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by

David M. Levine, Ph.D.

Video Aided Instruction, Inc.


Roslyn Heights, New York

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Statistics
Study Guide

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v1.1

Statistics Study Guide

Statistics
3 DVDs 6 hrs.
item #VAI-1787 price $119.95
isbn 1-57385-178-7 upc 600459178796

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Other Video Aided Instruction titles you might enjoy:

Probability
set of 2 DVDs

Algebra 2
& Trigonometry

Statistics isnt just for math majors: now its taught in


high school, and its even a required course for many
college degrees in psychology, sociology, business,
economics, engineering, and other fields. Now every
student can master this course quickly and easily!
The ultimate resource for AP high school students,
college students, and adult learners, this set covers
the standard topics taught in introductory stats
classes and is jam-packed with practice questions and
strategies for tackling even the most complicated
problems.
For easier studying and maximum success, we recommend that you view the program over a number of
short sessions: dont try to absorb too much at one
time. Review the entire program, or specific sections,
as many times as you find necessary in order to master the material.
Remember, you control the pace of your own learning with Video Aided Instruction. While watching
this program, you can use the following buttons on
your remote control or DVD player:
Use
REVERSE SKIP to start over
the problem or section that youre watching.
Use
FORWARD SKIP to jump ahead
to the next problem or section.
Use
PAUSE to temporarily freeze the
screen so you can read important graphics
or try to answer questions on your own.
Also, be sure to keep plenty of scrap paper handy so
you can jot down ideas, work through concepts, and
more. Finally, be sure to use the myriad on-screen
graphics to take notes for yourself when youre
done, youll have a notebook you can refer back to
again and again.
Now its easier than ever to earn high test marks in
school or relearn forgotten mathematics all with
your own private teacher!

set of 5 DVDs

About Your Instructor


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David M. Levine, Ph.D., is a Professor Emeritus of Statistics and Computer Information Systems at Baruch
College, City University of New York. Dr. Levine is an
award-winning educator and bestselling author. He
has written 14 textbooks, many of which have been
translated into foreign languages and adopted by
leading academic institutions around the world.

2
This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

This study guide should be used along with the following program published by Video Aided Instruction. The
instructor works through the exercises found in this
guide and much, much more during the course of the
actual program.

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Introduction

Statistics Study Guide


PART 1 Definitions
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For each of the following variables, indicate whether the variable is quantitative or qualitative. If the variable is quantitative, indicate whether it is discrete or continuous.
1. Ownership of a CD player.
2. The number of albums and discs purchased in the last year.
3. The playing length of the last album or disc purchased.
4. Favorite type of music.

PART 2 Review of Summation Notation


1. Given the following:
Y

Compute:
(a)

(b)

Xi

(c)

Xi

(d)

(d)

(X

2
i

(e)

(e)

cX , where c = 2

X iYi

2. Given the following:


X

Compute:
(a)
(f)

X
(X

(b)

Xi

(c)

X iYi

Yi )

4)

Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved

This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

Statistics Study Guide


PART 3 Descriptive Statistics
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1. The following data represent the pulse rates (in beats per minute) of a sample of incoming freshmen at the time of their medical examinations:
49, 74, 66, 68, 78, 53, 57, 62, 61, 66
In (a)(k), compute:
arithmetic mean

(b) median

(c)

mode

(d) first quartile (Q1)

(e)

(f)

range

(g) variance

(h) standard deviation

(i)

coefficient of variation

(j)

(l)

Based on the results in (a)(k), indicate whether the distribution is right-skewed, symmetric,
or left-skewed.

third quartile (Q 3)

midrange

(k) midhinge

(m) Set up a box-and-whisker plot for these data.


2. The following data represent the cost of a lunch time Deluxe Hamburger Special, consisting of
a hamburger, french fries, and regular soft drink at a sample of 15 coffee shops within a 10-block
radius of a large urban college.
Coffee Shop

Cost ($)

Coffee Shop

Cost ($)

4.75

4.60

4.30

4.85

4.05

4.75

4.55

4.55

4.60

4.90

3.90

4.55

5.25

4.95

4.65

Compute:
(a)

arithmetic mean

(b) variance

(c)

standard deviation

(d) coefficient of variation

(e) median

(f)

mode

(g) first quartile (Q1)

(h) third quartile (Q 3)

(i)

range

(j)

(k) midhinge

midrange

Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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(a)

Statistics Study Guide


3. The commuting time of a population of employees of a large company has a population mean of
45 minutes and a population standard deviation of 8 minutes.
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At least 75% of the employees will have commuting times between what two values?

(b) At least what percentage of the employees will have commuting times between
33 and 57 minutes?

ERRATUM NOTICE
In the very last step of the solution for Part 3, question 3, part (b), the writing on the chalkboard in the video includes
a typographical error which causes the instructor to misstate the correct answer to this question. The calculation of the
1

expression 1
should have yielded ~.5556 (not ~.8889 as written on the chalkboard). Thus, the correct answer
2
(1.5)
should have been stated as approximately 55.56%. We sincerely apologize for any confusion that this error may cause.

