You are on page 1of 230

Extended Techniques for Saxophone

An Approach Through Musical Examples


by
Patrick Murphy

A Research Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment


of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Musical Arts

Approved March 2013 by the


Graduate Supervisory Committee:
Gary Hill, Chair
Robert Spring
Timothy McAllister
Albie Micklich
James DeMars

ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY


May 2013

ABSTRACT
The repertoire of the saxophone has advanced significantly since its invention
circa 1840. Performers are required to adapt to the demands of composers - many of
whom are exploring new and unconventional sounds and techniques. Numerous texts
exist to identify and explain these so-called "extended" techniques, but there are very few
resources for the initial stages of performance.
In order to offer performers a resource, the author of this text composed forty
original etudes (or studies) that incorporate extended techniques in a variety of ways.
After identifying common extended techniques that a performer might face, the author
focused on four different ways each individual technique might appear in actual
repertoire. The resulting work is entitled Pushing Boundaries: Forty Etudes on
Extended Techniques.
Each etude offers a practical approach to what is generally a single extended
technique. Although this text is not pedagogical in the sense of identifying the mechanics
and anatomical requirements of each technique, it does contain a performance analysis
of each etude. This analysis identifies areas where performers might struggle and offers
helpful suggestions. To this end, the etudes accompanied by performance analysis
provide a paced, systematic approach to the mastery of each technique.

DEDICATION
I wish to dedicate this work to my beautiful niece, Nora Grace Estes, born
February 9, 2013. Mnohaja y blahaja lita!

ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to give a very special acknowledgement to all of the members of my
committee: Gary Hill, Timothy McAllister, Robert Spring, Albie Micklich, and James
DeMars. They have been a constant source of support and encouragement, not only
during these final stages of my degree, but since my entry into Arizona State University. I
would like to give a very special to Gary Hill for having stepped in as my committee
chairman and assisting me navigate the complicated waters of the doctorate.
I must give a very special thanks to Timothy McAllister. He has served as my
mentor and role model and has always believed in me even when I did not necessarily
give him good reason.
Finally, to my parents, Patrick and Eileen Murphy, without whom I would never
have been able to embark upon this journey, my eternal gratitude and love.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................................... vi
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................. vii
CHAPTER
1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 1
What are Extended Techniques? .................................................................. 4
Justification...................................................................................................... 5
Limitations and Assumptions ........................................................................ 6
2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND REPERTOIRE ............................ 7
Voicing and Altissimo ..................................................................................... 8
Circular Breathing .......................................................................................... 12
Double Tongue ................................................................................................ 13
Microtones ...................................................................................................... 15
Timbre and Bisbigliando ............................................................................... 16
Multiphonics .................................................................................................. 18
Slap Tongue.................................................................................................... 20
Vocalization .................................................................................................... 21
3 A PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF PUSHING BOUNDARIES: 40 ETUDES
ON EXTENDED TECHNIQUES BY PATRICK MURPHY ......................... 23
Etudes 1-4: Voicing ....................................................................................... 26
Etudes 5-8: Beginning Altissimo ................................................................. 33
Etudes 9-12: Circular Breathing ................................................................... 36
Etudes 13-16: Double Tongue ...................................................................... 39
iv

CHAPTER

Page
Etudes 17-20: Microtones ............................................................................. 41
Etudes 21-24: Timbre and Bisbigliando ...................................................... 44
Etudes 25-28: Multiphonics ......................................................................... 46
Etudes 29-32: Slap Tongue .......................................................................... 48
Etudes 33-36: Furthering Altissimo ............................................................. 51
Etudes 37-40: Vocalizing .............................................................................. 53

4 CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSING REMARKS ................................................... 56


References .............................................................................................................................. 57
Appendix
A

SAXOPHONE FINGERING CHART ............................................................. 60

PUSHING BOUNDARIES: FORTY ETUDES IN EXTENDED

TECHNIQUES BY PATRICK MURPHY................................................................. 62


Biographical Sketch ............................................................................................................. 223

LIST OF TABLES
Table

Page
1.

Selected Extended Techniques ............................................................................ 5

2.

First Level of Multiphonics ................................................................................ 19

3.

Etude Units with Stated Usage(s) .................................................................... 24

4.

Tone Row Matrix for Etude #30 ...................................................................... 50

vi

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure

Page

1.

Overtone Series ................................................................................................... 27

2.

Etude #1: Voicing (mm. 1-8) ............................................................................. 28

3.

Etude #1: Voicing (mm. 57-64) ......................................................................... 29

4.

Etude #2: Voicing (Czech) (mm. 1-17) .............................................................. 31

5.

Etude #4: Voicing (mm. 1-3) ............................................................................. 32

6.

Etude #5: Beginning Altissimo (mm. 19-24) .................................................... 34

7.

Etude #8: Voicing (mm. 15-17) .......................................................................... 36

8.

Etude #9: Circular breathing (mm. 1-9) ........................................................... 38

9.

Etude #13: Double Tongue (mm. 1-6)............................................................... 40

10.

Etude # 16: Double Tongue (mm. 5-6) ............................................................. 41

11.

Microtone Notation System ............................................................................... 41

12.

Etude # 17: Microtones (mm. 1-4) ................................................................... 42

13.

Etude #19: Voicing (mm. 7-10) ........................................................................ 43

14.

Etude # 21: Timbre and Bisbigliando (mm. 3-6) ............................................ 44

15.

Etude #23: Timbre and Bisbigliando (mm. 5-8) ............................................ 45

16.

Etude #28 (mm. 5-6) ....................................................................................... 48

17.

Etude #32: Slap Tongue (mm. 5-14) ................................................................ 51

18.

Etude #35: Furthering Altissimo (mm. 14-18) ............................................ 52

19.

Etude #36 (mm. 1-3) ........................................................................................ 53

20.

Etude # 37: Vocalizing (mm. 4-9) .................................................................... 54

21.

Etude #39: Vocalizing (mm. 12-17) ................................................................. 55

vii

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
As the repertoire for the saxophone evolves, performers face challenges that
simply were not applicable as little as thirty years ago. The current generation of
saxophonists encounters repertoire that contains a wide variety of sounds, timbres, and
techniques. While the repertoire has certainly advanced to include these so-called
extended techniques, the pedagogy is somewhat one-sided: there are several existing
texts that describe and document extended techniques, but few that apply them
practically.
Florentine composer and researcher Bruno Bartolozzi is the author of the earliest
work on extended techniques for woodwind instruments. His book New Sounds for
Woodwind is a defense of traditional instrumentation. He challenges the notion that
conventional instruments (in this case woodwinds) reached an impasse regarding
advanced and unusual sonorities.1 Unfortunately, the saxophone does not appear in
Bartolozzis text; his focus is on flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon.
The earliest useful discussion of the extended capabilities of the saxophone is
Jean-Marie Londeixs Hello! Mr. Sax or Parameters of the Saxophone.2 This text is a
valuable survey of the variety of sounds and styles available on the saxophone. It is a text
that is of equal importance to the performer and composer. For all its strengths, Hello?
Mr. Sax does not contain any studies for the performer. Rather, it points the performer

Bruno Bartolozzi, New Sounds for Woodwind, ed. and trans. Reginald Smith Brindle
(London: Oxford University Press, 1967) 1-2.
1

Jean-Marie Londeix, Hello! Mr. Sax or Parameters of the Saxophone (Paris: Alphonse
Leduc & Cie., 1989).
2

in the direction of repertoire to examine.3 This is not to be regarded as a weakness of the


text: Londeix makes no claims that it is a complete pedagogical work it is merely a
description of what is available.4 For twenty-one years, saxophonists and composers
relied primarily on this document for guidance, instruction, and advice. In 2010, a
slightly more expansive alternative to Londeixs work appeared.
Saxophonist Marcus Weiss and composer Giorgio Netti are co-authors of the
work The Techniques of Saxophone Playing.5 This document, while similar to Londeixs,
includes more discussion and helpful, practical advice. Again, this text is extremely
useful for saxophonists and composers alike though, much the Londeixs, it is a
presentation, perhaps an exposition, of possibilities available on the saxophone.6
A third available text is Jean-Denis Michats Un Saxophone Contemporain.7 An
expository text similar to both Londeix and Weiss and Netti, Michats work differs in a
few respects, notably by delving further pedagogical discussion and introducing
practicing techniques. Other differences include basic anatomical diagrams and very
simple exercises for the saxophonist. An unfortunate limitation of this work is the lack of
translation: it is currently only available in the original French.
Combined, these three documents provide excellent discussion of the available
advanced techniques for the saxophone. Along with the Bartolozzi, they demonstrate a
history of extended techniques in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. A common

Ibid., 103-111. Although this represents only a small portion of Londeixs text, it is a
rather fantastic overview of repertoire up to the date of publication.
3

Ibid., 1-2.

Marcus Weiss and Giorgio Netti, The Techniques of Saxophone Playing (Kassel,
Germany: Brenreiter, 2010).
5

Ibid., 7.

Jean-Denis Michat, Un Saxophone Contemporain (Paris, www.jdmichat.com, 2010).


2

thread among the works, however, is a general lack of exercises or studies the performer
can apply to his or her instrument. Surely, these works are most useful in combination
with traditional etudes.
There are particularly influential collections of etudes available for saxophonists
wanting to familiarize themselves with extended techniques. These works are quite
broad in their approach to extended techniques perhaps too broad. Ronald Caravans
works Paradigms I8 and Paradigms II9, both written for alto saxophone, might be
among the first etudes focusing on extended techniques. These spectacular pieces
explore numerous techniques, including: quarter tones, timbre variations, multiphonics,
vibrato manipulation, flutter tongue, and slap tongue amongst other techniques. In both
cases, Caravan considers these works concert etudes, pieces intended for performance.
Additionally, these works combine a number of extended techniques in a single etude:
the first etude of Paradigms I includes vibrato manipulation, timbre shifts, and
quartertones.10
Christian Lauba also composed etudes exploring extended techniques. His Neuf
tudes (with volumes for alto, soprano, tenor, and baritone saxophones) are landmark
works that examine circular breathing, multiphonics, slap tongue, sub-tone, key sounds,
and other sonorities.11 Laubas works, also considered concert etudes, adopt a similarly

!
Ronald Caravan, Paradigms I (Medfield, PA: Dorn Publications, 1976). Ronald
Caravan, Paradigms II (Medfield, PA: Dorn Publications, 1988).
9

10

Ronald Caravan, Ballad in Color from Paradigms I.

11

Christian Lauba, Neuf tudes, vol. 1-4 (Paris: Alphonse Leduc & Cie, 1992-1994).
3

expansive approach of combining multiple techniques into a single piece: His first etude,
Balafon is an exercise in sub tone, multiphonics, and circular breathing.12

What are Extended Techniques?


At this point, it is perhaps wise to discuss the definition of extended techniques.
Extended techniques is a term that refers to any sounds, colors, or performance
requirements that explore beyond the standard parameters of the instrument. A partial
listing of available extended techniques is available on the next page. See Table 1.
These techniques are not necessarily new to saxophone performance; ample
documentation exists of vaudeville-era artists using exotic styles of playing and tone
colors.13 Several extended techniques (including altissimo) date back to Adolphe Sax, the
inventor of the saxophone himself.14 Furthermore, many of these techniques pre-date the
invention of the saxophone. A technique nearly identical to voicing, for example, can be
found amongst the Tuvan people of what is modern-day Russia and Mongolia.15 Arabic
music frequently contains microtonality in the maqam or modes of pitches.16 Many
techniques, however, are relatively new to concert saxophone music.

Christian Lauba, Balafon from Neuf Etudes, vol. 1 (Paris: Alphonse Leduc & Cie.,
1992).
12

Bruce Vermazen, The Six Brown Brothers and the Dawning of a Musical Craze
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 64.
13

14!Thomas

Liley, Invention and Development, in The Cambridge Companion to the


Saxophone, ed. Richard Ingram (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 15.
Theodore Levin and Michael E. Edgerton, The Throat Singers of Tuva, in Scientific
American (September 20, 1999), http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=
the-throat-singers-of-tuv&page=2 (accessed March 10, 2013).
15

Johanna Spector, Classical Ud Music in Egypt with Special Reference to Maqamat,


in Ethnomusicology, vol. 14, no. 2 (May, 1970), 243-244.
4
16

Table 1
Selected Extended Techniques
Technique
Altissimo

Parameter
Range

Extension
Notes above the standard written range (F6)

Circular Breathing

Breathing

Cyclical breathing producing continuous


sound

Double Tongue

Articulation

Use of the front and back of the tongue to


ostensibly double the available rate of
articulation

Microtones

Pitch

Includes tones in between semitones

Timbre Shifts

Tone color

Adds to the available palate of sonorities


available on the instrument

Multiphonics

Pitch

Allows for two or more simultaneous


pitches to sound on what is otherwise a
monophonic instrument

Slap Tongue

Articulation

Adds to the available palate of sonorities


available on note-beginnings

Vocalizing

Breathing/Pitch

Allows for polyphony on what is otherwise


a monophonic instrument

Justification
There is no lack of etude books available to saxophonists. As demonstrated above,
there is also ample resource for the discussion of extended techniques. Furthermore,
there are several examples of works that include these techniques. The author is entirely
unaware of non-concert etudes that are purely pedagogical (yet still musically satisfying)
in their approach to extended techniques.
This document consists of two parts: exposition and development. The exposition
is the basic review of available literature on extended techniques. The texts mentioned
above, in addition to other specialized documents, form the core of this section. The
development is a discussion of original etudes entitled Pushing Boundaries: 40 Etudes
5

on Extended Techniques by Patrick Murphy (see appendix C). These etudes tackle
selected extended techniques directly. Each technique is approached in four different
and unique manners that offer the performer multiple styles and methods to learn these
techniques.

Limitations and Assumptions


Pushing Boundaries: 40 Etudes on Extended Techniques by Patrick Murphy
limits itself by focusing on only a few techniques, namely: voicing, beginning altissimo,
circular breathing, double tongue, microtones, timbre shifts and bisbigliando,
multiphonics, slap tongue, furthering altissimo, and vocalization. A second limitation is
that they do not include descriptions on how to accomplish each technique; this is
beyond the intended scope of this work.
In composing these works, the author consciously assumed several facts. The first
assumption is that the performer has had success at a basic level with each extended
technique. These are not quite beginning studies, rather, they are to be attempted as a
step in the perfection of each technique. A second assumption is that the performer is
under the guidance of a competent instructor. These etudes can be approached without
assistance, but one will have more success with an instructor experienced in advanced
techniques. Finally, this work is one intended for performance on the alto saxophone.
Many of the etudes translate well to other instruments in the saxophone family (perhaps
even the woodwind family as well). Some etudes, especially those with special fingerings
for specific multiphonics or microtones, require significant adjustment before they can
be performed on other instruments.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND REPERTOIRE
Literature on the saxophones extended techniques can be traced back as early as
the publication of Henri Webers Sax-Acrobatix in 1926.17 Since this publication, many
other texts have become available. Some of these texts were intended solely for the sake
of the performer (i.e. pedagogical documents) while some also proved valuable for
composers. While this document will focus on texts in the classical tradition, it would
be a mistake to ignore those dealing jazz or popular music.
Weber devoted this text to the jazz and popular saxophonist.18 It is by no stretch
of the imagination that Weber found inspiration from vaudeville star Rudy Wiedoeft:
topics in the Webers book correspond with those identified by Thomas Liley as being
key characteristics of Wiedoefts technique.19 What exists of this book is an invaluable
historical and practical resource. Unfortunately, at the time of writing this document, a
full copy of Sax-Acrobatix has yet to be found: a few excerpts are available on several
web pages.20
Topics presented below form the basis of Pushing Boundaries: 40 Etudes in
Extended Techniques. (See Appendix B) Although many other techniques exist, the
author of this document chooses to highlight nine specifically because of either their
widespread presence in saxophone literature, or their pedagogical importance.
Henri Weber, Sax-Acrobatix: The Book of Saxophone Stunts and Tricks (New York:
Belwin, Inc., 1926). http://tamingthesaxophone.com/saxophone-effects.html (accessed
January 12, 2013).
17

18

Ibid.

