 95

Minnesota Math League XXV 1980{2005

by A. Wayne Roberts

Reviewed by Robert L. Crane .............................................. 96

The Magi
Numbers of the Professor

by Owen O'Shea and Underwood Dudley

Reviewed by Je Hooper .................................................. 161

Geometri
Puzzle Design

by Stewart Con

Reviewed by Jim Totten ................................................... 163

The Liar Paradox and the Towers of Hanoi:

the Ten Greatest Math Puzzles of All Time

by Mar
el Danesi

Reviewed by Amar Sodhi .................................................. 164

Problems of the Week

by Jim Totten

Reviewed by John Grant M
Loughlin ..................................... 229

Digital Di
e

by Paul J. Nahin

Reviewed by Amar Sodhi .................................................. 297

Cal
ulus Gems:

Brief Lives and Memorable Mathemati
s

by George F. Simmons

Reviewed by Robert D. Poodia
k ......................................... 356

From Zero to Innity:

What Makes Numbers Interesting

by Constan
e Reid

Reviewed by John Grant M
Loughlin ..................................... 357

510

Impossible? Surprising Solutions and Counterintuitive Conundrums

by Julian Havil

Reviewed by Ed Barbeau .................................................. 422

The Symmetries of Things

by John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, and Chaim Goodman-Strauss

Reviewed by J. Chris Fisher ............................................... 468

Crux Arti
les James Currie

A Useful Inequality

Roy Barbara ............................................................... 38

Sharpening the Hadwiger-Finsler Inequality

Cezar Lupu and Cosmin Pohoata .......................................... 97

Industrial Grade Primes with a Money-Ba
k Guarantee

Mi
hael P. Abramson .................................................... 165

The Proof of Three Open Inequalities

Vasile C^rtoaje ............................................................ 231

The Sum of a Cube and a Fourth Power

Thomas Mauts
h and Gerhard J. Woeginger ............................. 358

Twin Problems on Non-Periodi
Fun
tions

Eugen J. Ionas
u .......................................................... 424

Old Idaho Usual Here

Robert Israel, Stephen Morris, and Stan Wagon ......................... 471

A Limit of an Improper Integral Depending on One Parameter

Iesus C. Diniz ............................................................. 478

Sliding Down In
lines with Fixed Des
ent Time:

a Converse to Galileo's Law of Chords

Je Babb .................................................................. 481

Problems

February

3301{3312 ..................................................... 44

Mar
h

3313{3325 .................................................... 102

April

3326{3337 .................................................... 170

May

3282, 3338{3350 ............................................. 239

September 3351{3362 .................................................... 298

O
tober

3363{3375 .................................................... 362

November 3376{3388 .................................................... 430

De
ember 3371, 3389{3400 .............................................. 483

Solutions

February

3201{3213 ..................................................... 49

Mar
h

3214{3225, 3227 ............................................. 107

April

3226, 3228{3238, 3242 ....................................... 176

May

Klamkin{05, 3239{3241, 3243{3250 ......................... 244

September 3251{3362 .................................................... 303

O
tober

3263{3275, 3282 ............................................. 367

November 3276{3281, 3283{3288 ....................................... 435

De
ember 3229, 3289{3300 ............................................. 488

Mis
ellaneous

Editorial .................................................................... 193

In Memoriam: James Edward Totten ...................................... 194

MAA Book Promotion .......................................................505

Year End Finale ............................................................. 506

511

Proposers and solvers appearing in the SOLUTIONS se
tion in 2008:

Proposers

Anonymous Proposer 3211

Gregory Akulov 3285

Arkady Alt 3300

Mi
hel Bataille 3217, 3237, 3238, 3251, 3252, 3266, 3267, 3295, 3296

Mihaly Ben
ze 3204, 3205, 3206, 3213, 3214, 3216, 3228, 3229, 3230,

3239, 3240, 3253, 3292, 3293, 3294

Alper Cay 3258

Vasile C^rtoaje 3209, 3210, 3274, 3275, Klamkin{05,

M.N. Deshpande 3283, 3284

Jose Luis Daz-Barrero 3212, 3247, 3263, 3269, 3281, 3282

Marian Din a 3205

J. Chris Fisher 3224

Ovidiu Furdui 3218, 3226, 3227, 3261, 3262, 3277, 3288

G.P. Henderson 3201

Ignotus 3231

Neven Juri 3259, 3276, 3286

Georey A. Kandall 3235

Va lav Kone ny 3256

Tidor Mitev 3236

Virgil Ni ula 3242, 3241, 3260, 3264, 3265, 3270, 3271, 3273, 3278, 3279,

Fran is o Pala ios Qui~nonero 3212

Pantelimon George Popes u 3269, 3281, 3282

A hilleas Pavlos Poryfyriadis 3223

D.E. Prithwijit 3272

Stanley Rabinowitz 3297, 3298

Juan-Bos o Romero Marquez 3221

Bill Sands 3257, 3268

D.J. Smeenk 3202, 3203, 3250

Marian Tetiva 3220, 3246

George Tsapakidis 3225

G. Tsintsifas 3232, 3233, 3234, 3243, 3244, 3254, 3255

Pham Van Thuan 3222

Dan Vetter 3219

Harley Weston 3224

Shaun White 3208, 3215

John Wiest 3268

Peter Y. Woo 3207

Paul Yiu 3245

Titu Zvonaru 3248, 3249

Mohammed Aassila 3248, 3249

Arkady Alt 3241, 3263, 3276

Sefket

Arslanagi 3249, 3253, 3257, 3264

Dionne Bailey 3228, 3237, 3247, 3269, 3271

Roy Barbara 3214, 3232, 3235

Ri ardo Barroso Campos 3267

Mi hel Bataille 3204, 3205, 3209, 3213, 3217,

3245, 3249, 3256, 3257, 3264, 3269, 3272, 3273, 3276, 3278, 3281, 3283,

3285, 3286, 3288, 3291, 3293, 3299

Mihaly Ben ze 3230, 3253

Manuel Benito 3253, 3261, 3262

Elsie Campbell 3228, 3237, 3247, 3269, 3271

Cao Minh Quang 3230, 3253, 3281, 3300

s ar Ciaurri Ramrez 3253, 3261, 3262

O

Vasile C^rtoaje Klamkin{05, 3275

Chip Curtis 3204, 3221, 3226, 3234, 3261, 3274, 3276, 3294

Apostolis K. Demis 3211, 3219, 3224, 3255, 3273

Charles R. Diminnie 3221, 3228, 3237, 3247, 3269, 3271

Emilio Fernandez Moral 3253, 3261, 3262

J. Chris Fisher 3238

Fran is o Javier Gar a Capita n 3221

Oliver Geupel 3263, 3273, 3282, 3284, 3292

Douglass L. Grant 3293

P.C. Hammer 3254

Karl Havlak 3271

John Hawkins 3240

Ri hard I. Hess 3221, 3232, 3283, 3286

John G. Heuver 3245, 3289

Joe Howard 3287

Walther Janous 3245

Georey A. Kandall 3221

Paula Ko a 3271

Va lav Kone ny 3202, 3232, 3244

Kee-Wai Lau 3242, 3239, 3246, 3298

Tom Leong 3253, 3260

Nguyen Thanh Liem 3249

Thanos Magkos 3276

Salem Maliki 3214, 3220, 3234, 3245, 3249, 3280

Dragoljub Milosevi 3214

Andrea Munaro 3253, 3265, 3280

Vedula N. Murty 3221

Jose H. Nieto 3201, 3202, 3257, 3259

Mi hael Parmenter 3252, 3284

Alex Remorov 3249

Henry Ri ardo 3204,

Juan-Bos o Romero Marquez 3221

Luz Ron al 3261, 3262

Xavier Ros 3212, 3221, 3236, 3250, 3257

Sergey Sadov 3229

Bill Sands 3268

Joel S hlosberg 3215, 3233, 3290

D.J. Smeenk 3202, 3221, 3235, 3264, 3279, 3297

T. Jeerson Smith 3254

David Stone 3240

Edmund Swylan 3202, 3206, 3207, 3238

Marian Tetiva 3220

Phi Thai Thuan 3249

Daniel Tsai 3251

Panos E. Tsaoussoglou 3249

George Tsapakidis 3289

G. Tsintsifas 3232