PART 4 Data Presentation: Tables & Charts


1. The following data represent the grade point averages (GPAs) of a sample of 50 freshmen at the
end of their first year of study.
GPAs of 50 Freshmen

(a)

1.95

3.42

3.97

3.56

2.94

2.04

3.07

3.94

2.54

1.64

3.14

3.77

1.80

2.32

3.44

2.21

2.96

3.98

2.59

3.30

2.82

2.98

3.99

3.50

2.46

2.87

3.35

2.18

3.33

1.93

3.45

3.26

3.00

3.09

2.60

2.86

3.72

3.32

2.77

2.95

2.15

2.38

3.66

3.02

2.28

2.70

3.85

2.75

2.59

3.15

Construct a frequency distribution of the GPA values using 1.6 to under 2.0 as the first class,
2.0 to under 2.4 as the second class, , and 3.6 to under 4.0 as the last class.

(b) Form the relative frequency distribution.


(c)

Form the percentage distribution.

(d) Form the cumulative percentage distribution.


(e)

Plot the histogram.

(f)

Plot a percentage polygon.

(g) Plot the cumulative percentage polygon (ogive).

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(a)

Statistics Study Guide


2. The following data represent the interest rate (in percentage points of interest per year) provided
by 6-month certificates of deposit at a sample of 200 savings banks in a particular state.

5.5 under 6.0

39

6.0 under 6.5

56

6.5 under 7.0

47

7.0 under 7.5

33

7.5 under 8.0

15

8.0 under 8.5

10

Total:

200

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(a)

Frequency

Approximate the arithmetic mean of this frequency distribution.

(b) Approximate the standard deviation of this frequency distribution.


(c)

Form the percentage distribution.

(d) Form the cumulative percentage distribution.


(e)

Plot the histogram.

(f)

Plot a percentage polygon.

(g) Plot the cumulative percentage polygon (ogive).

3. A sample of 50 students was asked to indicate their preference for various types of soft drinks. The
results were as follows:
Soft Drink
Cola

27

Lemon-Lime

Orange

Root Beer

Other

6
Total:

(a)

Frequency

50

Compute the percentage preferring each type of soft drink.

(b) Construct a bar chart.


(c)

Construct a pie chart.

Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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Interest Rate

Statistics Study Guide


PART 5 Normal Distribution & Sampling Distribution of the Mean
What is the probability that Z is between 0 and 1.24?

(b) What is the probability that Z is less than 1.24?


(c)

What is the probability that Z is greater than 1.73?

(d) What is the probability that Z is between 1.24 and 1.73?


(e)

What is the probability that Z is less than 1.24 or greater than 1.73?

(f)

What is the probability that Z is between 1.24 and 1.24?

(g) What is the probability that Z is less than 1.24 or greater than 1.73?
(h) What is the value of Z if 67.36% of all the values are larger?
(i)

What is the value of Z if 2.5% of all the values are larger?

(j)

Between what two values of Z (symmetrically distributed around the mean) will 76.2%
of all the values be contained?

2. The amount of tea used daily at a local Chinese restaurant is normally distributed with a mean of
8500 ounces and a standard deviation of 800 ounces.
(a)

What is the probability that on a randomly selected day the amount used will be between
8500 and 9100 ounces?

(b) What is the probability that on a randomly selected day the amount used will be more than
9100 ounces?
(c)

What is the probability that on a randomly selected day the amount used will be between
6500 and 7500 ounces?

(d) What is the probability that on a randomly selected day the amount used will be less than
6500 ounces or more than 7500 ounces?
(e)

On 85% of the days, the amount of tea used will be more than how many ounces?

3. A multiple choice test is given in which there are 4 possible answers for each of 25 questions. Suppose that a student is not familiar with the test material and has decided to randomly guess the
answer to each question (there is no penalty for incorrect guesses). In the absence of any other
information, the student assumes that each of the 4 possible answers is equally likely to occur.
(a)

On the average, how many questions would you expect the student to answer correctly
out of the 25 questions?

(b) What is the approximate probability that the student will answer exactly 10 questions
correctly?
(c)

What is the approximate probability that the student will answer at least 10 questions
correctly?

(d) What is the approximate probability that the student will answer between 5 and 8 questions
(inclusive) correctly?

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(a)

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1. Given a standardized normal distribution (with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1):

Statistics Study Guide


4. The amount of tea used daily at a local Chinese restaurant is normally distributed with a mean of
8500 ounces and a standard deviation of 800 ounces. If a random sample of 64 days is selected:
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what is the probability that the sample mean will exceed 8673 ounces?

(b) what is the probability that the sample mean will be between 8300 and 8700 ounces?
(c)

between what two values (symmetrically distributed around the population mean) will
92.98% of the sample means be contained?

5. Suppose that the cholesterol level of ten-year-old girls is normally distributed with a mean of 175
and a standard deviation of 20. A sample of 25 ten-year-old girls is selected.
(a)

What is the probability that the sample mean cholesterol level will be above 185?

(b) Between what two values (symmetrically distributed around the population mean) will 95% of
all the sample means be contained?

PART 6 Confidence Intervals & Sample Size Determination


1. Suppose that the scores on a certain IQ test are known to be normally distributed with a population standard deviation of 15. If a sample of 25 scores indicates a sample mean of 106, set up a 95%
confidence interval estimate of the population average IQ score.
2. The following data represent the pulse rates (in beats per minute) of a sample of incoming freshmen at the time of their medical examinations:
49, 74, 66, 68, 78, 53, 57, 62, 61, 66
Set up a 95% confidence interval estimate of the population average pulse rate of incoming
freshmen.
3. The management of a car dealership conducted a telephone survey to determine the proportion of
customers who were satisfied with services performed on their cars in the past month. A random
sample of 100 customers indicated that 59 reported that they were satisfied. Set up a 90% confidence interval estimate of the population proportion of customers who were satisfied with their
service.
4. A random sample of 75 children was interviewed upon leaving an aquarium; 45 reported that the
seals were their favorite aquatic creature. Set up a 99% confidence interval estimate of the population proportion of children visiting the aquarium who prefer the seals.
5. The Board of Trustees of the Scholarship Fund of a local high school would like to estimate the contributions that can be expected from past contributors in the upcoming year. The chairperson of
the committee would like to have 95% confidence of estimating the true average amount donated
to within $5. Based on last years contributions, the standard deviation is estimated as $17. What
sample size should be selected?