Thomas Liley, The Repertoire Heritage, in The Cambridge Companion to the


Saxophone, ed. Richard Ingham (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 54.
These include pitch bends, laughing into the horn, and slap tongue.
19

N.B., The author of this text recalls obtaining a copy of Sax-Acrobatix in 2004, but it
has since been lost.
7
20

Voicing and Altissimo


In his text, Voicing: An Approach to the Saxophones Third Register, Donald
Sinta states, Voicing refers to an awareness and control of the muscles and soft flexible
tissue in the oral cavity and vocal tract.21 Sintas text, arguably the most complete work
for voicing study on the saxophone, consists of exercises primarily based on overtone
production. Though he acknowledges that voicing, in and of itself, is a preliminary
process, Sinta indicates the importance of its study quite succinctly:
Voicing study is intended as a training procedure, not as a technical skill directly
applicable to normal saxophone performance. The benefits of a study of this kind
are not limited to the acquisition of altissimo and daily practice is recommended
for even the most advanced players. The skills acquired through the study of
voicing will undoubtedly aid the saxophonist in improving tone quality,
intonation, and overall control of the instrument.22
Thus, voicing appears to be a means to an end.
Voicing can simply be described as the manipulation of the oral cavity,
specifically the soft tissue, when performing. It is a technique that is not unique to the
saxophone the pronunciation of vowels in everyday speech requires the use of the same
muscles. Applying voicing to the saxophone allows for manipulation of tone color,
control of intonation, and ease in the altissimo register.
While several authors refer to the oral cavity and the manipulation thereof, their
focuses tend to be in the context of altissimo production. Rosemary Langs
recommended techniques for altissimo production include such steps as, Maintain an
arch in the tongue, but keep the arch high, -- near the roof of the mouth, with additional
steps including, Maintain a large vacant area behind the teeth and in front of the
Donald J. Sinta and Denise C. Dabney, Voicing: An Approach to the Saxophones
Third Register (Radford, Virginia: Sintafest, 1992), 2.
21

22

Ibid., 3.
8

tongue, and, Think the sound urr silently while blowing.23 Her text does not
acknowledge any other use of this technique.
Eugene Rousseaus Saxophone High Tones, first published in 1978 and
republished in 2002, makes reference to air-stream direction and air pressure, though
there is little mention of tongue position.24 In spite of this, Rousseaus Closed Tube
Exercises25 are quite similar to the introductory exercises presented in Sintas text.26
Sigurd Raschrs work, Top-Tones for Saxophone, includes a reference to the importance
of overtone study (along with exercises) without a full discussion of oral cavity
awareness.27
Voicing serves as a good jumping point into the extended range of the saxophone.
As one searches through the history of the saxophone, the exact performance range on
the instrument is subject to debate; historical texts and conjecture differ. Berlioz, in his
seminal work A Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration, indicates the
range as a written B3 to F6.28 Curiously, Thomas Liley suggests that Berlioz heard
Adolphe Sax himself perform notes higher than F6:

Rosemary Lang, Beginning Studies in the Altissimo Register (Indianapolis: Lang


Music Publication, 1988), i.
23

Eugene Rousseau, Saxophone High Tones, 2nd ed. (Saint Louis: MMB Music, Inc.,
2002), 1-2.
24

25

Ibid., 2-7

26

Sinta and Dabney, Voicing: An Approach to the Saxophones Third Register, 11-32.

27

Sigurd Raschr, Top-Tones for Saxophone, 3rd. ed. (New York: Carl Fischer, 1977), 12.

Hector Berlioz, A Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration, Ed. Joseph


Bennett, Trans. Mary Cowden Clarke (London: Novello and Company, Limited, 1882),
233. It is important to note that Berlioz included the range of six saxophones: high or
sopranino, soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, and bass. The range of B3 to F6 corresponds
only to the alto, tenor, and baritone saxophones. While B3 is given as the standard
written lowest note, sopranino and soprano are indicated as having an upper extreme of
D6. Bass is defined with a slightly wider range of written B3 to E-flat6.
9
28

We have no reason to doubt that Berlioz (and others) heard a three-octave


compass from Sax, but apparently the upper range was infrequently used, and
remained so for several decades. Sax assisted Kastner in creating his Mthode
complete et raisonne de saxophone, the first saxophone method book, published
in 1845 The book, 142 pages in length, presents fingerings for a written range of
b to f3. Not until the third decade of the twentieth century did the topic reappear
in method books and pamphlets by writers such as Bolduc, Eby, Lyon, and
Winn.29
A brief review of Paul DeVilles Universal Method for Saxophone (one of the
earlier saxophone methods published in America) confirms a dearth of notes higher than
F6. DeVille introduces the Auxiliary-F key and includes exercises employing that key,30
yet, there is no evidence of any further range extension. Bruce Ronkin sheds some light
on the lack of documentation of high notes:
The upper range [of the saxophone], called the altissimo register, is identical, in
theory, to the upper register of the flute or clarinet. However, owing to the nature
of saxophone construction, these upper partials are considerably more
challenging to produce than their clarinet or flute equivalents. Being an expert
acoustician and clarinetist, Sax was obviously aware that the saxophone was
capable of producing tones above high F [F6]
Although these high notes are not notated in any of the Sax publications, it is
possible that Sax taught altissimo notes to his more advanced student.31
It was not until 1941 that Raschr published the first edition of Top-Tones for
Saxophone one of the earliest texts devoted to notes above F6 (hereafter referred to as
altissimo). Several texts, already referenced in this document, followed. Works, notably
those commissions by Sigurd Raschr, began to employ notes in the altissimo register.
As the altissimo range gained popularity, pedagogies developed. Raschrs Top Tones

Thomas Liley, Invention and Development, in The Cambridge Companion to the


Saxophone, ed. Richard Ingram (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 15.
Lileys pitch indications of b and f3 correspond to B3 and F6.
29

30

Paul DeVille, Universal Method for Saxophone (New York: Carl Fischer, 1908), 91-92.

Bruce Ronkin, The Music for Saxophone and Piano Published by Adolphe Sax,
D.M.A. diss., The University of Maryland (1987), 61-62.
31

10

favored an approach based on the fundamental fingers.32 Sinta and Rousseaus texts
betray an approach based on a combination of fundamental fingerings along with
invented altissimo fingerings.33 In France, Jean-Marie Londeix credits Donald Sinta for
providing an introduction to the altissimo range. Londeix altered the French approach to
altissimo from that of relative indifference to compulsory. Based largely on his own
invented fingering system, Londeixs pedagogy thrives.34
Altissimo began to be explored in significant detail beginning with the
commissions by Sigurd Raschr. Works such as Ballade by Frank Martin, Concerto by
Ingolf Dahl, Konsert by Lars-Erik Larsson, and, perhaps notoriously, Concertino da
Camera by Jacques Ibert35 delve greatly into the altissimo register largely by Raschrs
request.36 It is because of Rascher that altissimo became accepted by composers and
saxophonists alike.37

32

Raschr, Top-Tones for Saxophone, 19.

Both authors include fingering charts of their own inventions (Sinta, 60-65; and
Rousseau 37-46) but Sintas text devotes significantly more time to overtone study (47
pages as opposed to Rousseau 4 pages).
33

James Umble, Jean-Marie Londeix: Master of the Modern Saxophone (Cherry Hill,
NJ: Roncorp Publications, 2000), 123.
34

Frank Martin, Ballade (Vienna: Universal Press, 1938). Ingolf Dahl, Concerto, ed.
Harvey Pittel (New York: European American Music Corporation, 1979). Lars-Erik
Larsson, Konsert (Stockholm: Carl Gehrmans, 1931). Jacques Ibert, Concertino da
Camera (Paris: Alphonse Leduc & Cie, 1935).
35

36

Raschr, Top-Tones for Saxophone, 19.

Thomas Dryer-Beers, Influential Soloists, in The Cambridge Companion to the


Saxophone, ed. Richard Ingram (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 42.
37

11

Circular Breathing
The art of circular breathing is one that can be traced through many cultures.
Vladimir Machmarchik points to evidence of ancient Greeks using the technique while
performing on the aulos.38 His description of the technique, while brief, is a valuable
general resource for instrumentalists.39
Jean-Marie Londeix devotes only a brief space to the discussion of circular
breathing a mere three paragraphs in his brilliant Hello! Mr. Sax.40 The work was
published prior to volume one of Christian Laubas cycle Neuf Etudes a works with
dedications to Londeix that features circular breathing as a major component.41 A second
edition might be appropriate.
Another text with a better definition of circular breather, as it applies to the
saxophone, is that by Jean-Denis Michat.
La respiration circulaire ou respiration continue est une technique
permettant de prolonger la dure naturelle d'expiration. Elle utilise les joues
comme un ballon de baudruche se vidant pour prendre le relais de l'expiration
pulmonaire. Pendant ce temps, une inspiration nasale (ou plusieurs) permet de
ravitailler les poumons de l'instrumentiste. 42
Circular breathing or continuous breathing is a technique that allows for the
prolonging of the natural exhalation. The cheeks are inflated like balloons to take
the place of pulmonary exhalation. At the same time, breathing in through the
nose (nasal inhalation) can provide air to the lungs of the instrumentalist.43

Vladimir Kachmarchik, Some Mysteries of Ancient Greek Aulets, The Journal of the
International Double Reed Society, no. 22 (July, 1994), http://www.idrs.org/
publications/hcontrolled/DR/JNL22/JNL22.Kachmarchik.html (accessed January 12,
2013).
38

39

Ibid.

40

Londeix, Hello! Mr. Sax, or Parameters of the Saxophone, 82.

41

Christian Lauba, Neuf tudes, vol. 1-4 (Paris: Alphonse Leduc & Cie, 1988-1994).

42

Michat, Un Saxophone Contemporain, 30.

43

N.B., Translation was completed by the author of this paper.


12

Michat provides five exercises, four of which are to be done without instrument.44
It is in America that the most detailed text, as it applies to wind instrument
performers can be found. Trent Kynastons Circular Breathing for the Wind Performer
details the art and act of circular breathing and provides numerous exercises for
perfecting the technique.45 Kynaston does not identify works that specifically employ
circular breathing, though he does make that curious assertion that the wind performer
can now approach the musical phrase as do all other instrumentalist, and not be bound
by a single breath.46 The author of this paper is uncertain of the implications of that
sentence. Perhaps it is a poor choice of words, but it does, on the surface, appear rather
disparaging towards wind instrumentalists and their music.
Circular breathing can be applied to any music. It is in the authors experience
that simple pieces (e.g., folk songs, popular tunes, hymn tunes) work well for practicing
the technique. The first works with the explicit instructions of circular breathing are the
compositions of Christian Lauba.47

Double-Tongue
Although the scope of Pushing Boundaries is double-tonguing, perhaps a better
term to use is multiple tonguing. Multiple tonguing refers to the technique of rapid
articulation using both the anterior and posterior of the tongue in alternation. This is
analogous to vocalizing t-k-t-k or d-g-d-g. There are many ways to achieve multiple

44

Ibid., 30-31.

Trent Kynaston, Circular Breathing for the Wind Performer (Van Nuys, CA: Alfred
Publishing Co., Inc.), Kindle edition.
45

46

Ibid., postlude

47

Christian Lauba, Neuf tudes, vol. 1.


13

tongue (tah-kah, dah-gah, tuh-kit, and duh-git are among the authors favorites) and
Joshua Gardner gives an excellent account and study of efficiency.48
Saxophone literature contains relatively little information regarding this
technique. Larry Teal, in The Art of Saxophone Playing, references it only briefly,49
Marcus Weiss and Giorgio Netti devote only two passages to it,50 and Londeix doesnt
mention it at all.51 The most valuable resource is probably Jean-Denis Michat.
Michats text emphasizes the importance of multiple styles of double-tongue: dg-d-g for the middle range (G4 to C6), t-k-t-k for the lower range (below G4), and dy-d-y for the upper range (above C6).52 Regarding the upper register, Michat points to
excessive tongue movement as a risk for tonal stability.53
The author of this text can find few compositions in which the technique of
double/multiple tonguing is mandated. The use of double tongue tends to be at the
discretion of the performer in relation to his or her own strengths and weaknesses. A
performer who lacks the ability to single-tongue at a high speed might find doubletonguing a viable alternative.

Joshua Gardner, Ultrasonic Investigation of Clarinet Multiple Articulation, D.M.A.


diss., Arizona State University (2010).
48

Larry Teal, The Art of Saxophone Playing (Secaucus, NJ: Summy-Birchard, 1963), 8586.
49

50

Marcus Weiss and Giorgio Netti, The Techniques of Saxophone Playing,141.

51

Londeix, Hello! Mr. Sax or Parameter of the Saxophone.

52

Michat, Un Saxophon Contemporain, 32-33.

Ibid., 33. It should be noted that the muscular movement involved in double tongue is
remarkably similar to that of voicing. In such a high range, excessive tongue will result in
a pitch bend or other similar distortion.
14
53

Microtones
Although microtonality is a feature of much of todays world music, this
discussion will encompass only western classical usage of the twentieth century. Under
this parameter, microtones are pitches that fall acoustically between semitones.
Accomplishing microtones generally requires the adoption of alternate fingerings for
pitches. One method used for achieving a microtone is performing a pitch and then
pressing, or raising, a non-essential key. It is fortunate that there is an ample discussion
of microtones in several sources. These are almost all accompanied by fingering charts.
Marcus Weiss and Giorgio Netti offer detailed explanation of the process of
producing microtones. Their advice applies equally to both performers and composers.
Additionally, they present complete microtonal fingering charts for soprano, alto, tenor
and baritone saxophones. These charts divide into eighth, quarter, and half (semi) tones.
The charts also contain helpful indications of dynamic limitations due to mechanical
properties of the instrument.54
Londeix devotes a large portion of his text to microtones, as well. He offers no
advice or discussion but, while his charts are limited to quartertones, they include
fingerings for bass and sopranino saxophone. He makes passing mention of third- and
fifth-tones, but this is only in regards to the limitations of saxophone construction.55
Jean-Denis Michat also includes substantial information on microtones in
addition to a very generalized fingering chart. He offers a few exercises, but these again
are very general. Interestingly, Michat employs a notation system similar to that found in
Pushing Boundaries.56

54

Weiss and Netti, The Techniques of Saxophone Playing, 15-32.

55

Londeix, Hello! Mar Sax or Parameter of the Saxophone, 24-30.

56

Michat, Un Saxophone Contemporain, 42-43.


15

It is generally accepted that Alois Hba is the first western composer to employ
microtones regularly in his works.57 Among the saxophone repertoire is a work by Haba,
entitled Partita, which exploits microtonality to great effect.58 In a similar vein, Sander
Germanus Microphobia relies entirely on microtones.59 In terms of chamber music, two
of the most notable works employing microtones are Iannis Xenakis XAS60 and Martin
Bresnicks Every Thing Must Go.61 Luis Nans Alto Voltango is another fantastic duet
with vibraphone that expertly combines the shimmering microtonal intervals between
the saxophone and vibes.62 Historically, uncertainty exists over whether works prior to
the publication of Hbas use microtonality on the saxophone.

Timbre and Bisbigliando


The saxophone displays great capability in generating many different tone colors
(timbres). Many of these can be accomplished by shifting the embouchure or throat
muscles. Other times, by use of specialized fingerings, different timbres can be produced.
With regards to fingerings, there are generally two ways of accomplishing a
timbre change on the saxophone. The first method is similar to microtone production:
perform a pitch while lowering, or raising, a non-essential key. It is not uncommon for

Jiri Vyzlouzil, A Note on Alois Hba, The Musical Times, vol. 114, no. 1564 (June,
1973), 590-592.
57

58

Alois Haba, Partita (London: Faber Music, Ltd., 1968).

59

Sander Germanus, Microphobia (Amsterdam: Donemus, 2005).

!
60

Iannis Xenakis, Xas (Paris: Editions Salabert, 1987).

Martin Bresnick, Every Thing Must Go (New York: Carl Fischer, Inc., 2007).
Bresnicks use of microtones is to correct pitches from equal temperament to just
temperament.
61

62

Luis Nan, Alto voltango (Paris: Henri Lemoine, 1999).!


16

timbre fingering and microtone fingerings to overlap. A second method is by voicing


overtones off a low fundamental fingering.
Londeix and Netti offer very differing accounts of timbre. Londeix speaks of
timbre changes primarily as adjustments of the embouchure. He does devote quite some
time to bisbigliando (that is, timbre trills) but this is a section of the book distinct from
timbre.63 His approach in timbre describes the ideal sound of the saxophone and the
general capabilities of the instrument. Netti on the other hand treats timbre and
bisbigliando as a single entity. His method relies entirely on alternate fingerings. The
approach that Netti offers is significantly more technical than Londeixs. Whereas
Londeix gives a general discussion of ideal saxophone timbre, Netti deals entirely with
the mechanics of the instrument. Michat, surprisingly, is silent on the topic.
Saxophonists will encounter several works that employ timbre shifts and
bisbigliando. William Albrights Sonata uses this technique is a very limited fashion.64
Luciano Berio also uses timbre shifts in both of his saxophone Sequenzas.65 A notable
early study (early in both the sense that it is an earlier work and a work appropriate for
students early in their studies of extended techniques) in timbre shifts is located in
Ronald Caravans Paradigms 1.66
It should be noted that several other methods of timbre change are available on
the instrument that are not fingering related. Franois Rosss Le Frne gar, for
example, requires the performer to use breathy sounds, fluttertongue, tight vibrato,

63

Londeix, Hello! Mr. Sax or Parameters of the Saxophone, 44 and 46-64.