Apostolis Vergos 3208

Vo Quo Ba Can 3210, 3216, 3223

Edward T.H. Wang 3253

Shaun White 3208

Peter Y. Woo 3203, 3205, 3218, 3221, 3225, 3244, 3245, 3295, 3296

Paul Yiu 3245

Roger Zarnowski 3237

Titu Zvonaru 3243, 3270

Missouri State University Problem Solving Group 3259, 3266

512

Other Solvers | Individuals

Mohammed Aassila 3223, 3237, 3241, 3281, 3283

Gregory Akulov 3285

Arkady Alt 3221, 3222, 3223, 3226, 3227, 3230, 3236, 3246, 3247, 3248,

3249, 3281, 3287, 3300

Christos Anastassiades 3250

George Apostolopoulos 3264, 3265, 3270, 3276, 3278, 3284,

3285, 3286,

Sefket

Arslanagi
3203, 3206, 3221, 3222, 3223, 3248, 3249, 3250, 3251,

3256, 3260, 3265, 3270, 3271, 3272, 3276, 3281, 3284, 3285, 3287, 3289,

3293, 3294, 3297, 3298, 3300

Dionne T. Bailey

Kee-Wai Lau 3208, 3222, 3223, 3236, 3237, 3241, 3247, 3249, 3248, 3250,

3253, 3260, 3271, 3285, 3286, 3292, 3297

Kathleen E. Lewis 3257

Carl Libis 3276

Sotiris Louridas 3298

Tai hi Maekawa 3250

Thanos Magkos 3221, 3260, 3286, 3287, 3297

Salem Maliki 3202, 3203, 3207, 3208, 3211, 3216, 3221, 3222, 3223, 3230,

3233, 3235, 3236, 3237, 3240, 3241, 3243, 3244, 3246, 3247, 3248, 3250,

3251, 3253, 3256, 3257, 3259, 3260, 3266, 3270, 3271, 3272, 3276, 3281,

3230, 3233, 3234, 3235, 3236, 3237, 3238, 3242, 3237, 3238, 3239, 3243,

Pavlos Maragoudakis 3221, 3251

Petrus Martins 3253

G. Milanova 3221, 3222, 3223

D.M. Milosevi 3222

Dragoljub Milosevi 3221, 3222, 3223

Todor Mitev 3236

Andrea Munaro 3235, 3236, 3251, 3256,

3244, 3246, 3247, 3248, 3250, 3251, 3252, 3253, 3255, 3262, 3263, 3265,

3294

3293

Roy Barbara 3201, 3202, 3203, 3213, 3221, 3222, 3223, 3233, 3234, 3236,

3237, 3238, 3242, 3241, 3243, 3244, 3247, 3250, 3251, 3252, 3257, 3264,

3265, 3266, 3270, 3271, 3272, 3278, 3285, 3286, 3287, 3290, 3291, 3293,

3294, 3297, 3298, 3300

Mi hel Bataille 3201, 3202, 3206, 3207, 3208, 3211,

3266, 3267, 3270, 3271, 3279, 3280, 3282, 3284, 3287, 3289, 3290, 3292,

3294, 3295, 3296, 3297, 3298

Fran is o Bellot Rosado 3202, 3203

Mihaly Ben ze 3204, 3205, 3213, 3214,

3216, 3223, 3228, 3229, 3239,

K.S. Bhanu 3284

Paul Bra ken 3222, 3262, 3286

Katrina Bri ker 3221

Whitney Bullo k 3257

Sarah Burnham 3271

Elsie M. Campbell 3212, 3222, 3223, 3251, 3253, 3263, 3276, 3285, 3286,

3287, 3293

N. Nadeau 3262

Virgil Ni ula 3241, 3242, 3260, 3264, 3265, 3270, 3271, 3273, 3278, 3279,

Jose H. Nieto 3205, 3221, 3237, 3248, 3251, 3252, 3253, 3258

Vi
tor Oxman 3299

Fran
is
o Pala
ios Qui~nonero 3212

Mi
hael Parmenter 3237, 3238, 3250, 3287, 3294

Paolo Perfetti 3281

Pantelimon George Popes
u 3269, 3281

A
hilleas Pavlos Porfyriadis 3223

D.E. Prithwijit 3272

Stanley Rabinowitz 3297, 3298

Alex Remorov 3226, 3229, 3230, 3234, 3235, 3236, 3237, 3238, 3241, 3243,

3244, 3246, 3247, 3248, 3250

O

Vasile C^rtoaje 3209, 3210, 3274, 3300

Chip Curtis 3202, 3203, 3206, 3216, 3217, 3219, 3222, 3223, 3227, 3230,

Juan-Bos o Romero Marquez 3221, 3223, 3297

Luz Ron al 3251, 3255, 3257, 3258

Xavier Ros 3227, 3237, 3247, 3248, 3249, 3251, 3253, 3259, 3260, 3262,

3235, 3237, 3238, 3239, 3241, 3243, 3244, 3245, 3246, 3247, 3248, 3251,