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(a)

Statistics Study Guide

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6. A researcher for a public interest group would like to estimate the proportion of adults over the
age of 18 in a particular community who are not registered to vote. She wishes to have 95%
confidence of being correct to within .06 of the true population proportion. Previous surveys in
other communities have indicated a proportion of .35. What sample size should be selected?
7. The Market Research Director for a large department store would like to study mens spending per
year on dress shirts.
A survey is to be sent to a sample of the stores credit card holders to determine the average
yearly amount that men spend on dress shirts. If the market researcher wanted to have 99%
confidence of estimating the true average to within $10 and the standard deviation is
assumed to be $28 (based on previous studies), what sample size is needed?

(b) A survey is to be sent to a sample of the stores credit card holders to determine the
population proportion of men whose dress shirts are primarily purchased by themselves. If the
market researcher wishes to have 90% confidence of estimating the true proportion to within
.04, what sample size is needed?
(c)

Suppose the department store has 2,000 credit card holders. What would be your answer in
part (a)?

(d) Suppose the department store has 2,000 credit card holders. What would be your answer in
part (b)?
8. Suppose that in problem 3 of this part, there was a population of 800 customers. Recalculate the
confidence interval developed there.

PART 7 One-Sample Tests of Hypothesis


1. Suppose that scores on a certain aptitude test were known to have a population mean of
100 and a population standard deviation of 10. A new version of the test is to be given to a sample
of 50 students who have been carefully selected to represent a cross-section of the population of
students who would be taking the test. The average score of this sample test was 101.1. Assuming
that the population standard deviation had not changed from the previous test, at the .05 level
of significance, is there any evidence that the average score on the new test would be different
from 100?
2. The following data represent the pulse rates (in beats per minute) of a sample of incoming freshmen at the time of their medical examinations:
49, 74, 66, 68, 78, 53, 57, 62, 61, 66
At the .01 level of significance, is there evidence that the average pulse rate of incoming freshmen
is different from 50 beats per minute?
3. An investigator for a State Highway Department needed to test the speed of cars on a particular
section of an interstate highway in order to qualify for federal highway funds. Suppose that a
sample of 30 cars taken at a particular point on the highway revealed a sample average speed of
61.3 miles per hour with a sample standard deviation of 9.7 miles per hour. At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence that the population average speed is greater than 55 miles per hour?

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(a)

5. The Home Mortgage Department of a bank has just instituted a new system to streamline the process of a decision concerning the approval of a home mortgage equity loan. Under the old system,
75% of the applications had final decisions made within 30 days. A random sample of 100 applications processed under the new system revealed that 87 had decisions made within 30 days. At the
.05 level of significance, is there evidence that the proportion of applications in which decisions are
made within 30 days has increased under the new system?
6. Find the p-value in problem 1 of this part, and use the p-value approach to reject or to not reject
the null hypothesis.
7. Find the p-value in problem 5 of this part, and use the p-value approach to reject or to not reject
the null hypothesis.

PART 8 Testing Differences Between the Means of Two Groups


1. Suppose that we wanted to study sales of annual plants at two branches of a large garden supply
chain. Samples of customers were selected with the following results:
Branch A

Branch B

11.73

9.94

6.32

5.14

42

26

At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence of a difference in the average sales between
Branch A and Branch B?

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4. An admissions officer of a college wanted to determine whether the proportion of entering freshmen who indicated a desire to major in Business had changed in the past year. A random sample
of 200 of this years freshmen indicated that 77 expressed a desire to major in Business. At the .01
level of significance, is there evidence of a change from last year in which the population proportion was .40?

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Statistics Study Guide

Statistics Study Guide

Patient

Before

After

236

221

257

248

204

205

229

198

288

269

253

230

235

218

275

249

240

227

10

216

207

11

226

219

12

264

252

At the .01 level of significance, is there evidence that the average cholesterol level is higher
before the medication was taken that at the conclusion of the clinical trial?
3. A career guidance counselor at a large university wanted to study the scores on the mathematics
section of a standard aptitude test for Liberal Arts and for Business majors. A sample of 25 students
from each type of major was selected with the following results:
Major
Liberal Arts

Business

473.6

521.8

138.1

125.9

25

25

At the .01 level of significance, is there evidence that the average mathematics score is lower
for Liberal Arts majors than for Business majors?

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Cholesterol Levels

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2. A pharmaceutical company wanted to determine the effectiveness of a new drug in lowering the
cholesterol level of patients with current levels of at least 200. A clinical trial of the new drug was
conducted on a sample of 12 patients with the following results:

Game
Child

21

34

29

22

23

29

35

43

19

25

25

25

29

39

23

21

27

32

10

18

20

At the .05 level of significance, is there any evidence of a difference in the average price that would
be paid for the two video games?