64

Willaim Albright, Sonata (New York: C. F. Peters Corporation, 1984).

Luciano Berio, Sequenza VIIb (Vienna: Universal Editions, 1995) and Sequenza IXb
(Vienna: Universal Editions, 1980).
65

66

Ronald Caravan, Paradigms I.


17

loose vibrato, and entirely timbreless sounds (pure breath).67 The works of JapaneseAmerican composer and saxophonist Rio Noda, are very similar, though they are on a
much smaller scale.68

Multiphonics
Multiphonics refer to the simultaneous performance of multiple pitches.
Multiphonics are often accomplished by using special fingerings, though, they can also
be accomplished by singing in the instrument while playing a pitch. Multiphonics can
consist of anywhere from two to four recognizable pitches.
Each multiphonic must be treated as a separate and unique entity each
individual multiphonic fingering brings with it a set of unique limitations. Of these
limitations, Londeix states:
Requiring a special technique of fingering, but sometimes also of embouchure
(by placing more or less of the mouthpiece in the mouth), the simultaneous
sounds are affected by the mouthpiece or reed used, and also by the make and
model of the instrument itself. The performer practices and is trained to correct
the variables.69
Weiss and Netti are even more specific. Their discussion of mulitphonics identify
embouchure, dynamic, pitch stability, threshold tones (tones by which the multiphonic
may be approached or departed, shadow sounds.70
No discussion on multiphonics would be complete without mention of Daniel
Kientzys contribution to the pedagogy of the instrument. Kientzy created the first, and
probably most complete, text on multiphonics with fingerings for sopranino, soprano,
67

Franois Ross, Le Frne gar (Paris: Grard Billaudot, 1981).

The earliest work of this sort that a student is likely to encounter is Improvisation 1
(Paris, Alphonse Leduc & Cie., 1972).
68

69

Londeix, Hello! Mr. Sax or Parameters of the Saxophone, 31.

70

Weiss and Netti, The Techniques of Saxophone Playing, 57-63.


18

alto, tenor, and baritone saxophones. This text is instrumental for the young saxophonist
in providing a guide and fingering method.71
Several different categories of multiphonic are available and they have been
compiled and identified by Weiss and Netti: Two levels are identified each consisting of
several families. See Table 2.

Table 2
First Level of Multiphonics72
Category
A
B
C
D
E

Description
Layer of natural overtones over a fundamental fingering
Sound with strong oscillation
Wide dyad, stable
Aggregate of two or more partials over a fundaments
Narrow dyad

Categories B-E are subdivided in the Second Level of overtones.73


One work that utilizes multiphonics is Edison Denisovs Sonata. Other notable
works include Steven Galantes Shu Gath Manna, and Christian Laubas Steady Study
on the Boogie.74 Thanks to the efforts of the composers of these works, multiphonics
appear with greater frequency than in the past.

Daniel Kientzy, Les Sons Multiples (Paris: ditions Salabert, 1982). This text, while an
excellent resource, is a bit confusingly arranged. The author finds that Londeix and
Weiss/Netti offer a more guided approach in comparison to Kientzy.
71

72

Weiss and Netti, The Techniques of Saxophone Playing, 60.

73

Ibid., 61.

Edison Denisov, Sonata (Paris: Alphonse Leduc & Cie., 1970). Steven Galante, Shu
Gath Manna, score, 1987. Christian Lauba, Steady Study on the Boogie (Paris: Grard
Billaudot, 1993).
19
74

Slap Tongue
Weiss and Netti identify three varieties of slap tongue: standard, secco, and
open.75 Though this project deals with the standard variety (and to a very limited extent,
the secco variety), a few words of note must be made of open slap. While the standard
and the secco slaps (referred to as closed slaps) are generated by tongue motion, the
open slap is created with the embouchure. To achieve the open slap, one rapidly draws
the lower jaw away from the mouthpiece resulting in an abrupt percussive effect. This
effect can best be described as explosive and powerful; it cannot be performed at soft
dynamics. Perhaps the most prominent work that uses the open slap is Russell Pecks
Drastic Measures.76
The sound generated by closed slaps is quite different from that of the open slap
it takes on a pizzicato sound. By creating a vacuum between the tongue and the reed,
the performer can draw the reed away from the mouthpiece. The sound of the slap is the
reed releasing from that vacuum and hitting the tip-rail of the mouthpiece. The secco
and the standard slap are identical except that, for the secco, air is not blown (or, is
minimally blown) into the saxophone. The standard slap can be performed at almost any
dynamic, while the secco slap is performed with lower dynamics.
It is important to identify the relative lack of discussion regarding slap tongue.
Londeix mentions it, but he doesnt deal too much with it aside from a simple
identification.77 Michat, on the other hand, give a detailed description along with a

75

Weiss and Netti, The Techniques of Saxophone Playing, 143.

76

Russell Peck, Drastic Measures (Greensboro, NC: Pecktacular Music, 1979).

77

Londeix, Hello! Mr. Sax or Parameters of the Saxophone, 92-94.

20

diagram identifying tongue motions.78 The earliest significant pedagogical approach to


slap tongue can be found in Steven Mauks article, Teaching Students to Slap Tongue.79
Works using slap tongue are numerous. Thierry Escaichs Lutte exploits both the
secco and the standard slap. Christian Lauba uses the secco slap it to great effect in
Jungle and prior to that, Edison Denisovs Sonata. Ibert incorporated the slap tongue in
the cadenza of his Concertino da Camera from 1931.80

Vocalization
Vocalization is refers to any type of simultaneous playing and singing (or
vocalizing) into the saxophone. The technique of growling is a category that falls within
vocalization. The technique is difficult to produce and discussion of it is relatively
lacking. Weiss and Netti discuss it, and the process around perfecting it in detail. Their
comments indicate the necessity of proper balance of dynamics between the sung part
and the played part, specifically, one must play p to mf and sing f.81
Londeix does not discuss this technique in detail but Michat does, including a few
logical exercises in attempting this technique. These exercises are scale based and are
brief, though they are very helpful and can the transposed in numerous ways.82 Works

78

Michat, Un Saxophon Contemporain, 28-29.

Steven Mauk, Teaching Students to Slap Tongue, Saxophone Journal 14, no. 1
(July/Aug. 1989): 41.
79

Thierry Esciach, Lutte (Montreuil, France: Misterioso, 1995).!Christian Lauba,


Jungle, from Neuf Etudes, vol. 1. Edison Denisov, Sonata. Ibert, Concertino da
Camera.
80

81

Weiss and Netti, The Techniques of Saxophone Playing, 179.

82

Michat, Un Saxophone Contemporain, 36.


21

employing this technique include William Bolcoms Lilith83 (specifically the growl) and
Fuminori Tanadas Mysterious Morning III.84

83!William!Bolcom,!Lilith!(Milwaukee:!Hal!Leonard!Corporation),!1989.!

!
84!Fuminori!Tanada,!Mysterious-Morning-III!(Paris:!Editions!Henri!Lemoine),!1999.

22

Chapter 3
A PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF PUSHING BOUNDARIES: FORTY ETUDES ON
EXTENDED TECHNIQUES BY PATRICK MURPHY
While not a pedagogical document per se, the etudes of Pushing Boundaries:
Forty Etudes on Extended Techniques by Patrick Murphy offer a practical application of
extended techniques for saxophonists. Divided into ten units of four etudes, each unit
focuses on one particular extended technique. This focus on a single technique per unit is
entirely intentional: slow methodical mastery deems combination of multiple techniques
inappropriate for the purposes of this project.
Each etude within a unit employs the chosen extended technique in a unique
manner. In the case of the first unit, for example, the first etude focuses on simply
mastering the performance of the first and second partials through the use of oral cavity
manipulation. The second etude takes a preexisting melody85 and, using similar
techniques gained from the first etude, expands into the third and fourth partials. With
this further understanding of the oral cavity, the third etude changes focus from partials
to pitch-bends and the fourth branches into the altissimo register. Stated at the very
beginning of each etude is the purpose or "usage" of the extended technique.
Individual etudes progress logically from one to the next and each unit
behaves in a similar fashion. See Table 3. Though intended for study in a sequential
fashion, many benefits can be gained regardless of order.

85

Francis Ltzow, The Hussite Wars (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1914), 30-31.
23

TABLE 3
Etude units with stated usage(s)
Number
Unit
1
Voicing
2
Voicing
3
Voicing
4
Voicing
5
Beginning Altissimo
6
Beginning Altissimo
7
Beginning Altissimo
8
Beginning Altissimo
9
Circular Breathing
10
Circular Breathing
11
Circular Breathing
12
Circular Breathing
13
Double Tonguing
14
Double Tonguing
15
Double Tonguing
16
Double Tonguing
17
Microtones
18
Microtones
19
Microtones
20
Microtones
21
Bisbigliando
22
Bisbigliando
23
Bisbigliando
24
Bisbigliando
25
Multiphonics
26
Multiphonics
27
Multiphonics
28
Multiphonics
29
Slap Tonguing
30
Slap Tonguing
31
Slap Tonguing
32
Slap Tonguing
33
Furthering Altissimo
34
Furthering Altissimo
35
Furthering Altissimo
36
Furthering Altissimo
37
Vocalizing
38
Vocalizing
39
Vocalizing
40

Vocalizing

Stated Usage
Mastery of the first and second overtones
Multiple and mixing overtones melodically
Pitch-bends not exceeding a minor third
Voicing as a means to achieve altissimo
Slow, melodic passages
Repetitive, conjunct passages
Rapid, conjunct passages
Expressive, conjunct and disjunct passages
Slow, gradual extension of circular breathing ability
Repetitive scalar and arpeggiated passages
Rapid, arpeggiated, and repetitive passages
Rapid, non-repetitive, quiet passages
Study and awareness of the oral muscular mechanism
Legato, repeated passages
Rapid, conjunct, chromatic passages
Repeated notes with varying velocity
Slow, microchromatic passages
Slow, disjunct passages
Hybrid conjunct and disjunct passages
Rapid, conjunct passages
Melodic passages
Utilizing multiple fingerings in rapid ostinato passages
Repetitive patterns with varying dynamics
Timbral trills
Isolation of individual pitches with a focus on dyads
Using threshold tones to precede articulated multiphonics
Rapidly shifting multiphonics
Rapid, melodic passages
As a contrapuntal technique
Low tessitura in pointillism
In the higher tessitura
Sustaining a pitch after a slap
Rapidly articulated passages
Rapid disjunct passages
Extending altissimo via cadenza
Flexibility
Singing pitches both above and below a performed drone
Singing a drone while performing a moving, melodic passage
Simultaneous pitch changes on both the instrument and in the
voice
Simultaneous parallel melodic motion

There are three distinct divisions in the entire work. The first division is etudes
based on tongue and throat control. The first unit, voicing, leads directly into the second
unit, beginning altissimo. This is a logical progression given voicings nature as a
24

preliminary exercise. Beginning altissimo leads to circular breathing. Circular breathing,


though largely based on the lungs, is a technique that employs the tongue and palate in
conjunction with the cheeks to maintain control of the pitch. Finally, circular breathing
leads to double tongue, an exercise based on tongue and oral soft-tissue control.
The next division is those etudes based upon complex fingerings. First,
microtones are introduced which serves as an ideal point-of-departure for atypical
fingerings. Second, timbre and bisbigliando are explored; many fingerings used for
microtones can be applied to timbre and bisbigliango fingerings. Finally, multiphonics
are brought in: Instead of dealing with simply one pitch, the performer is required to
accurately use a combination of complex fingerings and voicing to achieve successful
multiphonics.
The final three etudes are those that advance techniques covered in the previous
seven. Slap tongue and advanced altissimo both require even more control of the tongue
and, in altissimos case, the soft tissue of the mouth. Vocalizing expands upon
multiphonics with the requirement of two simultaneously sound pitches.
It would be remiss to ignore a few of the peculiarities that accompany these
etudes. First, and probably most evident, is the favor of the English language over
traditional Italian. Eschewed terms such as Andante, Allegro, and Largo are replaced
with terms such as Mysteriously, Optimistic, and Cascading. In conjunction with this, the
English terms chosen tend not to indicate exact tempos86 - they simply imply a mood or
emotional state to be associated with the piece. For the purposes of this work, exact
tempo markings are not simply unnecessary, but in fact detrimental. The eleventh etude,
for instance, poses different sets of challenges when performed using different tempi.
These challenges are legitimate and should not be ignored.
86

Metronome markings are left entirely, and purposely, absent.


25

In etudes requiring special fingering notations, the notation system indicated is


relatively unique to this work.87 The selected fingerings are based on a combination of
personal experience and Marcus Weiss and Giorgio Nettis The Technique of Saxophone
Playing. The author of this text whole-heartedly concurs with Weiss and Netti on the
statement Small variations might occur in certain cases with other makes of
saxophone88 In all cases, the author of this text used his own alto saxophone to test
each fingering.89

Etudes 1-4: Voicing


Channeled in the first two etudes is the spirit of the initial Sinta exercises: the
focus is on the first few overtones available on the lowest pitches of the instrument. See
Figure 1. The first etude makes the assumption of success in preliminary exercises of
voicing. Paramount is the matching of timbre and intonation. In accordance to Sintas
directive, use of a tuning device would be tremendously beneficial.90

87

A fingering chart may be found at the very beginning of Appendix A.

88

Weiss and Netti, The Techniques of Saxophone Playing, 10.

The author of this text performs on a Yamaha YAS-875 Custom alto saxophone
purchased new in October of 1999. This is prior to the Z and EX models of
instruments. Students using other models (e.g., later Yamahas, Selmers, Keilworths, and
Yanagisawas) should explore their instruments in determining the most accurate and
convenient fingerings.
89

90

Sinta and Dabney, Voicing: An Approach to the Saxophones Third Register, 11.
26

FIGURE 1
Overtone Series

Looking at the first measure of the first etude, the performer plays a C5.
Immediately following, the performer plays the same C5 while using the fingering for
low C (C4). This pattern repeats over the next five measures on different notes. See
Figure 2. Sinta, Raschr, Lang, and Rousseau initially reverse this process. The author of
this text believes that beginning on the unvoiced pitch is beneficial to the novice "voicer."
Using a matching-pitch to precede the overtone (the voiced pitch) gives a student a
model for intonation and timbre and allows for an easing into the process of oral
muscular manipulation.
Measures 1 through 28 focus on the first overtone. These first twenty-eight
measures can be viewed as a sub-etude; there is no requirement that each etude must be
looked at as a single entity. In fact, sub-dividing works into smaller sub-works is a
technique that can be applied to many of the etudes presented.
27

The second overtone makes its appearance beginning in measure 30. While the
pitches may differ, the order of overtone fingerings remains identical: Measures 1 and 30
both are both based on an overtone off of the C4 fundamental; Measures 2 and 31 are
both based on an overtone off of the B-flat3 fundamental; etc.... The stability of the
fingering pattern allows for the focus to be placed on the actual process of voicing.
Measures 30 through 57 can be viewed as a sub-etude similar to measures one through
twenty-eight.

FIGURE 2
Etude #1: Voicing (mm. 1-8)

Measure 59 begins the process of combining the first and second overtones. The
fingering pattern presented above is retained but augmented. See Figure 3. Again, a
preceding pitch leads into each overtone allowing for a relatively smooth transition from
one pitch to the next.

28

FIGURE 3
Etude #1: Voicing (mm.57-64)

Etude #2 (Czech), takes its melody from the tune of an ancient Bohemian battle
hymn Kto js bo bojovnci, or All Ye Warriors of God.91 This piece is often referred
to as the Bohemian Marseillaise.92 According to Ladislav Urban:
The great battle hymn of the Czechs was a spiritual folk-song Whenever this
was sung in a charge it sowed terror and confusion broadcast among their
enemies. The chorale contains two motifs: The first, assaulting, with its
characteristic hammering rhythm, like repeated blows of weapons; the second,
deeply religious, expressing in its restrained but sweet melodic form absolute
faith in the final victory of truth.93
Sung frequently during the Hussite Wars in Bohemia (in what is now the modern-day
Czech Republic), the hymn was a source of national pride. The wars were a pre-cursor to
the Protestant Reformation and resulted in a fracturing of the church in Bohemia: The
Church of Bohemian (Moravian) Brethren developed into a powerful influence. The

91

Ltsow, The Hussite Wars, 30.

