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Question 1

[Q#4051]

Climate can be described as the average of the weather. True or false?


True
False

Question 2
[Q#4052]

So far, the global average temperature of the 21st century has been
higher than that of the 19th century. True or false?
False
True

Question 3
[Q#4053]

In describing the climate, instrument records are less precise than proxy
records. True or false?
False
True

Question 4

[Q#4054]

There are no naturally occurring greenhouse gasses. True or false?


False
True

Question 5
[Q#4001]

What is the difference between climate and weather?


Weather changes, but climate doesnt
Nothing; theyre different words for the same concept
Weather is the average of climate
Climate is the average of weather
Climate changes, but weather doesnt

Question 6
[Q#4004]

Why does the atmosphere increase the temperature of the Earth?


the atmosphere reduces the total insolation
the atmosphere increases the rate at which radiation escapes
the atmosphere reduces the rate at which radiation escapes
the atmosphere focuses the suns rays
the atmosphere increases the total insolation

Question 7
[Q#4007]

Which of the following is a possible contributor to man-made global


warming?
All of the other options are correct.
increase in methane emissions from farming
release of carbon dioxide from cement production
increase in CFC emissions
burning of fossil fuels

Question 8
[Q#4015]

What part of the glacial cycle are we currently in?


pre-glacial
mid-glacial
interglacial
early-glacial
end-glacial

Question 9
[Q#4017]

If we have 2 different stable isotopes of oxygen, this means that

the 2 have different spin states


the 2 have different masses
oxygen found in water is radioactive
the 2 have different electric charges
the 2 form different compounds

Question 10
[Q#4018]

Which part of an ice core is the oldest?


impossible to say; it varies with location
the inner core
the outer core
the top
the bottom

Question 11
[Q#4023]

Instrument data has been used to record the temperature trends of the
Earth for more than a century. Over this time period the records indicate
that:
the poles have cooled as the equator has warmed

the Southern Hemisphere has stayed constant or perhaps cooled,


while the Northern Hemisphere has warmed up
the Earth as a whole has warmed by more than 3 degrees Fahrenheit
the oceans have cooled as the land areas have warmed
the Earth as a whole has warmed by more than 1 degree Fahrenheit

Question 12
[Q#4026]

According to proxy and instrumental data, what is the general trend of


global temperature in the last 200 years?
a series of 11-year cycles based on volcanic activity
a clear set of cycles based on orbital forcing (Milankovitch cycles)
between -1 and 1 degree Fahrenheit cooling or warming
3 to 5 degrees Fahrenheit warming
1 to 2 degrees Fahrenheit warming

Question 13
[Q#4030]

If there was no atmosphere, the Earths average temperature would be


about -18 degrees Celsius (which is below 0 degrees Fahrenheit). The
Earth is much warmer than this! Why?
The sunspot cycle is currently warming the Earth

Human emissions of carbon dioxide have vastly increased the Earths


temperature
Periodic volcanic eruptions put soot in the Earths atmosphere,
warming the Earth
The Earths atmosphere traps heat like a natural greenhouse
The Sun has become much hotter over geological time

Question 14
[Q#4033]

Why is carbon dioxide (CO2) thought to act as a greenhouse gas?


CO2 is more transparent to visible than to infrared radiation
CO2 is largely transparent to infrared radiation
CO2 is less dense than nitrogen, and so shields the top of the
atmosphere from the Suns rays (insolation)
CO2 is relatively viscous, reducing atmospheric convection
CO2 is denser than oxygen, and so acts as a blanket on the surface of
the Earth

Question 15
[Q#4036]

Fossil alligators have been found in the Dakotas. Alligators require warm
temperatures to livethey are currently found in Florida, but not South
Dakota, for example. Why do scientists think that alligators were capable
of living in what is now South Dakota 35 million years ago?

the Sun was hotter in the past (more insolation)


high concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere 35 million years ago
enhanced the greenhouse effect
alligators have only recently evolved to need warm climates
the Milankovitch cycle suggests that winter temperatures were
significantly higher 35 million years ago than they are today
plate tectonics have moved the location of what is now South Dakota
towards the pole since alligators lived there

Question 16
[Q#4039]

Why would decreased temperatures increase the proportion of light


stable isotope water relative to heavy stable isotope water in the
atmosphere?
low temperatures decrease the energy available to evaporate heavy
isotope water
heavy isotopes are radioactive
light stable isotopes are less likely to experience nuclear decay in
cooler conditions
heavy stable isotopes are much rarer
light stable isotopes have high albedos, and so reflect more sunlight,
cooling the Earth

Question 17

[Q#4040]

How might both ice sheets and vegetation change the climate?
both ice sheets and vegetation continually suck heat out of the
atmosphere
both ice sheets and vegetation increase the amount of water in the
oceans, allowing more carbon dioxide to be dissolved there
both ice sheets and vegetation change the albedo of the Earths
surface, altering the amount of sunlight that is reflected
both ice sheets and vegetation contribute carbon dioxide to the
atmosphere, creating a natural greenhouse effect
both ice sheets and vegetation continually remove water from the
atmosphere

Question 18
[Q#4041]

In what situation is instrumental data preferable to proxy data?


detecting evidence of the Snowball Earth
developing a millennia-long record of temperature
knowing the precision of current temperature
observing the Milankovitch cycle

Question 19
[Q#4044]

Why does the atmosphere warm the Earth?

it acts as a blanket, trapping heat


it acts as a shield, protecting the earth from cosmic rays
it acts as a heater, generating heat energy
it acts as a reflector, returning sunlight to space
it acts as a mirror, reflecting irradiance back at the sun

Question 20
[Q#4045]

If Earth had no atmosphere, its average temperature would:


not change
behave unpredictably
be more like that of Venus
increase in response to the change in insolation
be more like that of the Moon

Question 21
[Q#4046]

Venus is closer to the Sun than the Earth and its Moon. If Venus and the
Moon had the same atmosphere (be it thick or thin) and roughly the same
albedo, we could confidently predict that:
Venus would be cooler than the Moon
Venus would be warmer than the Moon

the Earth, Moon, and Venus would have close to the same average
surface temperature
the Earth could not be cooler than the Moon
the Earth would be the same temperature as, or warmer than, the
Moon

Question 22
[Q#4047]

Australia produces less than 1/10th of the greenhouse gases that the
United States produces. Despite this, we can still say that:
Australians could produce more greenhouse gas per person
Australians most likely are using more renewable energy
Australians are most likely more efficient at using fossil fuels
All of the other options are correct.
Australia contributes just as much to the total amount of global
warming

Question 23
[Q#4049]

The Snowball Earth hypothesis claims that the planet has previously
been completely covered in ice. Which of these scenarios is a reasonable
way in which this could happen?
a decrease in the number of heavy isotopes in the water increases
glaciation

an expansion of ice-sheets and sea-ice can increase the Earths


albedo, which in turn leads to more ice
high rates of volcanism can put large amounts of carbon dioxide and
water vapor into the atmosphere, changing the Earths natural
greenhouse effect
an increase in heat transport from the equator to the poles can cool
the surface of the Earth
when the 3 major Milankovitch cycles are synchronous, the Earth
receives less insolation than at any other time.

Question 24
[Q#4050]

Earths climate has recently been linked to the Milankovitch cycle. If this
natural trend were to continue, we would expect that the average
temperature of the Earth will do what over the next 10,000 years?
Not measurably change
Increase slowly (by less than 5 degrees Fahrenheit)
Decrease slowly (by less than 5 degrees Fahrenheit)
Increase quickly (by at least 5 degrees Fahrenheit)
Decrease quickly (by at least 5 degrees Fahrenheit)