PART 9 Testing for Proportions & Chi-Square Tests


1. The owner of a car dealership conducted a survey to determine whether there was a gender difference in ones satisfaction with the service received. A sample of 100 women showed that 65 were
satisfied, while a sample of 100 men showed that 80 were satisfied. At the .01 level of significance,
is there any evidence of a difference in satisfaction with service between men and women?
2. Do problem 1 of this part using the chi-square test.

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4. The Research Director for a company that develops video games wanted to determine which one
of two video games should have marketing priority. An experiment was devised in which 10 youngsters ranging in age from eight to fifteen years were allowed to play each game on a particular
video game system for a particular period of time. After playing each game (the order of which
game was played first was randomized for each child), the child indicated the amount of money (in
dollars) that he or she would be willing to pay for the game. The results were as follows:

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Statistics Study Guide

Statistics Study Guide

Favor

East

South

Midwest

West

Total

Yes

215

125

146

92

578

No

185

75

54

108

422

400

200

200

200

1000

Total

At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence of a difference in attitude between the various
regions of the United States?

PART 10 Regression & Correlation


1. A garment manufacturer was interested in predicting the annual maintenance cost of sewing machines based upon the age of the machine. A sample of 16 machines revealed the following ages
and maintenance costs in the last year:

(a)

Machine

X
Age (Years)

Y
Cost ($)

Machine

X
Age (Years)

Y
Cost ($)

109

25

75

10

70

21

11

126

135

12

58

67

13

30

125

14

47

71

15

120

52

16

105

Compute the regression coefficients the Y-intercept (b 0), and the slope (b1) in this
problem.

(b) Predict the average maintenance cost for a machine that is four years old.
(c)

Compute the coefficient of determination (r 2) and interpret its meaning in this problem.

(d) Compute the coefficient of correlation r.


(e)

Compute the standard error of the estimate.

(f)

At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence of a linear relationship between age
and maintenance cost?

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Region

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3. A poll was taken concerning attitudes of voters toward the institution of a common poll closing
time on Election Day during presidential election years. The results, categorized according to
regions of the United States, were as follows:

Statistics Study Guide


2. The following data represent the heights in inches of a sample of 10 husbands and their wives:

68

69

73

70

67

74

72

75

67

72

Wife

64

62

56

67

66

69

66

71

64

60

Compute the coefficient of correlation r.

(b) At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence of a relationship between the height
of husbands and the height of wives?

PART 11 Analysis of Variance


1. At one time, the Director of Consumer Affairs of a large suburban county wanted to study whether
there were any differences in the price of unleaded regular (87 octane) gasoline for four major
brands of gasoline sold in the county. A random sample of five service stations was selected for
each of the four brands and the price (in cents) on a particular day was recorded with the
following results:
Prices of Gasoline Brands (Cents)
A

111.9

116.3

112.8

109.9

114.9

117.4

113.5

109.5

116.5

118.4

116.8

110.9

115.8

113.6

115.4

111.3

118.4

116.4

114.8

112.5

At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence of a difference in the average price between the
different brands?

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(a)

Husband

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Heights of Married Couples (Inches)

Statistics Study Guide

Type
A

42

46

52

57

52

47

59

56

58

47

50

46

49

51

(Note that one plant of type B was accidentally destroyed soon after being planted.)
At the .01 level of significance, is there evidence of a difference in the average yield of the three
types of string beans?

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2. An agronomist was interested in measuring the differences in the yield of three types of string
beans. Five plants of each type of string bean were planted with the following results (yield in
pounds):