92

Ibid., 31.

Ladislav Urban, The Music of Bohemia (Boston: The Merrymount Press, 1919), 11. It is
from this text that the author derived the hymn tune. Minor alterations including key
and a few pitches in the melody were utilized to better suit the purposes of this project.
93

29

hymn tune features heavily into many works. Perhaps most notable is Karel Husas
Music for Prague.94
Etude #2 can ultimately be defined as a theme with hidden variations. The
melody appears plainly in the opening seventeen measures. See Figure 4. This doesn't
simply provide the theme, it reinforces the melody for the performer. With regards to
the hidden nature of the variations, while the melody remains unchanged throughout the
course of the entire etude, the performer will utilize different fingerings to perform the
same pitches. The specific fingerings are always indicated in the music. This is similar to
the manner to the first etude.
Following this initial presentation, the melody repeats with fingering alterations
that require the performer to voice in a similar manner to the first etude. The focus with
this first repetition is entirely on the first overtones. Soon after, the work branches out to
include the second, third, and fourth overtones.
When looking at Etudes #1 and 2, emphasis must be placed on musical
expression. Though the works are somewhat pedantic, the performer must not abandon
any sense of musicality. While these two etudes function as a single unit, Etude #3
employs voicing in a different manner.
Etude #3 changes focus from overtones to pitch bending.95 The oral muscles used
are the same, just to different affect. This etude focuses on bending pitches initially by an
interval of a minor second, then a major second, and finally a minor third. To aide the
performer, the pitch bends extend no further than a minor third. The aim of this etude is
to gain flexibility and fluidity of the oral muscles.

94

Karel Husa, Music for Prague (New York: G. Schirmer, Inc. 1968).

Sinta and Dabney, Voicing: An Approach to the Saxophones Third register, 8-10. This
section of the book introduces exercises in pitch bending on a high F (F6).
30
95

FIGURE 4
Etude #2: Voicing (Czech) (mm. 1-17)

The final etude of this unit combines overtone study with oral flexibility. The
technical requirements of this etude are rather straightforward: the performer uses the
oral muscles to attain different pitches in the overtone series (creating a melody) all-thewhile fingering nothing but the fundamental, a low B-flat (B-flat3). See Figure 5.

31

FIGURE 5
Etude #4: Voicing (mm. 1-3)

This etude can easily be transposed such that the fundamental is a low B (B3),
low C (C3) and further up to an E-flat or E (E-flat4 and E4). If that decision is made, the
overtones can be adjusted the proper interval. This relates to the earlier discussion of
tempo assignments: a student should be encouraged to feel free to perform etudes in
different ways.
Initial study will prove difficult: creating a seamless transition from overtone to
overtone is a skill that eludes many in the beginning. A performer should start by
articulating each pitch (either with only air or with a kuh attached) and then, slowly
and meticulously, work to slur between pitches. This etude is one of the few that
combines two different extended techniques: voicing and altissimo. Given the
preliminary nature of voicing study, combining techniques is appropriate.
When viewed as a unit, the first four etudes provide a pedagogically and
musically sound performance experience. Voicing is used in multiple ways to give the
performer multiple perspectives. Repetition is not shunned, rather, it is used in order to
improve comfort. For those new to this technique, the gentle approach of the first etude
gradually yields to increasing aggressiveness. Perhaps the use of the Kto js bo
bojovnci melody is appropriate.

32

Etudes 5-8: Beginning Altissimo


The most vital parameter of the next grouping of etudes is limited range: the
melodic line at no point exceeds a B6. Another prominent feature is the use of altissimo
in two ways: conjunct and disjunct. Saxophonists must have a veritable arsenal of
altissimo fingerings dependent on context. Compared to fingerings used in conjunct
passages (where the melodic line is relative scalar and altissimo pitches are located
together), fingerings in disjunct passages (in the case of these etudes, isolated pitches
approached and/or departed by a leap into the standard range) are likely to be rather
distinct. Rousseau hints at this in his text with a discussion of the modes (or
fundamental fingerings) of overtones.96
In the authors experience, conjunct passages benefit from modes based on
higher fundamentals. Under these circumstances, the depression of fewer keys results in
a lighter, faster technique. Disjunct passages, on the other hand, tend to favor fingers
based on lower fundamentals. The presence of more depressed keys results in greater
resistance causing a stable leap between intervals.
Etude #5 sets forth a straightforward melody in the upper tessitura of the
instrument. This etude combines both conjunct and disjunct passages and, in the case of
the latter, suggests relatively closed fingerings (that is, fingerings based on lower
fundamentals with more keys depressed) in order to provide stability. See Figure 6.
Etude #5 introduces a number-and-letter shorthand to indicate depressed keys.
Numbers 1, 2, and 3 for example correspond to the B-key, A-key, and G-key. T
notations (Ta, Tc, and Tf) indicate trill/alternate keys. A full reference to this notation
system can be found in Appendix A.

96

Eugene Rousseau, Saxophone High Tones, 22.


33

FIGURE 6
Etude #5: Beginning Altissimo (mm. 19-24)

This etude should be approached at a relaxed pace especially when confronting


the disjunct passages. Care should be taken that to avoid cracks (that an incorrect
overtone) in between larger intervals. Melody should be approached naturally without
being over-emotive. Vibrato might be a challenge in the early stages and, perhaps, should
be avoided.
Etude #2 takes a similar approach to the first etude: areas of conjunct music
contrast with areas of disjunct. This etude, however, takes a similar approach to the first
two etudes. The music is scale-based and deals with bringing the so-called standard
range with the altissimo range. Fingerings do not appear in this movement; many
different approaches can yield success. This etude divides into three sections (scales that
34

bridge the standard and altissimo range expanding intervals that bridge the standard
and altissimo ranges scales that promote fluidity entirely within the altissimo range)
indicated by double bars at measures 39 and 63. Students should feel free to divide this
work into sub-etudes as in Etude #1.
Etude #7 takes its lead from #6, though it is significantly more advanced,
harmonically speaking. In this case, wide intervals disappear in favor of almost scalar
passages. This etude enforces fluidity in fast, scalar passages. Again, notation of
fingerings do not appear.
Etude #8 should be treated as a cadenza or improvisation with a fluid, almost
exhausted tempo. Afforded to the performer is a degree of flexibility regarding dynamics:
one should exploit the dynamics as deemed appropriate. In contrast to the first three
etudes of this unit, Etude #8 presents octave leaps into the altissimo range almost
immediately. The previous three etudes provide the performer with the skills necessary
to achieve these leaps.
This etude differs from the others in its exploitation of altissimo trills at a halfstep. See Figure 7. The trill from F-sharp6 to G6 will pose a challenge to the performer:
alternative hand-placements are a practical suggestion. The left-hand index finger can be
placed on the auxiliary F key, and the middle finger can be placed on the bis key. Using
the bis as a trill key provides a perfectly acceptable G6. Furthermore, using the ring
finger on 2 (that is, the A key) will allow for a seamless trill from F6 to F-sharp6. The
performer will find ample opportunity to switch back to standard hand-placement
beginning at measure 17.

35

FIGURE 7
Etude #8: Voicing (mm. 15-17)

Etudes 5 through 8 offer a study of altissimo that is of considerable use to the


young saxophonist. A thoughtful, systematic approach allows for a paced process to
extending ones abilities in the range.

Etudes 9-12: Circular Breathing


At the time of writing this document, the author can find no non-concert etudes
of circular breathing on the saxophone. Undoubtedly, there are numerous guides and
suggestions,97 but there are not currently any etudes devoted solely to a progressive
approach to the technique. The author hopes to remedy that situation.
Etude #9 is (very) loosely based on the chant for the graduale Qui sdes,
Dmine.98 From the Latin word gradus, meaning steps, this etude is a graduale in its
stepwise approach to perfecting circular breathing. In this case, numbers of pitches are
See Trent Kynaston, Circular Breathing for the Wind Performer (Van Nuys: CA,
Alfred Publishing Co., Inc.).
97

Benedictines of Solesmes, ed., The Liber Usualis, with Introduction and Rubrics in
English (Tournai, Belgium & New York: Descle, 1950), 335.
98

36

indicated (entire absent of duration) based on the Fibonacci sequence. In this case, one
pitch sounds followed by a breath mark.99 The pitch repeats, followed by the same breath
mark. Next are two notes ending with a breath mark. Then three. Then five. Then eight.
The sequence continues See Figure 8. The performer should not breathe (in a
conventional style) under a slur, rather, when necessary, employ circular breathing
instead.
The elimination of rhythmic markings allows for focus on the circular breathing
technique; rendered moot is a source of added difficulty. During initial studies, the
performer should be at a relatively fast tempo (perhaps each note duration being as high
as 100 BPM). As the performer gains more comfort with the piece, the tempo should be
slowed down. The author cannot identify a minimum tempo but only suggest the
performer goes as slow as he or she is capable (each duration could be as slow as 20-30
BPM, perhaps more or less).

The breath mark is to be taken at face value. The performer should pause, breathe
naturally, and then continue to the next measure. Under no circumstances should these
breaths be rushed they are natural points of rest and rest must be taken.
37
99

FIGURE 8
Etude #9: Circular breathing (mm. 1-9)

In addition to being Fibonacci- and chant-based, Etude #9 is also a palindrome.


The entire work repeats in reverse after going through the sequence of durations of 1-1-23-5-8-13-21-34-55-89. Not simply limited to durations, the palindrome also applies to
the pitches themselves.
In a return to scale-based music, Etude #10 is an etude in the most basic of
senses: a study. There are no remarkable composition techniques or secrets from which
to gain insight. This etude is in three sections: entirely scalar in the mid-register,
arpeggiated in the mid-register, and finally scalar in the upper register. The work is to be
entirely circular-breathed. It would be advisable to treat each section as its own subetude, before combining the work into a single piece.

38

Entirely arpeggiated, Etude #11 in many ways owes its inception to Christian
Laubas Balafon.100 This is especially true in the concluding sections. After a held D6,
broken chords present themselves in eighth-notes for two measures. Broken chords
continue, but the rhythmic durations change, first to eighth-note triplets, then sixteenthnotes, then quintuplets, then sextuplets, and finally returning to thirty-second-notes.
The effect should be one that, to a hypothetical audience, is unmeasured. Walls of sounds
suddenly change with no preparation.101 Relatively simple and repetitive pitch patterns
prevail. Dynamics vary, though, without any sudden changes.
Whereas Etudes 9-11 are all pattern-based, Etude #12 is relatively free. The goal
of this etude is to challenge the performer with rapid, non-repetitive pitch patterns.
Conjunct and chromatic, this etude finds its inspiration in another Lauba etude:
Jungle.102 The performer should carefully observe the single dynamic marking (pp) as
this will ease the circular breathing process. At the performers discretion, this can be
treated as a sub-tone.

Etudes 13-16: Double Tongue


Etude #13 is a preliminary exercise that deals only with the mechanism of the
double tongue. Rather than double-tonguing on pitches, the performer simply finds
instructions to create a percussive sound (into the mouthpiece). See Figure 9. The
performer must attempt this using only a proper embouchure. The intent is to prepare
the performer to apply double-tongue to actual pitches.

100

Lauba, Balafon, Neuf Etudes, vol. 1.

101

Lauba accomplishes this effect, though, using complicated pitch patterns.

102

Christian Lauba, Jungle, Neuf Etudes, vol. 1.


39

Figure 9
Etude #13: Double Tongue (mm. 1-6)

It is the authors recommendation that the performer assign syllables to the


subdivision of each beat. In the case of a beat consisting of four sixteenth notes,
recommended syllables include d-g-d-g or t-k-t-k. This should be consistent: where a
beat begins with a sixteenth rest, g-d-g or k-t-k should be considered a viable option.
Little needs to be said of Etude #14 aside from its influence from Carl
Baermann.103 The performer must be certain to keep the airstream constant as the tempo
increases. The choice of legato articulation is purposeful a means to the end of constant
airstream.
Another straightforward piece, Etude #15 poses more challenges than the
previous etude. The work is a rapid piece that progresses chromatically throughout the
upper and middle range of the instrument. The performer should adopt a technique
similar to that used in the previous 2 etudes: consistent air stream flowing through the
instrument. In this case, the articulation style in staccato.

David Hite, Foundation Studies for Saxophone: Scales, chords and intervals for daily
practice patterned after Carl Baermann, Op. 63 (San Antonio: Southern Music
Company), 92.
40
103

Etude #16 employs articulations of increasing and decreasing tempos. The


performer should follow direction clearly, i.e., perform the number of notes as they
appear. It is easy to treat the effect as just that, an effect. However, this intent of this
etude is that the music be performed exactly as intended. See Figure 10.

Figure 10
Etude # 16: Double Tongue (mm. 5-6)

Etudes 17-20: Microtones


Prior to discussion of these etudes, the method of notation must be identified.
While Londeix and Weiss and Netti identify fifth tones, third tones, and eighth tones,
these etudes concern themselves solely with quartertones.104 The notation system chosen
is similar to that identified by Jean-Denis Michat.105 See Figure 11.

Figure 11
Microtone Notation System

Londeix, Hello! Mister Sax or Parameters of the Saxophone, 24; Weiss and Netti, The
Techniques of Saxophone Playing, 15-32.
104

105

Michat, Un Saxophone Contemporain, 42-43.!


41

The stated goal of Etude #17 is performance of microtones in slow


microchromatic, conjunct passages. The term microchromatic relates to the term
"chromatic" in that each microtone is approached and departed by a semi tone. See
Figure 12. At no point, in this etude, is a microtone isolated out of the context of either
appearing as a passing tone or a neighbor tone. The integration of microtones into
chromatic passages allows the application of microtone fingerings in relation to
semitones. This has the dual effect of allowing the performer to hear the difference
between a semitone and a quarter tone.

Figure 12
Etude # 17: Microtones (mm. 1-4)

In contrast, Etude #18 takes the approach of almost entirely isolating quarter
tones. By combining this with the slow, meditative tempo of #17, the level of difficulty
increases. The effect should be that of a detuned hymn.
Of all the Microtone etudes, #19 is likely to pose the most challenge. This etude
should be described as a hybrid of isolated and non-isolated microtones:
microchromaticism, interspersed with pedal tones, provides a greater challenge when
compared to the previous etude. See Figure 13. The pedal tone appears both above and
below the moving quartertone line.
42

Etude #20 is simply returns entirely to microchromaticism without and


interference. This etude is the fastest of the four with the pedagogical goal of fluidity with
microtones. To this end, microtones group into either four or eight sixteenth notes. Rests
allow the performer to reset.

Figure 13
Etude #19: Voicing (mm. 7-10)

A point of note is that the second two etudes in this unit are fairly static
especially when compared to the first two etudes. Given the complex nature of all four of
these etudes, this is quite appropriate. The relative slowness of the first two etudes allows
for 1) gaining comfort with new and ostensibly difficult fingerings, and 2) work with
complex intervals while still at a novice level.

43

Etudes 21-24: Timbre and Bisbigliando


Etudes 21-24 see a change in the complexity of compositional technique. It is at
this point that composers and works are recalled and, while not directly quoted,
channeled. The author was not interested in creating works based on musical
quotations, rather he chose to create works that were entirely new.
Etude #21 draws its inspiration from the compositional techniques of Olivier
Messiaen. The work alternates between subject areas of non-retrograde rhythms
(palindromes) and a mode of limited transposition with areas of free composition.106
This etude adds to Messiaens musical language by including timbre changes. See Figure
14.

Figure 14
Etude # 21: Timbre and Bisbigliando (mm. 3-6)

Olivier Messiaen, The Techniques of My Musical Language (Paris: Alphonse Leduc &
Cie, 1944), 20-21 and 62.
44
106

The main challenge that a performer will have in this etude is the alternation
between standard and timbral fingerings for D5 and D-sharp5. As these will alternate
between a very closed fingering (8-1-2-3-4-5-6 for the former, 8-1-2-3-4-5-6-Eb for the
latter) and side-key-based fingerings (c2 for the former, c1-c2-c3 for the later), initial
practice must be extremely slow. In order to aid the performer, these are the only two
examples of such an alternation in the work. This etude features only two sets of
fingerings per pitch: the standard fingering, and the timbral fingering.
Etude #22 expands into three different fingerings per pitch: a standard fingering,
and two timbral fingerings. This etude is extremely static with only one pitch per
measure and a seldom-ceasing ostinato. This simplicity counteracts the difficulty when
combined with increased tempo. This etude uses the samba rhythm as its inspiration.
Etude #23 finds inspiration in Sequenza VIIb by Luciano Berio and even goes so
far as adopting his notation style for timbral fingerings.107 See Figure 15. A keyfollows
the conclusion of this etude.