3247, 3248, 3249, 3250, 3251, 3260, 3265, 3270, 3276, 3287

3252, 3256, 3257, 3259, 3262, 3264, 3265, 3266, 3269, 3270, 3271, 3275,

3278, 3281, 3283, 3284, 3286, 3287, 3289, 3290, 3291, 3292, 3293, 3296,

3297, 3298, 3299, 3300

Apostolis K. Demis 3202, 3203, 3205, 3207, 3213, 3214, 3221, 3233, 3234,

3235, 3238, 3251, 3256, 3258, 3264, 3265, 3267, 3270, 3289, 3292, 3297,

Bill Sands 3257

Robert P. Sealy 3286

Joel S hlosberg 3202, 3203,

3235, 3238, 3244, 3250, 3253, 3255, 3265, 3266, 3270, 3271, 3272, 3276,

3278, 3283, 3285, 3287, 3292, 3293, 3297

Nikolaos Dergiades 3300

M.N. Deshpande 3284

Jose Luis Daz-Barrero 3212, 3247, 3263, 3269, 3281, 3286, 3287

Charles R. Diminnie 3212, 3222, 3223, 3250, 3251, 3253, 3263, 3276, 3285,

Andrew Siefker 3253

D.J. Smeenk 3203, 3221, 3223, 3233, 3234, 3244, 3250, 3265, 3278, 3287

Digby Smith 3286

David R. Stone 3212, 3237, 3240, 3241, 3257

Edmund Swylan 3203, 3217, 3221, 3234, 3236, 3237, 3243, 3244, 3250,

3257

3298

Oleh Faynshteyn 3293, 3297, 3298

Emilio Fernandez Moral 3251, 3255, 3257, 3258

Ovidiu Furdui 3218, 3226, 3227, 3261, 3262, 3288

Ian June L. Gar es 3251

Fran is o Javier Gar a Capita n 3202, 3290, 3291

Oliver Geupel 3257, 3264, 3266, 3268, 3276, 3278, 3279, 3281, 3283, 3286,

3287, 3289, 3290, 3293, 3294, 3295, 3296, 3297, 3298, 3299, 3300

John Hawkins 3212, 3237, 3240, 3241, 3257

G.P. Henderson 3201

Ri hard I. Hess 3203, 3206, 3208, 3219, 3221,

3298, 3300

George Tsapakidis 3222, 3223, 3265, 3270, 3276, 3286, 3287, 3291, 3293,

3297

3253, 3262, 3265, 3270, 3276, 3287, 3292, 3294, 3296, 3297, 3298

Joe Howard 3204, 3212, 3221, 3222, 3223, 3227, 3235, 3236, 3237, 3246,

3247, 3248, 3251, 3260, 3271, 3276, 3281

Walther Janous 3239,

Winfer C. Tabares 3251

Ashley Tangeman 3253

Marian Tetiva 3246

Daniel Tsai 3203, 3286

Panos E. Tsaoussoglou 3203, 3222,

Pham Van Thuan 3222

Phi Thai Thuan 3236, 3248

Apostolis Vergos 3212, 3248

Dan Vetter 3219

Vo Quo Ba Can 3214, 3222

Stan Wagon 3208, 3222, 3223, 3292, 3300

Peter Y. Woo 3201, 3202, 3207, 3211, 3212, 3213, 3214, 3220, 3222, 3223,

3225, 3233, 3234, 3235, 3236, 3238, 3241, 3243, 3246, 3247, 3248, 3250,

3257, 3260, 3261, 3262, 3263, 3265, 3266, 3267, 3269, 3270, 3271, 3272,

3251, 3252, 3253, 3254, 3255, 3256, 3258, 3259, 3262, 3264, 3265, 3267,

3270, 3271, 3273, 3276, 3278, 3279, 3280, 3281, 3284, 3285, 3286, 3287,

Natalie Kalmink 3221

Georey A. Kandall 3202, 3235, 3250, 3289

Paula Ko a 3253, 3276, 3285, 3286

Va lav Kone ny 3203, 3221, 3234, 3235, 3243,

Konstantine Zelator 3203, 3265, 3266, 3272, 3294, 3297, 3298

Titu Zvonaru 3202, 3203, 3221, 3222, 3223, 3233, 3234, 3235, 3236, 3237,

3250, 3256, 3258, 3291,

3297, 3298

3238, 3244, 3246, 3247, 3249, 3250, 3263, 3264, 3265, 3266, 3267, 3271,

3272, 3281, 3287, 3289, 3290, 3291, 3293, 3294, 3297, 3298, 3300

Ateneo Problem Solving Group 3221, 3251

Missouri State Univeristy Problem Solving Group 3253, 3257, 3272

Skidmore College Problem Solving Group 3221, 3237, 3291, 3294, 3297

University of Regina Math Central Consultants 3211

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