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15

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Statistics Study Guide

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

.09

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

.0000
.0398
.0793
.1179
.1554
.1915
.2257
.2580
.2881
.3159

.0040
.0438
.0832
.1217
.1591
.1950
.2291
.2612
.2910
.3186

.0080
.0478
.0871
.1255
.1628
.1985
.2324
.2642
.2939
.3212

.0120
.0517
.0910
.1293
.1664
.2019
.2357
.2673
.2967
.3238

.0160
.0557
.0948
.1331
.1700
.2054
.2389
.2704
.2995
.3264

.0199
.0596
.0987
.1368
.1736
.2088
.2422
.2734
.3023
.3289

.0239
.0636
.1026
.1406
.1772
.2123
.2454
.2764
.3051
.3315

.0279
.0675
.1064
.1443
.1808
.2157
.2486
.2794
.3078
.3340

.0319
.0714
.1103
.1480
.1844
.2190
.2518
.2823
.3106
.3365

.0359
.0753
.1141
.1517
.1879
.2224
.2549
.2852
.3133
.3389

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

.3413
.3643
.3849
.4032
.4192
.4332
.4452
.4554
.4641
.4713

.3438
.3665
.3869
.4049
.4207
.4345
.4463
.4564
.4649
.4719

.3461
.3686
.3888
.4066
.4222
.4357
.4474
.4573
.4656
.4726

.3485
.3708
.3907
.4082
.4236
.4370
.4484
.4582
.4664
.4732

.3508
.3729
.3925
.4099
.4251
.4382
.4495
.4591
.4671
.4738

.3531
.3749
.3944
.4115
.4265
.4394
.4505
.4599
.4678
.4744

.3554
.3770
.3962
.4131
.4279
.4406
.4515
.4608
.4686
.4750

.3577
.3790
.3980
.4147
.4292
.4418
.4525
.4616
.4693
.4756

.3599
.3810
.3997
.4162
.4306
.4429
.4535
.4625
.4699
.4761

.3621
.3830
.4015
.4177
.4319
.4441
.4545
.4633
.4706
.4767

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

.4772
.4821
.4861
.4893
.4918
.4938
.4953
.4965
.4974
.4981

.4778
.4826
.4864
.4896
.4920
.4940
.4955
.4966
.4975
.4982

.4783
.4830
.4868
.4898
.4922
.4941
.4956
.4967
.4976
.4982

.4788
.4834
.4871
.4901
.4925
.4943
.4957
.4968
.4977
.4983

.4793
.4838
.4875
.4904
.4927
.4945
.4959
.4969
.4977
.4984

.4798
.4842
.4878
.4906
.4929
.4946
.4960
.4970
.4978
.4984

.4803
.4846
.4881
.4909
.4931
.4948
.4961
.4971
.4979
.4985

.4808
.4850
.4884
.4911
.4932
.4949
.4962
.4972
.4979
.4985

.4812
.4854
.4887
.4913
.4934
.4951
.4963
.4973
.4980
.4986

.4817
.4857
.4890
.4916
.4936
.4952
.4964
.4974
.4981
.4986

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

.49865
.49903
.49931
.49952
.49966
.49977
.49984
.49989
.49993
.49995

.49869
.49906
.49934
.49953
.49968
.49978
.49985
.49990
.49993
.49995

.49874
.49910
.49936
.49955
.49969
.49978
.49985
.49990
.49993
.49996

.49878
.49913
.49938
.49957
.49970
.49979
.49986
.49990
.49994
.49996

.49882
.49916
.49940
.49958
.49971
.49980
.49986
.49991
.49994
.49996

.49886
.49918
.49942
.49960
.49972
.49981
.49987
.49991
.49994
.49996

.49889
.49921
.49944
.49961
.49973
.49981
.49987
.49992
.49994
.49996

.49893
.49924
.49946
.49962
.49974
.49982
.49988
.49992
.49995
.49996

.49897
.49926
.49948
.49964
.49975
.49983
.49988
.49992
.49995
.49997

.49900
.49929
.49950
.49965
.49976
.49983
.49989
.49992
.49995
.49997

NOTE:

Some instructors prefer to use a different table, the Cumulative Standardized Normal Distribution (which represents
the areas under the standardized normal distribution from to Z). The procedures and calculations using the two tables
will be slightly different, but they will lead you to the same answers.

Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved

16
This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

In this program, Dr. Levine uses a table of the Standardized Normal Distribution
like that shown below. Each entry in this table represents the area under the standardized
normal distribution from the mean to Z.

For more information, call 1-800-238-1512 or visit us online at videoaidedinstruction.com.

TABLE 1 The Standardized Normal Distribution

Statistics Study Guide

0.25

0.10

0.05

0.025

0.01

0.005

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1.0000
0.8165
0.7649
0.7407
0.7267
0.7176
0.7111
0.7064
0.7027
0.6998

3.0777
1.8856
1.6377
1.5332
1.4759
1.4398
1.4149
1.3968
1.3830
1.3722

6.3138
2.9200
2.3534
2.1318
2.0150
1.9432
1.8946
1.8595
1.8331
1.8125

12.7062
4.3027
3.1824
2.7764
2.5706
2.4469
2.3646
2.3060
2.2622
2.2281

31.8207
6.9646
4.5407
3.7469
3.3649
3.1427
2.9980
2.8965
2.8214
2.7638

63.6574
9.9248
5.8409
4.6041
4.0322
3.7074
3.4995
3.3554
3.2498
3.1693

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

0.6974
0.6955
0.6938
0.6924
0.6912
0.6901
0.6892
0.6884
0.6876
0.6870

1.3634
1.3562
1.3502
1.3450
1.3406
1.3368
1.3334
1.3304
1.3277
1.3253

1.7959
1.7823
1.7709
1.7613
1.7531
1.7459
1.7396
1.7341
1.7291
1.7247

2.2010
2.1788
2.1604
2.1448
2.1315
2.1199
2.1098
2.1009
2.0930
2.0860

2.7181
2.6810
2.6503
2.6245
2.6025
2.5835
2.5669
2.5524
2.5395
2.5280

3.1058
3.0545
3.0123
2.9768
2.9467
2.9208
2.8982
2.8784
2.8609
2.8453

21

0.6864

1.3232

1.7207

2.0796

2.5177

2.8314

22

0.6858

1.3212

1.7171

2.0739

2.5083

2.8188

df

23

0.6853

1.3195

1.7139

2.0687

2.4999

2.8073

24

0.6848

1.3178

1.7109

2.0639

2.4922

2.7969

25

0.6844

1.3163

1.7081

2.0595

2.4851

2.7874

26

0.6840

1.3150

1.7056

2.0555

2.4786

2.7787
2.7707

27

0.6837

1.3137

1.7033

2.0518

2.4727

28

0.6834

1.3125

1.7011

2.0484

2.4671

2.7633

29

0.6830

1.3114

1.6991

2.0452

2.4620

2.7564

30

0.6828

1.3104

1.6973

2.0423

2.4573

2.7500

31

0.6825

1.3095

1.6955

2.0395

2.4528

2.7440

32

0.6822

1.3086

1.6939

2.0369

2.4487

2.7385

33

0.6820

1.3077

1.6924

2.0345

2.4448

2.7333

34

0.6818

1.3070

1.6909

2.0322

2.4411

2.7284

35

0.6816

1.3062

1.6896

2.0301

2.4377

2.7238

36

0.6814

1.3055

1.6883

2.0281

2.4345

2.7195
2.7154

37

0.6812

1.3049

1.6871

2.0262

2.4314

38

0.6810

1.3042

1.6860

2.0244

2.4286

2.7116

39

0.6808

1.3036

1.6849

2.0227

2.4258

2.7079

40

0.6807

1.3031

1.6839

2.0211

2.4233

2.7045

Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved

17
This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

In this program, Dr. Levine uses a table of the t Distribution like that shown below.
For a particular value of degrees of freedom df, each entry in this table represents
the critical value of t corresponding to a specific upper-tail area .