Figure 15
Etude #23: Timbre and Bisbigliando (mm. 5-8)

107

Luciano Berio, Sequenza VIIb (Vienna: Universal Editions, 1969).


45

This etude expands the difficulty level by exploring four different possible timbral
fingerings per pitch. Only 3 pitches (C-sharp5, C5, and B4) have timbral fingerings and,
like the previous etude, the piece features an ostinato, offsetting the complexity of the
fingerings. In common with the Berio, this etude features hyper-notation of a sort:
Dynamic changes are frequent and erratic.108
The final etude of this unit features timbre trills (bisbigliando) exclusively. The
performer is free to choose his or her own fingerings using as many timbral fingerings as
desired. The author suggests limiting the selection or two possibilities. A special note
must be made with the bisbigliando trill for D5 and E-flat5. Though the first etude
alternates between open and closed fingerings, it is inappropriate to employ that option
here. The speed of the trill proves daunting. Instead, simply adding the B or B-flat key
would serve the purpose in a better manner.

Etudes 25-28: Multiphonics


Although not uncommon today, multiphonics are a fairly recent development in
saxophone literature. Londeix points to Edison Denisovs Sonata109 as the first work to
use multiphonics in a significant way.110 Since that time, several works have exploited
multiphonics to varying degrees of success.
Achieving the proper combination of tongue placement, embouchure tension,
and fingering is one of the greatest challenges to achieving a proper multiphonic. Etude
#25 takes this challenge head-on. This etude focuses on multiphonics that are dyads
(consisting of only two pitches). The performer finds a fingering that will span three

108

Ibid.

109

Denisov, Sonata.

110

Londeix, Hello! Mr. Sax or Parameters of the Saxophone, 31.!


46

measures. The initial measure of the fingering is a single pitch. This pitch is the highest
pitch available for the multiphonic fingering.111 The next measure requires the performer
to, using the physical combinations mentioned above, sound the actual multiphonic. The
final measure requires the performer to isolate the lower pitch in the multiphonic. This
isolation-based approach allows the performer to experiment with the necessary physical
combinations to achieve the proper sound. This approach can be adopted for
multiphonics of three or more pitches but, given the limited scope of this project, is a
suggestion rather than a written etude.
Weiss and Netti identify threshold tones: partials of the multiphonic with which
one can enter or exit that mulitphonic.112 Etude #25 requires the performer to enter the
multiphonic from a high threshold tone. This allows for the construction of the
multiphonic from the top down by use of voicing and soft-tissue manipulation. Etude
#26 takes the opposite approach by requiring the performing to approach multiphonics
from a low pitch and build the sound from the bottom up (there are only two
circumstances when the chosen threshold tone is a mid-level pitch). A challenge added to
this etude is the requirement of continuous articulations during multiphonics:
multiphonics present as four successive eighth notes.
Etude #27 adopts an approach separate from the previous etudes. Rather than
integrating the multiphonic into the melodic content, this etude focuses on the use of the
multiphonic as merely a sound effect. In this case, multiphonics are brash, percussive
exclamations performed at relatively strong dynamic levels. They appear isolated and

The several of these fingerings can result in multiphonics of more than two pitches.
The dynamics, being relatively soft (not exceeding mezzo forte), limit the pitch
possibilities available. This allows for multiphonics of only two pitches.
111

112

Weiss and Netti, The Techniques of Saxophone Playing, 62.!


47

distinct from the swirling sixteenth-note runs that they proceed; threshold tones are of
little consequence.
The final etude of this unit reintegrates the multiphonic into the melody. It also
requires the swift transition from multiphonic to standard single pitch in a short amount
of time. By far the fastest etude of this unit, Etude #28 strikes a similar path as the
previous etude in the removal of threshold tones from importance. The performer can
feel free to adopt alternative hand positions. This is most notable in measure 5 where,
on the first multiphonic, the performer can remove the right-hand thumb from the
thumb rest and use it to strike the c3 key. See Figure 16.

Figure 16
Etude #28 (mm. 5-6)

Etudes #29-32: Slap Tongue


The slap tongue technique offers yet another sound to the color palette available
on the saxophone. The variety of slap used here (the so-called closed slap) is ultimately
the sonic equivalent to the pizzicato effect on a string instrument. The first two etudes
focus on slap in the lower register while the second two focus on the higher range.
Etude #29 is presented in the style of a slow tango. In the case of this etude, slap
pitches bring out the counterpoint. Slapped pitches serve as the harmonic basis for the
48

piece. Above, one can find the tango melody. Slaps remain in the low range purposefully:
novice performers of the slap tongue will find ease in the lower range. A satisfactory and
resonant tone can be produced in the lowest octave of the instrument. Slapped pitches
initially stay a fair distance away from each other, though that distance decreases with
time. At no point are three pitches in a row slapped.
Etude #30 is similar to #29 in the sense that slaps both stay in the lower range
and feature as a contrapuntal technique. This etude differs dramatically in harmonic
language, favoring a serialized approach. The tone row selected is identical to Weberns
choice for the Quartet, op. 21.113 This tone row determines not only pitch, but also pitch
repetitions in the upper register. See Table 4.
For the opening section, P1, selected for those notes in the upper range, contrast
with I5, selected for the slapped pitches in the lower range. These two rows exhibit
hexachordal combinatoriality. The middle section uses only P0 and, while beginning
slurred, moves forward to include slaps at the end of each run. This sections serialism
only dictates the pitches; rhythm and repetition are now independent elements. The
third section is similar to the opening featuring rows P1 and RI2.
The third etude in this unit exploits slap tongue in the upper range. Each measure
features a nearly identical articulation pattern: two slurred pitches followed by either a
normally articulated or a slapped pitch (these two elements alternate), followed to two
repeated pitch in the lower range. The added challenge of slapped articulation
incorporated in the melodic line will prove difficult at first. Initially, the performer
should eliminate some elements: perhaps the final two pitches in each measure. After
attaining comfort, these elements can be reincorporated.

113

Anton Webern, Quartet, op. 22, (Vienna: Universal Editions: 1930).


49

Table 4
Tone Row Matrix for Etude #30
P/I

11

10

C#

A#

D#

F#

G#

C#

D#

F#

G#

A#

C#

D#

G#

A#

F#

A#

C#

F#

D#

G#

D#

C#

F#

G#

A#

10

G#

A#

C#

D#

F#

10

A#

F#

G#

C#

D#

F#

G#

C#

A#

D#

G#

F#

A#

C#

D#

F#

D#

G#

A#

C#

11

G#

A#

D#

C#

F#

11

D#

F#

A#

G#

C#

RI

11

10

The final etude in this unit reintroduces slap tongue in the lower register in
addition to the higher. The primary goal of this etude is the performance of a sustained
pitch following the slap tongue. In all cases, the slapped pitches are unimpeded
isolated from quickly moving lines. See Figure 17.

50

Figure 17
Etude #32: Slap Tongue (mm. 5-14)

Sustaining a pitch following a slap is a challenge. Many novices attempt to move


the jaw or shift the embouchure when attempting a slap tongue: This will cause a
distortion in the tone. The student must maintain a stable and unmoving embouchure in
addition to a constant air stream. The tempo should be brisk, yet comfortable.

Etudes #33-36: Furthering Altissimo


The next unit of etudes considered an extension of the previous unit (Beginning
Altissimo). Extension of range, while a noble goal, is not the primary goal of the etudes of
this unit. These etudes examine different parameters of altissimo, of which range is only
one.
Etude #33 focuses on the parameter of rapid articulation in the altissimo register.
The tempo should be quick but comfortable. Articulation is at different dynamic levels

51

requiring a stable embouchure and constant air stream, similar to the previous slap
tongue etude.
Etude #34 picks up where Etude #8 left off: altissimo in disjunct passages. In this
case, altissimo pitches are in the context of octave intervals. The tempo is quicker than
Etude #8 and nimble technique is required. In all cases, suggested fingerings are
notated. Just as before, relatively closed fingerings will provide the resistance needed
to perform these pitches.
Etude #35 is the first of which that extends the range; the required extension is
up to G7. The performer should feel free to use rubato in this etude given its label as a
Cadenza. Altissimo extends through chromatic, scalar passages. See Figure 18. The
dynamic level increases as the tessitura raises: this will make the performance of the
altissimo-extremes easier for the performer.

Figure 18
Etude #35: Furthering Altissimo (mm. 14-18)

52

The final Etude of this unit the author considers the most difficult in the entire
collection. This work requires extreme flexibility and finger-versatility. Bridge the
standard range and the altissimo range, broken chords appear. Ranges are approached
both from above and below. See Figure 19. The rhythms are relatively constant (eighth
notes) which perhaps adds to the difficulty.

Figure 19
Etude #36 (mm. 1-3)

Etudes # 37-40: Vocalizing


This final unit of etudes focuses on simultaneously singing and performing on the
instrument. It should be noted that, in cases where exact pitches appear in the music, the
performer should sing those pitches in a range that is comfortable. Ideally, the range
indicated will be the result. Human limitations, of course, cannot be dismissed.
Etude #37 takes the initial steps of performing a drone on the saxophone while
simultaneously singing a moving melodic line. See Figure 20. In all cases, the drone
appears first, followed by the sung pitch two beats later. The performer must sing both
above a drone and below a drone. A male voice (especially a tenor) should be able to
accommodate each sing pitch. A lower female voice can accomplish this as well, though a
higher voice might find difficulty. As stated above, the performer should do what ever is
necessary to sing the pitches, even if it means taking them up an octave.

53

Figure 20
Etude # 37: Vocalizing

Etude # 38 takes the opposite approach: singing a drone while performing a moving
melodic line on the saxophone. The challenges are similar to the previous etude though
now the performer must begin the sound at the same time. Shifting octaves should not
be necessary for any voice types. The melodic line is simple enough so as not to bog the
performer down with additional requirements.
Etude # 39 (Obvious Evening) is an inversion of the title of the work Mysterious
Morning by Fuminori Tanada. This etude borrows techniques that Tanada uses in his
work, especially the vocalizing technique. This technique requires a gradually ascending
(or descending) sung pitch while performing oscillating pitches on the instrument. See
Figure 21. It should be noted that while exact sung pitches are indicated, these are
merely suggestions. Low pitches should be sung as low as is comfortable and gradually
rise. Higher pitches should be sung in a relatively comfortable range and then descend.

54

Figure 21
Etude # 39: Vocalizing (mm. 12-17)

The final etude of this unit is much easier when compared to the difficulty
number 40. In this case, the performer sings and plays the instrument in parallel thirds.
Higher female voices might encounter difficulty with the low range and should take the
melodic line up an octave (inverting the thirds into sixths). Thus ends Pushing
Boundaries, simply and quietly on a major third.

55

Chapter 4
CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSING REMARKS
The composition of Pushing Boundaries: 40 Etudes on Extended Techniques,
was an absolute joy. Writings these works not only challenged the author/composer, but
also added a newfound appreciation for the compositional technique. The
author/composer hopes that these etudes provide newcomers to extended techniques
with a logical and progressive approach to these wonderful sounds and methods.
These etudes are not by any means exhaustive. The performer is encouraged to
seek out other works or methods that exploits these sounds. Multiple approaches to
these ideas will only serve his or her benefit.
The author cannot overstate the importance of slow, purposeful practice when
attempting these etudes. Because these are not concert etudes, the performer should not
feel restricted to any timelines. The development of these techniques is a slow process
and the performer should relish in the joy of slow progression with a goal of mastery.
The author likens these etudes to a playground. The playground is the place
where are child learns how to use his or her body in conjunction with large and fanciful
toys (jungle gyms, monkey bars, swing sets, slides, etc). The child learns how to use
each toy, allowing for a sense of accomplishment. Eventually, the child is required to
leave the boundaries of the playground for the real world. In the case of Pushing
Boundaries, the real world is actual repertoire.
Ultimately, the success or failure of these works is dependent on their usefulness.
As this type of etude book is not yet widely available to young saxophonists, it is the
authors hope that a niche is filled. It is with extreme happiness and hopefulness that the
author humbly introduces these works into the pedagogy of the saxophone.

56

REFERENCES
Albright, William. Sonata. New York: C. F. peters Corporation. 1984.
Bartolozzi, Bruno. New Sounds for Woodwind. Reginald Smith Brindle (ed. and trans.)
London: Oxford University Press, 1967.
Benedictines of Solemnes, ed. The Liber Usualis, with Introduction and Rubrics in
English. Tournai, Belgium & New York: Descle, 1950.
Berio, Luciano. Sequenza IXb. Vienna: Universal Editions. 1995.
- - -. Sequenza VIIb. Vienna: Universal Editions. 1980.
Berlioz, Hector. A Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration. Joseph
Bennett (ed.), Mary Cowden Clarke (trans.). London: Novello and Company,
Limited. 1882.
Bolcom, William. Lilith. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Coropration. 1989.
Bresnick, Martin. Every Thing Must Go. New York: Carl Fischer, Inc. 2007.
Caravan, Ronald. Paradigms I. Medfield, PA: Dorn Publications. 1976.
- - -. Paradigms II. Medfield, PA: Dorn Publications. 1988.
Dahl, Ingolf. Concerto. Harvey Pittel (ed.) New York: European American Music
Corporation. 1979.
DeVille, Paul. Universal Method for Saxophone. New York: Carl Fischer, Inc. 1908
Denisov, Edison. Sonata. Paris: Alphonse Leduc & Cie. 1970.
Dryer-Beers, Thomas. Influential Soloists. The Cambridge Companion to the
Saxophone. Richard Ingram (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1998:
37-50.
Escaich, Thierry. Lutte. Montreuil, France: Misterioso. 1995.
Galante, Steven. Shu Gath Manna. 1987.
Gardner, Joshua. Ultrasonic Investigation of Clarinet Multiple Articulation. D.M.A.
Diss., Arizona State University. 2010.
Germanus, Sander. Microphobia. Amsterdam: Donemus. 2005.
Haba, Alois. Partita. London: Faber Music, Ltd. 1968.

57

Husa, Karel. Music for Prague. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc. 1968.
Ibert, Jacques. Concertino da Camera. Paris: Alphonse Leduc & Cie. 1935.
Kachmarchik, Vladimir. Some Mysteries of Ancient Greek Aulets. The Journal of the
International Double Reed Society, no. 22 (July, 1994). http://www.idrs.org/
publications/hcontrolled/DR/JNL22/JNL22.Kachmarchik.html (accessed
January 12, 2013).
Kientzy, Daniel. Le Sons Multiples. Paris: Editions Salabert. 1982.
Kynaston, Trent. Circular Breathing for the Wind Performer. Van Nuys, CA: Alfred
Publishing Co., Inc. Kindle Edition.
Lang, Rosemary. Beginning Studies in the Altissimo Register. Indianapolis: Lang Music
Publications. 1988.
Langenus, Gustav. Complete Method for the Clarinet. New York: Carl Fischer Music.
1970.
Lauba, Christian. Neuf Etudes. Paris: Alphonse Leduc & Cie. 1989-1994.
- - -. Steady Study on the Boogie. Paris: Grard Billaudot. 1993.
Larsson, Lars-Erik. Konsert. Stockholm: Carl Gehrmans. 1931.
Levin, Theodore and Michael E. Edgerton. The Throat Singers of Tuva. Scientific
American (September 20, 1999). http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.
cfm?id=the-throat-singers-of-tuv&page=2 (accessed March 10, 2013).
Liley, Thomas. Invention and Development. The Cambridge Companion to the
Saxophone. Richard Ingram (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1998:
1-19.
- - -. The Repertoire Heritage. The Cambridge Companion to the Saxophone.
Richard Ingram (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1998: 51-64.
Londeix, Jean-Marie. Hello! Mr. Sax, or, Parameters of the Saxophone. Paris: Alphonse
Leduc & Cie. 1989.
Ltzow, Francis. The Hussite Wars. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. 1914
Martin, Frank. Ballade. Vienna: Universal Press. 1938.
Mauk, Steven. Teaching Students to Slap Tongue, Saxophone Journal, vol. 14, no. 1.
(July/Aug. 1989): 41.
Messiaen, Olivier. The Techniques of My Musical Language. Paris: Alphonse Leduc &
Cie. 1944.
Michat, Jean-Denis. Un Saxophone Contemporain. Paris: www.jdmichat.com. 2010.
58

Michat, Jean-Denis. Un Saxophone Contemporain. Paris: www.jdmichat.com. 2010.