For more information, call 1-800-238-1512 or visit us online at videoaidedinstruction.com.

TABLE 2 Critical Values of t

Statistics Study Guide


0.25

0.10

0.05

0.025

0.01

0.005

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

0.6805
0.6804
0.6802
0.6801
0.6800
0.6799
0.6797
0.6796
0.6795
0.6794

1.3025
1.3020
1.3016
1.3011
1.3006
1.3022
1.2998
1.2994
1.2991
1.2987

1.6829
1.6820
1.6811
1.6802
1.6794
1.6787
1.6779
1.6772
1.6766
1.6759

2.0195
2.0181
2.0167
2.0154
2.0141
2.0129
2.0117
2.0106
2.0096
2.0086

2.4208
2.4185
2.4163
2.4141
2.4121
2.4102
2.4083
2.4066
2.4049
2.4033

2.7012
2.6981
2.6951
2.6923
2.6896
2.6870
2.6846
2.6822
2.6800
2.6778

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

0.6793
0.6792
0.6791
0.6791
0.6790
0.6789
0.6788
0.6787
0.6787
0.6786

1.2984
1.2980
1.2977
1.2974
1.2971
1.2969
1.2966
1.2963
1.2961
1.2958

1.6753
1.6747
1.6741
1.6736
1.6730
1.6725
1.6720
1.6716
1.6711
1.6706

2.0076
2.0066
2.0057
2.0049
2.0040
2.0032
2.0025
2.0017
2.0010
2.0003

2.4017
2.4002
2.3988
2.3974
2.3961
2.3948
2.3936
2.3924
2.3912
2.3901

2.6757
2.6737
2.6718
2.6700
2.6682
2.6665
2.6649
2.6633
2.6618
2.6603

61

0.6785

1.2956

1.6702

1.9996

2.3890

2.6589

62

0.6785

1.2954

1.6698

1.9990

2.3880

2.6575

63

0.6784

1.2951

1.6694

1.9983

2.3870

2.6561

64

0.6783

1.2949

1.6690

1.9977

2.3860

2.6549

df

65

0.6783

1.2947

1.6686

1.9971

2.3851

2.6536

66

0.6782

1.2945

1.6683

1.9966

2.3842

2.6524

67

0.6782

1.2943

1.6679

1.9960

2.3833

2.6512

68

0.6781

1.2941

1.6676

1.9955

2.3824

2.6501

69

0.6781

1.2939

1.6672

1.9949

2.3816

2.6490

70

0.6780

1.2938

1.6669

1.9944

2.3808

2.6479
2.6469

71

0.6780

1.2936

1.6666

1.9939

2.3800

72

0.6779

1.2934

1.6663

1.9935

2.3793

2.6459

73

0.6779

1.2933

1.6660

1.9930

2.3785

2.6449

74

0.6778

1.2931

1.6657

1.9925

2.3778

2.6439

75

0.6778

1.2929

1.6654

1.9921

2.3771

2.6430

76

0.6777

1.2928

1.6652

1.9917

2.3764

2.6421

77

0.6777

1.2926

1.6649

1.9913

2.3758

2.6412

78

0.6776

1.2925

1.6646

1.9908

2.3751

2.6403

79

0.6776

1.2924

1.6644

1.9905

2.3745

2.6395

80

0.6776

1.2922

1.6641

1.9901

2.3739

2.6387

0.6745

1.2816

1.6449

1.9600

2.3263

2.5758

Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved

For more information, call 1-800-238-1512 or visit us online at videoaidedinstruction.com.

(continued)

18
This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

TABLE 2 Critical Values of t

12.461

13.121

13.787

27

28

29

Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved

30

14.954

14.257

13.565

12.879

12.198

11.524

10.856

8.897

16.791

16.047

15.308

14.573

13.844

13.120

12.401

11.689

10.982

10.283

3.816
4.404
5.009
5.629
6.262
6.908
7.564
8.231
8.907
9.591

0.001
0.051
0.216
0.484
0.831
1.237
1.690
2.180
2.700
3.247

0.975

18.493

17.708

16.928

16.151

15.379

14.611

13.848

13.091

12.338

11.591

4.575
5.226
5.892
6.571
7.261
7.962
8.672
9.390
10.117
10.851

0.004
0.103
0.352
0.711
1.145
1.635
2.167
2.733
3.325
3.940

0.95

20.599

19.768

18.939

18.114

17.292

16.473

15.659

14.848

14.042

13.240

5.578
6.304
7.042
7.790
8.547
9.312
10.085
10.865
11.651
12.443

0.016
0.211
0.584
1.064
1.610
2.204
2.833
3.490
4.168
4.865

0.90

24.478

23.567

22.657

21.749

20.843

19.939

19.037

18.137

17.240

16.344

7.584
8.438
9.299
10.165
11.037
11.912
12.792
13.675
14.562
15.452

0.102
0.575
1.213
1.923
2.675
3.455
4.255
5.071
5.899
6.737

0.75

29.615
30.813
32.007
33.196
34.382
35.563
36.741
37.916
39.087
40.256

27.141
28.241
29.339
30.435
31.528
32.620
33.711
34.800

17.275
18.549
19.812
21.064
22.307
23.542
24.769
25.989
27.204
28.412

13.701
14.845
15.984
17.117
18.245
19.369
20.489
21.605
22.718
23.828
24.935

2.706
4.605
6.251
7.779
9.236
10.645
12.017
13.362
14.684
15.987

1.323
2.773
4.108
5.385
6.626
7.841
9.037
10.219
11.389
12.549

26.039

0.10

0.25

50.892

49.588

48.278

46.963

45.642

44.314

42.980

41.638

40.289

38.932

24.725
26.217
27.688
29.141
30.578
32.000
33.409
34.805
36.191
37.566

6.635
9.210
11.345
13.277
15.086
16.812
18.475
20.090
21.666
23.209

0.01

53.672

52.336

50.993

49.645

48.290

46.928

45.559

44.181

42.796

41.401

26.757
28.299
29.819
31.319
32.801
34.267
35.718
37.156
38.582
39.997

7.879
10.597
12.838
14.860
16.750
18.458
20.278
21.955
23.589
25.188

0.005


For more information, call 1-800-238-1512 or visit us online at videoaidedinstruction.com.

46.979

45.722

44.461

43.194

41.923

40.646

39.364

38.076

36.781

35.479

21.920
23.337
24.736
26.119
27.488
28.845
30.191
31.526
32.852
34.170

5.024
7.378
9.348
11.143
12.833
14.449
16.013
17.535
19.023
20.483

0.025

This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

43.773

42.557

41.337

40.113

38.885

37.652

36.415

35.172

33.924

32.671

19.675
21.026
22.362
23.685
24.996
26.296
27.587
28.869
30.144
31.410

3.841
5.991
7.815
9.488
11.071
12.592
14.067
15.507
16.919
18.307

0.05

In this program, Dr. Levine uses a table of the 2 Distribution like that shown below.
For a particular value of degrees of freedom df, each entry in this table represents
the critical value of 2 corresponding to a specific upper-tail area .

For larger values of freedom df, the expression Z = 2 2 2(df ) 1 may be used and the resulting
upper-tail area can be found from the Cumulative Standardized Normal Distribution.

11.160

11.808

26

10.520

25

10.196

9.260

9.886

23

24

9.542

8.034

8.643

21

22

3.053
3.571
4.107
4.660
5.229
5.812
6.408
7.015
7.633
8.260

2.603
3.074
3.565
4.075
4.601
5.142
5.697
6.265
6.844
7.434

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

0.020
0.115
0.297
0.554
0.872
1.239
1.646
2.088
2.558

0.99

0.010
0.072
0.207
0.412
0.676
0.989
1.344
1.735
2.156

0.995

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

df

Statistics Study Guide

TABLE 3 Critical Values of 2

19

Statistics Study Guide


(where = 0.05)