Nan, Luis. Alto voltango. Paris: Henri Lemoine. 1999.
Noda, Ryo. Improvisation 1. Paris: Alphonse Leduc & Cie. 1972.
Peck, Russell. Drastic Measures. Greensboro, NC: Pecktacular Music. 1979.
Raschr, Sigurd. Top-Tones for Saxophone, 3rd ed. New York: Carl Fischer, Inc. 1977
Ronkin, Bruce Edward. The Music for Saxophone and Piano Published by Adolphe Sax.
D.M.A, diss. University of Maryland. 1987. http://search.proquest.com.
ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/pqdtft/docview/303495636/13C17A4C8577F8C9F6A/1?acc
ountid=4485 (accessed January 12, 2013).
Ross, Franois. Le Frne gar. Paris: Grard Billaudot. 1981.
Rousseau, Eugene. Saxophone High Tones. Saint Louis: MMB Music, Inc. 2002.
Segell, Michael. The Devils Horn. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2005.
Sinta, Donald J. and Denise C. Dabney. Voicing: An Approach to the Saxophones Third
Register. Radford, VA: Sintafest. 1992
Spector, Johanna. Classical Ud Music in Egypt with Special Reference to Maqamat.
Ethnomusicology, vol. 14, no. 2 (May, 1970), 243-257.
Tanada, Fuminori. Mysterious Morning III. Paris: Editions Henri Lemoine. 1999.
Teal, Larry. The Art of Saxophone Playing. Secaucus, NJ: Summy-Birchard. 1963.
Umble, James C. Jean-Marie Londeix: Master of the Modern Saxophone. Cherry Hill,
NJ: Roncorp Publications. 2000.
Urban, Ladislav. The Music of Bohemia. Boston: The Merrymount Press, 1919.
Vyzlouzil, Jiri. A Note on Alois Haba. The Musical Times, vol. 114, no. 1564 (June,
1973), 590-592.
Weber, Henri. Sax-Acrobatix: The Book of Saxophone Stunts and Tricks. New York:
Belwin, Inc. 1926.
Webern, Anton. Quartet, op. 22. Vienna: Universal Editions) 1930.
Weiss, Marcus and Giorgio Netti. The Techniques of Saxophone Playing. Kassel,
Germany: Brenreiter, 2010.
Xenakis, Iannis. Xas. Paris: Editions Salabert. 1987.

59

APPENDIX A
SAXOPHONE FINGERING CHART

60

APPENDIX B
PUSHING BOUNDARIES: FORTY ETUDES IN EXTENDED TECHNIQUES

62

ETUDE # 1: Voicing
Mastery of the First and Second Overtones

Mysteriously

& 43
F

&

&

&

&

21

25

63

17

&

13

* While fingering the lower pitch,


use the oral muscles to perform
the higher pitch

&

29

&

41

45

33

&

37

&

&

&

49

&

53

&

!
b

64

& b

&

& n

57

&

61

65

&

69

73

65

ETUDE # 2: Voicing (Czech)


Multiple and Mixing Overtones Melodically

Triumphant

& 32 b
!
& 32 b < <

& b
-

13

& b
-

<

<
<

<

b -

b -

& 32 b < <

22

b b <

b
< < -

b -

& 32 b
p

18

b
<

22 b
< < <


22
b
<

b -

b -

b <
<

<

b b

b b <

b
< < -

66

b -

bw

22 b
< < <
<

22 b

b
<
<

b
b -

32

,3
2

32

b -

26

& b
-

30

& b
-

<

b -

<

b -

<
<

& 32 b
b P< <

& 32 b < <

35

39

43

& b
-

47

& b
-

<

. .

b -

b b b <
<

b
-

b
<

b <
<

<

b b
b
<

b -

<

b
<

b -

w
w

bw
bw

22 b
< < <
<

22 b
b
<
< < <

<

b b
b
< < <
67

b <
<
w
w

b
b -

32

32

b -

b bw
bw

3
2


3
&2
F b -

b -

b 3

&2

<

b <
<


22

b
<
<

b <

<

52

56

& b -

& b -

60

64

3
&2
b f

69

&

72

b -

b -

32 b
- b -

< b

b b
b

22 b

<

b
b - b

b -

68

w
w

b -

b -

w
bw

22 b
- b

32

32

22
- b - - -


&
b

b
b

76

80

&


- -

b
b

b
b

b -

b - - - b b b

w
w
>

b - - -

b b
b

b
22
b

b
3
&2
b

b
b
b

b
22
b

& 32

86

F b

90

& bb

& bb

94

98

b
b

b
b

b b
b b
69

w
w

- b
b -

w
bw
>

32

b
b
b

32
b
b

b
b
bw
bw

32

b b
b b

2 b
2 b

b
3
&2
b b

b
b b

b
22
b

3
&2

103

107

& bb

& bb

111

115

b
b

b
b

b
b

b b
b b

70

b
b
w
w

b
b
b

3
2
b
b

b
b
bw
bw

ETUDE # 3: Voicing
Pitch Bends Not Exceeding a Minor Third

& 12
8

&

&

&

&

11

&

# b

# #

# b n #

# b n #

# # n n

. #

. #

. #

. #

.
n #

# .

71

# b

13

&

15

&

17

# b

. # # .
n

&
P

19

&

21

&

23

&

b b

b b n n

# #

# .
#

!
.

# #

b b n

# n

& .

25

.
n #

b b n n

.
.

. # # . b
b

.
. #
#

b n b

72

27

&

& .

29

31

&

35

&

.
.
#

. # # # n n #

# .

#
J .
&

37

# b

# # . #
# .

# .
. # . # # # . # . #

& #

33

#
P

# #

# # # n

73

ETUDE # 4: Voicing
Voicing as a Means to Achieve Altissimo

Nebulous

& 44

&

&

10

&

13

&

bw
f

bw

b.

bw

bw

b.

w
74

.
w

bw
bw

16

&

19

&

22

&

bw

b b
w

75

w
w

bw
bw

ETUDE # 5: Beginning Altissimo


...for the performance of altissimo in slow, melodic passages.

Relaxed, expressive but restrained

& 74

&

#.

8*
8*
x
x
2
3 Ta2

# # #
#

&
P

10

&

13

&

*For the purposes of this etude,


all E 6's and F-sharp 6's should be
performed using the auxiliary key.

# .,

# #

#.

f
,
#.

#
f

#
76

16

&

8
1
2
Tc 3
Ta 4
19

&
F

22

&

25

&

#.

# #

#.

# # .

#.

8
2
3
Tc 4
Ta

#
8
8
2
1
3
2
(B)
4
3
5
Tc 4
6
Ta

77

# n .

8 c1
2
3
4B
5
6

#
p

#.

# #

28

&

&
P

34

&

# #
rit.

31

,
.

# #

,
.

,
n.

#
#

78

ETUDE # 6: Beginning Altissimo


Repetitive, Conjunct Passages

bb 4 2 J
& 4
4
f

44

b 4 # # 2 # J
b
& 4
4

44

bb 4
& 4

2
4 J

44


bb 4
& 4

2
4 J

44


bb 4
& 4

2 J
4

4
4

42 J

44

A patient, yet joyful, drudgery

10

13

b
& b 44

16

79

b
& b 44

19

b
& b 44

22

b 4
&b 4

25

b 4
&b 4

28

b 4
&b 4

31

b
& b 44

34

n #

n #

42 J

44

# n

# n

42 J

44

2 J
4

4
4

# n #

#
2 J
4

4
4

2 J
4

4
4

# #

#
42 J

44

80

b
& b 44

37

b 4
&b 4

40

b 4
&b 4

43

b
& b 44

46

b
& b 44

49

b 4
&b 4

52

42 J

44

2 J
4

4
4

2 J
4

4
4

42 J

44

42 J

44

2 J
4

4
4

81

b
& b 44

55

b 4
&b 4

58

b 4
&b 4

61

b 4
&b 4

64

b
& b 44

67

b 4
&b 4

70

42 J

44

# #

#
2 J
4

4
4

2 J
4

4
4

2 J
4

4
4

42 J

44

82

2 J
4

4
4

b 4
&b 4

73

b
& b 44

76

b 4
&b 4

79

b 4
&b 4

82

# #

#
n

#
n

83

2 J
4

4
4

42 J

44

2 J
4

4
4

2 J
4

ETUDE # 7: Beginning Altissimo


Rapid, Conjunct Passages



15
&8

Exhuberant

&

&

&


# #

# #

# #

# #
J
&

# # n
J J J J # J n J #
&
J

84

&

&

&

10

&

11

&

#
#



# #

# #

# # # # # # #
J J J J J J
&
P

12

85

# # - - -
# # #

# n
J J J J
&
F

13

- - -
#

14

J J J J
&

15

&

- - - - #
-

# n

#
&

16

17

&

86

ETUDE # 8: Beginning Altissimo


Expressive Passage (Both Conjunct and Disjunct)

Improvisation: Languid

#w

&w

& #

&

10

&

# #

# #

# #

"

*All trills throughout this etude are to be to a half-step above the indicated pitch
accel.
12

&

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
# n

# n

accel.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
# n #
a tempo

&

13

87

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
# #

accel.

&

15

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
# b
a tempo accel.

17

&

a tempo

"

&

21

18

&
P

F
n

#w

88

"

ETUDE # 9: Circular Breathing


Slow, Gradual Extension of Circular Breathing Ability

,
,
,
, ,
#

# # ,

&
F throughout
Chanting

&

# # #

&

# n

# # #

&

10

# n b

n n
# #

&

11

12

&

# #
89

# n

#
n n
#

&

13

14

&

# #

# #

& # #

15

# n

n
,

#
#

#
&
#

16

17

& #

18

&

# #

b n # # #
,

90

19

& #

# #

b n # # #
,

&

20

b n # # #
# ,

&

21

22

&

23

&

# # # ,

, # , , , , ,
#


&

24

91

ETUDE # 10: Circular Breathing


Repetitive Scalar and Arpeggiated Passages

Optimistic

### 4

& 4
f
5

&

###

n##

##
&

## n#
&

13

17

&

21

&


# n
f

92

&
f

25

&

29

&

33

n
&b
f

37

&
P

41

&

45

cresc.

93

# #

&

49

cresc.

53

&

57

&

cresc.

cresc.

&
#

61

dim.

dim.

#
b
&

65

dim.

dim.

# n

b
n

&
F
P

69

94

&b

73


#
F

b
&
f

77

# #
b
&

81

&b

85

&b

89

95

ETUDE # 11: Circular Breathing


Rapid, Arpeggiated, and Repetitive Passages

Taking flight, brilliant

& 44

#
p

cresc.

&

&
f dim.

&

&
p cresc.

&

96

&
f dim.

&

&

&

10

11

&

& n
#

12

97

13

&

& n #
P
cresc.

14

15

&

b b

cresc.

b n

b b
&

16

cresc.


&
#

17

b b
&

18

98

&

19

n
&

20

&

21

&

22


&

23

24

&

99

25

&

26

27

# #

&

&

28

&

29

&

30

&

b # #
3

cresc.
100

34

&

cresc.

#
&

36

cresc.

&

38

cresc.

&

39

cresc.

&

40

cresc.




#


&

41

cresc.

101

&

42

&

43

&

44

102

ETUDE # 12: Circular Breathing


Rapid, Non-Repetitive, and Quiet Passages

Seething

& b n b n b n b # # # n #
!
& # # n # n # # n # n # # # # #

& # n # n b # n n # n b b n b n b n b

& # n # # n n # n # # n n

# # #

b
n
& # n # n # # n # n # # #
b n n b b

b n b
b

#
# b # n

&

11

103

# # #

# n # n #
#
# n # b n n # # #
&

13

15

b b b n b b # n #

17

b n b n b n b b b n b n b

&

&

# n # n # n # n # n b n b b
&

19

& # # n # n # n #

21

# # n # n # # n # n
&

23

104

b n #

# b

25

&

# # #
# n

b b b #

b b

&
# #

27

# n #

& # # # n # #

28

29

&

# n b n n b # # # # n #

& # # # n n n b b # # n # # #

30


# # # n n n # R R R #
&
R R R # #

32

105

& #

34

36

&

38

&

# #
#

b b
b

# #
# # #

# # #
# n

# # #
# n

# #

# # # # # n n #
#

&
#

40

& # n # n # # n # n # n # n # n # n

41

b n # # n # n # n # n

&

43

106

45

&

47

&

# n # # n n # n # # n n b
# n # n b # n

#
# n #

#
n n
b b b

# # #
#

b b b

b
&

49

n # # # # n #

&

51

53

&

# #

#
n

107

# # #

ETUDE # 13: Double tonguing


Study and Awareness of the Oral Muscular Mechanism

Brisk, neurotic


& 44 R !
f * Pitchless, percussive
(d-g)

(d-g-d)

d - articulation with the tip of the tongue


g - artigulation with the back of the tongue (i.e. guh or kuh)

&

(d-g-d-g)

& j
b

&

10

&

13

&

16

j
b

j
b

j
b

J # J # J #
b
b
b
P
108

&

19

&

22

&

25

&

28

&

J #

J ! #

n
! #

n
#

31

&!

34

J ! #

J ! #

n
! #

n
#

n
#

109

J ! #

J ! #

n
! #

n
#

(g-d-g)
n
# !

& ! !

! !

37

& ! !

! !

40

& ! !

43

! !

!!

! !

# # #
&

46

& R !
f

49

& R !

52

!
R

! R !
R

110

!
R

! R !
R

R!
&R

55

! R !
R


! R !
R

! R!
! R!
& R! R!
R
R

58



&
"

61

!
!

!
!

&

64

!
&

! !

&

67

70

111

R !

&


R!

R!
&

R!

73

75

&

77


&

79

112

ETUDE # 14: Double Tonguing


Legato, Repeated Passages

Intent, driving

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - simile
2

&4
F
& b b

& b

10

&

& b

13

&

113

16

19

&

22

&

25

&

28

&

# #
#

&
P

31

34

&

# # #

114

37

&

40

&

43

&

# # n

b
f

b
&

46

49

&

52

&

115

55

&

b
&

58

61

&

& b
P

64

& b
F

67

&

70

116

r
!

ETUDE # 15: Double Tonguing


Rapid, Conjunct, Chromatic Passages

Cascading

& 44

&

&

&

&

11

&

n . . b . # n . . #
#

n . . b . # n . .
#

# n . b . # n . # . # n n . b . # n . .
f

# . n . . b . . # n . . b . . # n . n . b . .
# n
# n
# n

. # . n # . n . # . # .
.

# . n . . b # . n .

b . . # . n b . .

b . . # . n b . . b . # . n b . .

# n # . n . b . .
#

# n . . b # . n .
.
# n . b . # n . . n b . # n # . n . b . # . n . .

b
117

# . . #
.
.
#

.
.
#

& # # . . # # #
f

13

15

&

. n . n . n
# # . .

. . .
# . .
. .
# # . .
# # . .
. .

. .
.
. . . . . # # # . . n # # . .
#

&
. # .
. .

17

# # . .
. .
#

#
#

&
# . # .
. .
F

19

21

&

n . . b . # n . n .

n . n . b . # n . . # n n . b . # n . . # n n . b . # n . .

n b . . # n . b . n b . . # n n . b . n . b .
. .
&
# #
. .
. .

23

118

.
. # .
. # .
.
.
#

.
.
.
#

& # # . # . #
# # # . .
. .

25

27

&

n . . b . # n . # . #
f

n . n . b . # n . # .

# n n . b . # n . # . # n n . b . # n . . n . .
b # n . b .
&
# n . # . # . # .

29

&
P

31

. .
# . . # . # # n

. .
# . . # . # #

. .
. .
. # . # . # . n # . . n # n . # .

&
. .
. .

33

# n . b . # n . . # n n . b . # n . . b . .
# n # n n b . . # n # n
&
. .
. .

35

119

. .
. .
.
.
#

.
.
#

.
.

#
& # # . . # # . . # #
# # . . # #

37

. .
. # # . # .
.
.
.

.
.
#

.
.
#

#
# # . # . # #
& # # . . # # #

39

41

&

43

&

# . n . . b # . n . #
f

b . . # . n b . . n b . # . b . n . # n . . # n . b .

45

n b . . n b . # . b . n . # n . # . #

47

&

&

n . # . n . b . # .

n . # . n . # n . b .

n . # . n . # n . b . # n # . n . # n . b . .
J

120

ETUDE # 16: Double Tonguing


Repeated Notes with Varying Velocity

#.

Fluctuating, with measured anger

&

& #

&

15

&

"

"

# . . . .

&
F

# .

#.

bw

# #w

"

# . . . .

121

n . . . . . . .

"

w
P

"

19

&

22

&

# b n #

"

. . . . . . . .

"

. . . . . . . .

"

"

. . . . # . . . .

b . . . .

"

& #
F

29

31

&

33

&

37

&

"

122

"

. . . .

"

. . . .

ETUDE # 17: Microtones


Slow, "Microchromatic" Passages
1
2
3
5
6

Meditatively

& 44 . L j #
!

&

&j .

8 c1
2

13

&

- # - J -

Ta

j -

F
1
2
3
5
6

.
p

j
L #

123

1
2
3
5
6

j
L #

.
"

L - .

1
2
4
5

j .

L -

8
1
Tc 2

# -

44 # -

1p
3

8
1
2
3
5
6

34
F

j .

1
2
Tc

1
2
4
5

1
2
4
5

1
2
3
4
5
6
Eb7

n .
f

3
4

8
1
2
3
Tf 5

.
44
f

- j - # 3
&4

17

8
1p
3

8p
1

- j - # 3
&4

25

&

# .

& .
P

&

1
2
3
5
6

j
L #

j .

f
8
c1
2

3
4

- j - # -

8
2
Tc

1
2
4
5

# -

29

33

4
4

21

# -

8
1
2
3
Tf
5

124

L -

Tc

8
1
2
Tc

n -

# -

8
1
2
Ta 3
5

8
1p
Ta3

j - # - L -

8
1
2

4
4

43

8
1
2
4
5

34 L .

44

& 44 .
F

37

41

&

1
2
3
5
6

j
L #
1
2
3
4
5
Eb 6
7

j .

4
&4 w

j
L #

.
f

# -

.
P

j .

# -

3
4

1
2
3
Ta
5

J .
1
2
4
5

j .

n w125

b.
1
2
3
5
6

49

1p
Ta 3

3
& 4 .
F

& #.
-

j .

45

53

1
2
4
5

1
2
3
4
5
7

44

# "

w-

57

&

1
2
3
5
6

1
2
3
Tf 5

1
2
4
5

126

ETUDE # 18: Microtones


Slow, Disjunct Passages

8
1
2
3
4 C#
Liquid 5
Eb 6

j #
4
&2
P
8
1
2
3
5
6

8
1
2
3
4
5
6

1
2
4
5

- B
3 # - L j - j 4
&2
- 2
P
f

&

10

&

##

8
2

Tc

8
1
2
3
4
6

8
1
2
3
4
5
6
Eb
7

Ta

#w.

8
1
2
3

n
127

3
2

Tc

# l
F
8
1
2
3
Tf 5

8
2
3

j
# l
Tc

- L- 32 L #

8
1
2
3
4
6

## 4
2
F

Tf

8
1
2
3
5

j w.

32

8
1
2
3 B
4
1p
5
3
6

8
1
2
3
5
6

L - j - ## 3

j
& 2
p

42 w

# # 3 j L j 4 w .
& 2
2

nn

13

8
1
2
4
5

16

& 42

22

8
1
2
3
B
4
5
6

1
2
3
4
5
Eb 6
7

19

& #w

8
1
2
3
5
6

Eb

< j
<

8
1
2
3
4
6

1
2
3
C#
4
5
6

128

8
1
2
Ta 3

32


8
1
2
3
4
5
6
Eb
7

32 w
f
8
2
3

8
2
Tc

8
c2

L L

42

32

& 32

25

#w.

42

2
3

L
Tc

129

ETUDE # 19: Microtones


Hybrid-Conjunct and -DIsjunct Passages
8
1
p
Ta 3

j
j

8
1p
3

J
j

Dangerous, foreboding

12
& 8 j

& j

& b j

8
1
Tc 2

j
j

& J #
p

J L

& j

8
2

8 c1
2

Tc

Tc

J n

8
1p
Ta 3

j
j

j
j

8
2

Tc

j
b

1
2

Jj
Tc

J
130

j
j

8
1
P
3

8
1
Tc 2

8
1
2
4
5

J
j

8
1p
Ta 3

j
j

1p
3

Jj
Ta

8
1
Tc 2

J b

8
1
2
4
5

8
1P
3

J
j

J J

1p
3

#
&J

11

n
b
&J

13

15

&

& j

17

8
1
2
3
4
5
6B

Jj
8
1
2
3
4
5
Eb 6
7

JJ
8
1
2
3
4
5
7

j
J

8
1
P
Ta 3

j
j

J b

J b

JJ
Tc

8
1
2
3
4
5
6B

Jj

8
1
2
3
4
5
Eb 6
7

J
J

#
J

J j

J b

2
Tc

8
1p
3

J
j

j
b

131

1
2
Tc

J J

8
1
2
3
4
5
6B

Jj

8
1
2
4
5

1p
3

Jj
Ta

1
2

Tc
Jj

J b

& j

19

j
& #
f

21

8
1
2
Tc

j
j

8
2

L
j

Tc

8 c1
2

j
j

& J #
!

J L

#
& J
p

B
J j

j
&
F

23

25

27

Tc

8
1
2
3
4
5
6

J n

J b

8
1p
3
Ta

j
j

j
n

8
Tc2

j
#

1
2

Jj
Tc

8
1
Tc 2

J
j

#
J

J J
Tc

8
1
3
5

132

8
1p
Tc 3

j
j

8
1
2

j
j

Tc

1p
Ta3

J j

1
2

Tc
Jj

J b

8
1
2
4
5

8
1p
3

J
j

J J

1p
3

1p
3

Ta
Jj

n
b
& J
P

29

31

&

&
P

33

j
&

35

8
1
2
3
4
5
Eb 6
7

J J
8
1
2
3
4
5
7

j
J

8 c1
2

8
1
3
5

J
j

J b

j
b

8
1
2
3B
4
5
6

Jj
8
1
2
3
4
5
Eb 6
7

JJ

J b

b
J

8
2

J
Tc

8
1
2
4
5

j
j

j
b

133

J J

2
Tc

8
1
2
3
4
5
6B

Jj

8
1
Tc 2

J b

j
b

2
3

Tc
J j

8
1p
Ta 3

jj

8
1
2
3
5

j
j

Tf

& # j

37

8
1
2
3
5
6

J
j

j
n

8
1
2
3
4
6

j
j

134

8
1
2
3
4
5
7

j
j
j .

ETUDE # 20: Microtones


Rapid, Conjunct Passages
8
1
2
4
6

Tf

8
1
2
3
5

Mechanical

5 L # l j
&4
f

&

&

&

&

n L # l

n L # l

j
#

L # l

j
#

# l L

n L # l

n L # l
8
1
2
3
4
6

8
1
2
3
5
6

n L # l

L # l

n L # l

n L # l

n L # l

# l L

135

8
1
2
4
5

8
1
3
5

# l L

l L

# l L

n L # l

j
#

&

&

&

&

10

&

n L # l

j
#

n L # l

L # l

# l L

n L # l

8
1
3
5

n L # l

n L # l

n L # l

136

8
1p
Tc

n L # l

n L # l
8
1
2
4
6

8
1
2
3
Tf 5

L # l

n L # l
8
1
2
3
4
6

8
1
2
3
5
6

L # l

11

&

12

&

13

&

L # l

L # l

# l L

14

# l L

15

n L # l

&

&

j
b

j
b

j
b

n L # l

n L # l

l L

l L

n L # l
137

n L # l

8
1
2
4
5

# l L

l L

8
1
3
5

8
1
3
5

8
1p
Ta

n L # l

n L # l

16

&

n L # l

Tf

17

&

8
1
2
3
5

2
Tc

& L L j
f

18

& n L L j

19

8
1
2
3
4
6

8
1
2
3
5
6

j b J

1
Tc2

j
b

n L # l
8
1
2
3B
4
5

8
1
2
3
4
5
Eb 6
7

j b J

8
1
2
4
5

n L L j

138

n L L j

n j b

n L L

2
Tc

c1
3
Tc

n L # l

j
& n L # l

20

n L # l j

n L # l

8
1
2
3
4
5
Eb6
7

8
1
2
3 C#
4
5
Eb 6

j
& n L # l

n L # l j

n L # l

n L # l j

n L # l j

n L # l

21

22

&

j
n

l
L

&

23

8
1
2
3
5
6

24

&

8
1
2
3
Tf 5

L # l

n L # l j

b n

139

8
1
2
3
4
6

# l L

ETUDE # 21: Timbre and Bisbigliando


Melodic Passages
8
1
2
3
5
6
7

(12+5+12)

b o o
#

LevEl

&

& .
F

& # ..

&

2
3
4
5
6
Eb

c1
1
2
3
Tc

c1
c2
c3

o o
# o o # o o

c1
1
2
3
G#
7

c1
c2
c3

# o o b o o .

# . o . . o . . o . . o . ..

c1
c1
c2
c3

1
2
Tc3

1
2
3
Tc

# o o # o o o o

1
2
3
Tc

# o o o o .

#.

1
2
3
Tc

c1
c2
c3

2
3
4
5
6
Eb

2
3
4
5
6
Eb

8
1
2
3
5
6
7

o o #
2
3
4
5
6
Eb

c1
1
2
Tc3

o o
o o o o #
# #
F
140

& #.

2 c1
3
4
5
6
Eb

1
2
3
Tc

. o . . o . . # . o . . o . . . o . . o . . # .

1
2
3 G#
7

& # o o

11

13

&

c1
c2
c3

o o # o o #
#

&

15

8
1
2
3
5
6
7

8
1
2
3
4
6
Eb

# o o # o o
8
1
2
3
4
6
Eb

o o

o o
b o o o o #

c1
c2
c3

#
f

8
1
2
3
4
6
Eb

c1
c2
c3

1
2
5
6

141

# o o #

17

&

o o
# o o # o o

& #.

19

# o o o o .

2 c1
3
4
5
6
Eb

1
2
Tc3

# o o #
o o .

# . o . . o . . o . . o . ..

# ..

2
3
4
5
6
Eb

1
2
5
6

1
2
3
Tc

c1

o o o o n o o o o # o o
#

&
o o
subito p

21

c2

c1
c2
c3

o o o o # o o # o o n o o o o
#

&

23

25

&

8
4
5

# o o

142

27

&

& #

29

31

&

8
1
2
Tc3

8
1
2
4
5

8
4
5

b o o #

1
2
3 G#
7

# o o #
o o .

& # ..

# . o . . o . . o . . o . ..

35

8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

o o # o o o o b o o o o
#

& .
F

33

8
1
2
3 C#
4
5
6
7

1
2
3
7

# o o
o
o

# o o # o o o o

#.

143

# o o o o .

o o #

ETUDE # 22: Timbre and Bisbigliando


Utilizing Multiple Fingerings in Rapid Ostinato Passages
8
1
2
8
4
1
5
2
6
4
Frenetic 7

o oo o oo o o oo o oo o

4
&4

&

&

&

8
8
1
1
2
2
3 Bb 3
4
4
5 Eb 5

o
o

8
8
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
6 Eb 6

o
o

1
2
4

1
2
5
6

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

144

8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

8
1
2
3
(7)
5

&

&
P

&

&

8
1
8
2
1
3
2
4
3
4 Bb 5
5 Eb

o
o

8
1
2
3
4
6

8
1
2
3
4
Eb6

8
1
2
3
5
6
Eb

o
o
8
1
2
3
5 Bb

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

145

&

8
1
2
3
(7)

8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

8
1
2
8
3
C#
1
4
2
5
3 C# 6
(7)
7

10

&

11

&

12

&

8
1
2
4

8
1
2
4
5
6
7

o
o

8
1p

8
1p
4
5
6

8
1
p
3
4
5
6

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

146

1
p
4
1 5
p
4 6
5 7

1p

& #

13

14

&

15

&

16

&

& #

17

o
o

8
2 c1
3
8 c1 4
5
2

o
o

8
1
2
3
4
Eb 6

8
1
2
3
4
6

o
o

8
1
2
3 Bb
4
5

8
1
2
3
4
5
Eb 6
7

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

147

18

&

19

&

8
2 c1
3 c2
8
2 c1 4
c2 5

o
o

8 c1
2

8
c1
2
3
4
5

&

21

&

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

8
1
2
3
(7)

20

o
1
2
3
5
6
Eb

o
o

8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

1
2
3 Bb
5

o
o

o
o

148

o
o

22

&

23

&

24

&

25

& #

&

26

8
8
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
6
6 Eb

o
o

8
8
1
1
2
2
3Bb 3
4
4
5 Eb5

1
2
3 Bb
4
5

o
1
2
3
5
6
Eb

1
2
5

o
o

Eb

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

1
2
3
4
5

o
o
1
2
3
Bb
5

o
o

1
2
5
6

o
o

149

1 (B)
(7)

&

27

&
F

28

29

&

8
1
2
3
(7)

30

&

1
2
3B
4
5
6
7

2
4
5

2
3
B
4
5
6
7

o
o

8
8
1
1
2
2
3
3
Bb 4
4
5 Eb5

8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

150

31

&

8
1p

32

&

33

&

34

&

35

&

8
1
2
3
4
6
Eb

8
1
2
3
4
6

o
o

8
1p
4
5
6

8
1p
3
4
5
6

o
o

8 c1
2
3
8 c1 4
2
5

o
o

8
4

8
2
4
5
6
Eb

8
4
5
6

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

o
o

151

8
1
2
4

36

&

8
1
2
4
5
6
7

o
o
o
o
o o o o o o o o o o

152

R!

ETUDE # 23: Timbre and Bisbigliando


Repetitive Patterns with Varying Dynamics

Authoritative
1

& 68 # J

& # J

& # J
f

& # J

& # J

& # J

11

J
P


J J
"
1


J
"

J
p

J
p

#
J

#
J

J
!

J
f
3

#
J

153

J
p

J
P
1


J J
p P F

#
J J
P
F
3

#
J
F
1

J
f
4

#
J

J
P

J
P
4

J
p

#
J
P

& # J J
F

13

& # J J

15

& n J

17

& J
P

& J

& J

19

21

23

J
"

J
F

J
"

J
f

J
f

#
J

#
J
J
J

P
p
1

J
P


J J
f F

J
p

J
F


J
F
154

J
f

J
!

J
P

#
J
P

J
f

& J

25

& J

27

& J

29

& J
!

31


J J
f

J
P
3

J
F

& # J J

33

& # J J
F

35

J
F

J
p

J
#

J
"
2

J
f

J
f

J
F

#
J
J
J

P
p

J
f

#
J
155

J
F
2

J
P

#
F
2


J
! F

J
#

#
J
P

& # J

37


J
"
1

& # J

& # J

39

41

& # J

& # J

45

47


J J
"

& # J
f

43

f
4

J
P

J
P

J
p

J
!