df1

1 = 0.95

= 0.05

10

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

161.40
18.51
10.13
7.71
6.61
5.99
5.59
5.32
5.12
4.96

199.50
19.00
9.55
6.94
5.79
5.14
4.74
4.46
4.26
4.10

215.70
19.16
9.28
6.59
5.41
4.76
4.35
4.07
3.86
3.71

224.60
19.25
9.12
6.39
5.19
4.53
4.12
3.84
3.63
3.48

230.20
19.30
9.01
6.26
5.05
4.39
3.97
3.69
3.48
3.33

234.00
19.33
8.94
6.16
4.95
4.28
3.87
3.58
3.37
3.22

236.80
19.35
8.89
6.09
4.88
4.21
3.79
3.50
3.29
3.14

238.90
19.37
8.85
6.04
4.82
4.15
3.73
3.44
3.23
3.07

240.50
19.38
8.81
6.00
4.77
4.10
3.68
3.39
3.18
3.02

241.90
19.40
8.79
5.96
4.74
4.06
3.64
3.35
3.14
2.98

254.30
19.50
8.53
5.63
4.36
3.67
3.23
2.93
2.71
2.54

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

4.84
4.75
4.67
4.60
4.54
4.49
4.45
4.41
4.38
4.35

3.98
3.89
3.81
3.74
3.68
3.63
3.59
3.55
3.52
3.49

3.59
3.49
3.41
3.34
3.29
3.24
3.20
3.16
3.13
3.10

3.36
3.26
3.18
3.11
3.06
3.01
2.96
2.93
2.90
2.87

3.20
3.11
3.03
2.96
2.90
2.85
2.81
2.77
2.74
2.71

3.09
3.00
2.92
2.85
2.79
2.74
2.70
2.66
2.63
2.60

3.01
2.91
2.83
2.76
2.71
2.66
2.61
2.58
2.54
2.51

2.95
2.85
2.77
2.70
2.64
2.59
2.55
2.51
2.48
2.45

2.90
2.80
2.71
2.65
2.59
2.54
2.49
2.46
2.42
2.39

2.85
2.75
2.67
2.60
2.54
2.49
2.45
2.41
2.38
2.35

2.40
2.30
2.21
2.13
2.07
2.01
1.96
1.92
1.88
1.84

df 2

21

4.32

3.47

3.07

2.84

2.68

2.57

2.49

2.42

2.37

2.32

1.81

22

4.30

3.44

3.05

2.82

2.66

2.55

2.46

2.40

2.34

2.30

1.78

23

4.28

3.42

3.03

2.80

2.64

2.53

2.44

2.37

2.32

2.27

1.76

24

4.26

3.40

3.01

2.78

2.62

2.51

2.42

2.36

2.30

2.25

1.73

25

4.24

3.39

2.99

2.76

2.60

2.49

2.40

2.34

2.28

2.24

1.71

26

4.23

3.37

2.98

2.74

2.59

2.47

2.39

2.32

2.27

2.22

1.69
1.67

27

4.21

3.35

2.96

2.73

2.57

2.46

2.37

2.31

2.25

2.20

28

4.20

3.34

2.95

2.71

2.56

2.45

2.36

2.29

2.24

2.19

1.65

29

4.18

3.33

2.93

2.70

2.55

2.43

2.35

2.28

2.22

2.18

1.64

30

4.17

3.32

2.92

2.69

2.53

2.42

2.33

2.27

2.21

2.16

1.62

3.84

3.00

2.60

2.37

2.21

2.10

2.01

1.94

1.88

1.83

1.00

Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved

For more information, call 1-800-238-1512 or visit us online at videoaidedinstruction.com.

In this program, Dr. Levine uses a table of the F Distribution like that shown below.
For a particular combination of numerator degrees of freedom df 1 and denominator
degrees of freedom df 1, each entry in this table represents the critical values of F
corresponding to an upper-tail area equal to 0.05.

20
This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

TABLE 4A Critical Values of F

7.60

Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved


7.56
6.63

30

4.61

5.39

5.42

5.45

5.49

5.53

5.57

5.61

5.66

5.72

5.78

3.78

4.51

4.54

4.57

4.60

4.64

4.68

4.72

4.76

4.82

4.87

6.22
5.95
5.74
5.56
5.42
5.29
5.18
5.09
5.01
4.94

3.32

4.02

4.04

4.07

4.11

4.14

4.18

4.22

4.26

4.31

4.37

5.67
5.41
5.21
5.04
4.89
4.77
4.67
4.58
4.50
4.43

5,625.00
99.25
28.71
15.98
11.39
9.15
7.85
7.01
6.42
5.99

3.02

3.70

3.73

3.75

3.78

3.82

3.85

3.90

3.94

3.99

4.04

5.32
5.06
4.86
4.69
4.56
4.44
4.34
4.25
4.17
4.10

5,764.00
99.30
28.24
15.52
10.97
8.75
7.46
6.63
6.06
5.64

3.41
3.36

4.89
4.64
4.44
4.28
4.14
4.03
3.93
3.84
3.77
3.70
3.64
3.59
3.54

5.07
4.82
4.62
4.46
4.32
4.20
4.10
4.01
3.94
3.87
3.81
3.76
3.71

3.26
3.23

3.42
3.39
3.36
3.33
3.30
2.64

3.59
3.56
3.53
3.50
3.47
2.80

2.41

3.07

3.09

3.12

3.15

3.18

3.22

3.26

3.30

3.35

3.40

4.63
4.39
4.19
4.03
3.89
3.78
3.68
3.60
3.52
3.46

6,022.00
99.39
27.35
14.66
10.16
7.98
6.72
5.91
5.35
4.94

2.32

2.98

3.00

3.03

3.06

3.09

3.13

3.17

3.21

3.26

3.31

4.54
4.30
4.10
3.94
3.80
3.69
3.59
3.51
3.43
3.37

6,056.00
99.40
27.23
14.55
10.05
7.87
6.62
5.81
5.26
4.85

10

1.00

2.01

2.03

2.06

2.10

2.13

2.17

2.21

2.26

2.31

2.36

3.60
3.36
3.17
3.00
2.87
2.75
2.65
2.57
2.49
2.42

6,366.00
99.50
26.13
13.46
9.02
6.88
5.65
4.86
4.31
3.91

For more information, call 1-800-238-1512 or visit us online at videoaidedinstruction.com.

2.51

3.17

3.20

3.29

3.32

3.50
3.46

3.67
3.63

3.45

3.51

4.74
4.50
4.30
4.14
4.00
3.89
3.79
3.71
3.63
3.56

5,982.00
99.37
27.49
14.80
10.29
8.10
6.84
6.03
5.47
5.06

5,928.00
99.36
27.67
14.98
10.46
8.26
6.99
6.18
5.61
5.20

5,859.00
99.33
27.91
15.21
10.67
8.47
7.19
6.37
5.80
5.39

1 = 0.99

This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

7.64

7.77

25

29

7.82

24

28

7.88

23

7.72

7.95

7.68

8.02

21

22

7.21
6.93
6.70
6.51
6.36
6.23
6.11
6.01
5.93
5.85

5,403.00
99.17
29.46
16.69
12.06
9.78
8.45
7.59
6.99
6.55

In this program, Dr. Levine uses a table of the F Distribution like that shown below.
For a particular combination of numerator degrees of freedom df 1 and denominator
degrees of freedom df 1, each entry in this table represents the critical values of F
corresponding to an upper-tail area equal to 0.01.

27

9.65
9.33
9.07
8.86
8.68
8.53
8.40
8.29
8.18
8.10

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

4,999.50
99.00
30.82
18.00
13.27
10.92
9.55
8.65
8.02
7.56

TABLE 4B Critical Values of F

26

4,052.00
98.50
34.12
21.20
16.26
13.75
12.25
11.26
10.56
10.04

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

df 2

df1

Statistics Study Guide

(where = 0.01)
= 0.01

21