#
J

J
p

#
J J
P
F

#
J
F

J
f

#
J

J
p

#
J

#
J
156

J
f

#
J
P

J
p
1

J
P

J
P


J J
p P F

Suggested Fingerings

& # J

49

& J

53

& J

57

Tc
Ta

2
4
5

1
2
3
Tc4
5
6

#
J

3
4
5
6
7

#
J

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

1
2
Tc3

157

2
3
4 C#
5
6
7

2
3
B
4
5
6
7

1
2
3 G#
Tc 5

#
J

2
3
4
5
6
Eb

c1

2
3
4
Tc5
6

1
2
3B
4
5
6
7

ETUDE # 24: Timbre and Bisbigliando


Timbral "Trills"

& 44

&

&

b t

t ~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~# t ~~~~~~ b t

~~~~~~

&

158

t ~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~

# t

t ~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~


n

&

~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~


#

t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~

t ~~~~~~

11

&

&

13

15

&

17

&

19

&

t ~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~

t ~~~~~~

t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~

b
b
.

159

~~~~~~~

#t ~~~~~~~

P
#

21

&

23

&

25

# t

~~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~


n

&

t ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

& w

27

t ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~~~~~~~

b t ~~~~~~~ t ~~~~~~~# t ~~~~~~~b

160

~~~~~~~~~

ETUDE # 25: Multiphonics


... for the isolation of individual pitches using multiphonic fingerings with a focus on dyads
8
1
2
3
c34
5

Crystalline

4 w
&4
P

&

1
2
3 Bb
4
5
7

8
1
2
c33
4
5
7

&

10

&

w
1
2
3
4
6
7

# ww

#w

w
w

# ww

#w

w
w

w
161

8
1
2
c3 3
4
5

w
&
P

13

16

&

8
1
2
3 Bb
5
6

w
1
2
3
4
6
7

w
&
F

19

22

&

8
1
2
3
Bb
5
6

# ww

#w

w
#w

#w

w
w

w
#w

#w

162

25

& #
!
8
1
2
c33
4
5

w
&
F

28

1
2
3 Bb
4
5
7

w
&
P

31

8
1
2
3
c3
4
5
34

&

1
2
3
Bb
4
5
7

w
w

# ww

#w

w
w

# ww

#w

163

ETUDE # 26: Multiphonics


Using Threshold Tones to Precede Articulated Multiphonics

l
l
j
<

With great patience

3
&2
<
P

Alto Sax

A. Sx.

simile

& #

<

<

1
2
4B
5
6
7

L l
Ll

1
2
3 Bb
4
5
6

A. Sx.

&
P

l
l
j

1
2
3
4
Tc
5
7

&

A. Sx.

1
2
3 Bb
4
5
6

<

<

b
<

<

164

1
2
3
Bb
4
5
6

A. Sx.

&
P

l
l
j

c1
2
3
4 Bb
5
6

& #

A. Sx.

J
L
p

1
2
3 Bb
4
5
7

A. Sx.

&
P

A. Sx.

&

L L
j

8
1
2
3
Bb
4
5

L
L

165

&
P

A. Sx.

&

1
2
3 Bb
4
5
6

10

A. Sx.

1
2
3
Bb
4
5
Eb 6
7

l
l
j

1
2
3
4 Bb
5
7

11

A. Sx.

&

L L
j

1
2
3 Bb
4
5
6

12

A. Sx.

&
P

l
l
j

166

1
2
3
4 Bb
5
6

13

A. Sx.

&

&

14

A. Sx.

l
l
j

l
L

1
2
3 Bb
4
5
6

15

A. Sx.

&
P

&

16

A. Sx.

l
l
j

1
2
3
4
Tc
5
7

167

1
2
B
4
5
6
7

17

A. Sx.

& #
P

1
2
3
Bb
4
5
6

18

A. Sx.

&

L l
Ll

l
l
j

1
2
3
4
Tc
5
7

&

19

A. Sx.

1
2
3
4 Bb
5
6

20

A. Sx.

&
P

l
l
j

168

1
2
3
Bb
4
5
6

21

A. Sx.

&

l
l
j

1
2
3
Tc 4
5
7

&

22

A. Sx.

1
2
3
Bb
4
5
7

23

A. Sx.

&
P

L L
j

1
2
3 Bb
4
5
6

24

A. Sx.

&

l
l
j

169

ETUDE # 27: Multiphonics

1
2
3
4
6
7

Rapidly Shifted Multiphonics

With arrogance

&

1
2
3
4
6
7

# #
b

1
2
3
5
6
7

1
2
3
4
6
7

r .

L ww
L w
Lw

1
2
3
5
6
7

L
L
L j
L j # # n # r .
& # j L L # j L L

F
P

1
2
3
4
6
7

L ww
L w
& Lw

# # n # n #

r .

1
2
3
4
6
7

L ww
L w
Lw

b # n n # # #
# #
b
n

b n
&

170

1
2
3
C#
5
6
7

l l www
Lw

# # # # n
.
&
R

11

13

&

15

&

16

&

1
2
3
5 C#
6
7

l l www
Lw

# # # n

.
R

# # # n

171

17

# # # n
# n
# n

18

# # # n # n n n b
#
# n b n b b

&

&

1
2
3
4
6
7

1
2
3
4
6
7

1
2
3
5
6
7

1
2
3
5
6
7

L
L
# # # n # n

# n # n b b
L
L

b
#

& J L J L L J L

19

1
2
3
6
7

1
2
3 C#
5
6
7

1
2
3
4
6
7

L
l l
j j jL

& # # L n L

21

# # n # n # n #

# # n #
# # n # n n !
&
R

23

172

1
2
3
5
6
7

ll www
Lw
f

r
& # # n b !

25

1
2
3
5
6
7

w
Lw

& b # # n b !

27

1
2
3
5
6
7

l
l www
& Lw

29

b
"

& b b b b b b b
F

31

173

b # n # n # n # n

& # n # n # n

33

b # n b
&

35

37

&

39

&

b # n n b # n n

b n # b n # # # # n b # n b n b

# # # # n
# n #

174

.
J

ETUDE # 28: Multiphonics


Rapid, Melodic Passages
8
1
2
3
4
c3
5

With patience

1
2
3B
4
6
7

& 13
16 # # # #
f
c1
1 c2
2
3
4 C#
5
7

1
2
3
Tc
4
6
7

& #

#
#

8
1
2
3
c3 4
5

& # #

&

1
2
3B
4
6
7

#
#

# #

n

175

# n

#
&

8
1
2
3
5
6
Eb
7

#
& # #

11

1
2
3
4
c3
5

& # #

13

8
1
2
3
5
Eb 6
7

#
& # #

15

1
2
3
5
6
7

#
#

# #

# n

# #

# #

#
#

1
2
3B
4
6
7

n
1
2
3
5
6
7

# n #

176

&

17

&

19

1
2
3
c3 4
5

& # #
f

21

& #

#
#

# n #

1
2
3B
4
6
7

c1
1
c2
2
3 C#
4
5
7

1
2
3
Tc 4
6
7
23

n
#

177

#
#

# n

8
1
2
3
4
c35

25

& #

1
2
3
B
4
6
7

&

#
#

8
1
2
3
c3 4
5
29

& #

1
2
3
B
4
6
7

178

c1
1 c2
2
3
4 C#
5
7

1
2
3
4
Tc
6
7
27

#
#

# n

Kr

ETUDE # 29: Slap Tonguing


As a Conrapuntal Technique

Tango, mournful

j
& 44
F
j
&



& #
J

10

&

13

&



#
J

179

16

&

19

&

22

& #

25

& #

28

&

#
P

180




&

31

& # #

34

37

&

# #
cresc.

& # #

40

cresc.

& #

43

181

&

46

& #

49

& # #
p

52

54

&

cresc.

56

&

cresc.

182


& # #

58

& #

60

&

62

# # n

183

ETUDE # 30: Slap Tongue


Low Tessitura in Pointillism

Intent

& 42 !

# . . .

& ! # !

&

13

&

! # !

. . . . .

# . . . . . . . . # . . .

&! !

10

# . . . .

# . . . . . .

. . . . .

# . . . .

! #

. . .

! # !

! # !

#
! . !

# . . . # . .
F

184

!
!
# #

. . . . . . . .


! . .

. .

. . . . . . .

# . . . . .

# . . . . . . . .

16

&

. . .

&! !

19

&! !

! # ! n !

&

# . .

# . . . . . # . . . . . . n . .

# ! #

. . . . . . . .

22

25

# . . . . . . . . . # .

#
"

. . . . . . . . . # . . . . . . .

"

! #

# #

! #

cresc.

# ! # # # ! n #
& # # !
cresc.
P

28

185

# ! #

& ! #
f

31

& !

34

&!

37

40

&

43

&

# # #

cresc.

! #

# #

! # #

# !

! ! ! #

n !

! #

! ! # ! ! #

. .
# . . . . . . # . . . . . . . .

. .

. . .
#

. . . . . . . .

.
# . . . . . # . . . . . . # .

186

46

&

49

&

. . .

# .

!
! # !
!
#
f
.

# . . . . . . . . . . . # .

187

# .

ETUDE # 31: Slap Tongue


In the Higher Tessitura

# # J
5
&8

f
Bright, optimistic

# #
J
&
#

&

10

&

# #

# #

# # #
&
J #

# # #
J #
&

# n

J #

# #

# #
J

# # #
J #

13

16

# # J

# #
F

188

# #
J

# n

J #

# #

# # #
J #

# #
J

# #
J

# # #
J
&
#

19

n #
J
&

22

# # #
J #
&

28

&

# #

# #

25

# # n
J
&
#

&

# # J

# #
J #

# # n
J

# #
J

189

# #
J

# # J

# #
J

# #
J #

n #
J
# #

# # #
J #

31

34

# # #
J

# # #
J #
&

37

40

&

#
J #

#
# #
&
J

43

& #

46

j
#

# j
# #
&

49

#
n #
6
& 8 #
#

52

#
J

# # j

# #

190

# j
# #

#
# #
J

#
# #
J

# # #
J #

#
J

# j

# # j

# #

!
#

68

5
8

#
5
& 8 #

55

# #
J
&
#

58

61

&

64

&

# n

J #

# #

# #
J
&

# #
J

# #
J
&
#

# #

# #

# #
J

67

# # J

70

# n

J #

# #

# #
J

# #
J

# #
J

191

# # J

#
J

ETUDE # 32: Slap Tonguing


Sustaining a Pitch After a Slap

& 44

&

b.

b.

b.

b.

b # b b
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
&

& .
F

b.

& .

b.

11

15

b.

b.

# ! ! b ! b ! !
& ! b ! !

19

192

21

&

25

&

b.

b.

#.

#
#
b b # # #
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
&

29

& .
F

& .

b.

b.

#.

31

35

! # ! # ! ! ! b ! !

b
&
# # # !

39

193

& .
F

41

45

& .

b.

b.

#.

#.

& ! b ! b ! # # # ! # # ! ! ! # !

49

& .
F

51

55

& .

b.

b.

#.

! b b !
&
# # # ! ! ! b ! ! # !

59

194

61

& .
F
& .
F

& .
F

64

67

& .
F

70

!
!
!
#

! # ! ! !

! # ! ! !

195

ETUDE #33: Furthering Altissimo


Rapidly Articulated Passages

# # # 4 . . . . . . . . . . . j # . # j # . j n .
#
& 4
f
Wildy, crisp and light

&

# # # . . . . . . . . . . . . . j # . # j # . j n .
#
p

. . . . n . . . . n . j . j .

###
# # # j n .
&
f

. . . . . . n . . n . j . j .

###
# # # j n .
&
p

# # # . . . . . . . . . . . j # . # j # . j n .
#
&


#
11
# # # . . . .
&

196

. # . # j n .

j
# j

. . n . . . . . j . .

###
# j # # j n .
&
f

13

. . . . n n # . j . j

###
# # . # j n .
&
p

15

17

&

###

. . . . . . # . . . . . . . j # . # j # . j n .
#

. . . . . . . . . . # . . .

19
.
###

&

# .

# # # # . . . . . . . . # . . # . . . J
&
J
P

21

# . . . . . . . . # . . # . . .

###
# .
&

23

197

25

&

27

&

29

&

###

##

# . . # . . . . . . # . . . . # . . .
P

# # . . . . .
#

###

. . . . . . . . .
F

b . . .
. . .
33
###
J
J
&

&

###

198

. .# . .# . . .
.

. . n . . n . . . . . . n . . .
31

###
&
f

35

# . . .
. . .
J
J

. . . . .

. . . . # . . . . # . . n . . . . .
###
J
&

37

. . # . . n . . # . . . . . . . . .

39
#
n
# .
###
&
. . . . . . . . . . . . # . . .

41
###
J
&

43

&

###

. .

. .

. .

. .

199

. .

ETUDE # 34: Furthering Altissimo


Flexibility

> > > > 5 > # # 4 ># > > > n 5


4
&4
8 #
4 # n
8
f
Adamant

> # # 4 > # > > > n


5
& 8 #
4 #

85 #
>

b # #

& # # #

#
b # # #
>
>
>
p

8
1
2
3
(B)
4
5
6

&# #

12

8
1
3
4
6

8
2
3
(B)
4
5
6

> > > >


#

#
4

4
f

200

Eb

85

> # #
#

5
&8

15

8
1
2
Tc3
Ta4

8
2
3
4 (B)
5
6

8
1
3
Ta 46

> # > > > n


> # #

#
44
44
85

8
1
3
Ta4
6

> # > > > n


# # # # # #

>

# n

4
&4
85

18

22

&

b # #
P

>
27
& 12
8
f

8
1
2
3B
4
5
6

# b b #
#

12
# 8

8
2
3 (B)
4
5
6

8
1
3
4
6
Eb

>

>
>

201

#
85 # #

12
8

> #
12
& 8 #

29

> #
12
& 8 #

31

33

&

8
1
3
4
Ta 5

8
1
2
3
Ta 4

# >

n
>
>

# >

n
>
>

8 c1
2
3
4
5
6

b
4 > b
&2
b

35

#
85 # #

> n
n
n

>

202

85 #

8
x
4

> # #
#

12
8

42

ETUDE # 35: Furthering Altissimo


Extending Altissimo via Cadenza

Cadenza

&
!

&

&

& n

&

# # . . .
#
# . . # . . . .
#
# . .
#
# .

12

cantabile

#
203

" r
#
p

# w

nw

14

#.

#
# # #

&
F

17

&

(#)
#
21
&
(#)
#
24
&
3

# #

# # #

# #

# #

204

ETUDE # 36: Furthering Altissimo


Flexibility

b #

b # #

Dreamlike, comfortable

& 44

&

&

10

&

13

&

16

&

b b b b
#

# #

#
J

# n # n

# #
f
# n # n

# n # # n # n # # n

b #

b #

b #
205

b #

19

&

22

&

25

# b

# n #

# b

# n #

# n

# #

&

31

&

34

&

# n

.
J

# b b n # n

# n # n

# # n # n # # n

# n # n #

&
F

28

# b # n #


#
J

# b
J
#
b
J
206

b J


# #
J

b b
J

b
J


#
J

b
J


# #
J

b
J

b
J

37

b
J

40

43

46

&

&

&

&

49

&

52

&

# #

J
b

207

bw

b
J

55

&

58

&

61

&

64

&

67

&

70

&

# b #
#

# n b
# n b #

F
b #

b b
#

b b

#
J

# # n # b n # n
#
n

#
#

# # n # b n

b b #
# b n
#

# # # n # n #

208

ETUDE 37: Vocalizing


Singing Pitches Both Above and Below a Performed Drone

4
&4 w

Placid, religious

play

Sing

& w
F

& w
P

& w

# w

& w
F

& w
F

10

13

16

209


& w

19

& w

w
&
P

w
&

&w

22

25

Play

28

31

w
&
p

34

Sing

w
#

210

w
&
F

& w
f

37

40

&

43

w
&

46

49

&

211

ETUDE # 38: Vocalizing


Singing a Drone While Performing a Moving, Melodic Passage

Dramatic

.
4
&4

.
& .

b
&

..

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
&

.
.

.
& .

.
b

13

16

.
.

.
& .

10

.
212

.
b
&

19

.
& .

22

.
&

.
& .

.
#
&

.
.

25

28

31

34

&

.
.

.
.

# .

..

.
213

.
.

.
n

.
.

.
.

.
b
&

.
& .

.
&

.
& .

37

40

43

46

..

.
.

214

.
b

.
.

.
.

ETUDE # 39: Vocalizing (Obvious Evening)


Simultaneous Pitch Changes on Both the Instrument and in the Voice

Electrifying

9
& 16

&

b
f

b b !

b b

&

&

&

10

&

"

b ! b

b !
215

"

12

&

14

&

b b
.
J
f

b ! b

b
&
.
J

16

18

&

20

&

"

! b ! b
.
J
f

b b

b
&
.
J

22

216

"

24

b # b #

& .
J
F

.
J

"

26

&

"

b #
& .
.
J
J
P

"

28

30

&

32

&

34

&

b #
p

"

# b

# b
217

36

&

38

&

40

&

b b
.
J
f

b ! b

b !
&
.
J

42

44

&

46

&

"

"

b n # b # b
p

# b n # b n #
218

48

&

50

&

b n # b n# b

"

"

b n # b # b
& .
.
J
J
f

52

# b n # b n #
& .
.
J
J

54

b n # b n # b
& J .
.
J

56

58

&

"

"
219

60

&

62

&

64

&

66

&

b b

b ! b

b !

"

220

ETUDE # 40: Vocalizing


Simultaneous Parallel Melodic Motion

Simple, reflective

& 44

# #

& # #

& #

& #

# #

13

# #

# #

# # # #

&w

& # #

# #

# #

17

21

# #

# #

# #
221

# #

# # # #

# #

# # #

# #

# #

# #

& #

& #

25

29

& # #

33

&

& #

# #

37

39

# # #

# #

# #

222

# #

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Patrick Murphy, a native of Wappingers Falls, NY, currently serves as Artist
Coordinator at the ground-breaking Musical Instrument Museum in Phoenix, AZ.
Previously, he has served on the faculty of the Crane School of Music, State University of
New York, College at Potsdam. He will complete his doctorate from Arizona State
University, and holds degrees from The University of Michigan, and The State University
of New York, College at Potsdam. He has studied saxophone with Timothy McAllister,
Donald Sinta, and Eric Lau and composition with David Heinick. He has performed
throughout North and South America, most recently having completed a three-city tour
of Ecuador with his quartet, The Estrella Consort. He was the last saxophonist to
perform with the New World Symphony in their previous residence The Lincoln
Theater and the first saxophonist to perform in their new Frank Gehry-designed New
World Center.

223