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The Pioneers

5.1 Introduction

In a waveguide, electric and magnetic fields are confined within the

hollow space of the guide and thus no power is lost through radiation.

Due to air being the dielectric that fills the hollow region within the

guide, the dielectric loss is also negligible.

Further, if we choose a metal having good conductivity, like copper, for

constructing waveguide walls, then the conductor losses or Ohmic

losses at the guide walls are also negligible.

Thus, a waveguide acts as a lossless medium of transferring

cause power loss during the transmission of electromagnetic waves.

Modes basically correspond to the different possible solutions of the

Maxwells equation inside the waveguide region and can exist if the

frequency of the signal is above a certain value, called the cut-off

frequency.

If the frequency of a signal is below the cut-off frequency, then the

corresponding mode will be attenuated within a short distance.

The cut-off frequency depends on the order of the mode and the

dimensions of waveguides. Thus, each mode has its individual field

The mode that has the lowest cut-off frequency among all the possible

modes is called a dominant mode.

for reducing mode loss.

This can be achieved by a proper choice of the waveguide

dimensions, such that the frequency of the input signal is greater than

the cut-off frequency of the dominant mode but less than the cut-off

frequency of the next higher-order mode.

Transmission Lines

such sections on each side of the line,

the sections will touch each other after

waveguide.

Insertion of short-circuited quarterwave sections has a prominent impact

on the field configurations of a two-wire

line

system.

As

result,

field

transmission

line

undergo

many

within the hollow space of a waveguide

rather than travelling along the length of

the guide.

rectangular waveguide system.

because of the existence of short-circuited quarter-wave sections. However,

this is not true. In fact, waves with frequencies, for which the sections are

quarter wavelength long or smaller, do not propagate efficiently through

waveguides, but those with frequencies higher than this may propagate

efficiently.

transverse magnetic (TM), as well as transverse electromagnetic (TEM)

modes.

For the TEM mode the electrostatic potential must satisfy the Laplaces

equation, given by

2tF (x,y) = 0

for 0 x a and 0 y b

F (x,0) = 0

F (x,b) = V0

F (x,y) = A + By

A= 0

B = V0 b

Therefore F (x,y) = V0 y b

uur

uur

V

et (x,y ) = - t F (x,y ) = - 0 a y

b

ur

uur

E (x,y,z) = et (x,y )e-

jkz

= -

V0 e

b

jkz

a y

k = w me

ur

V

1 ur

H(x,y,z) = a z E (x,y,z) = 0 eh

hb

jkz

a x

h=

me

The voltage at the top plate with respect to the bottom plate can be

expressed as

b

V= -

E dy =

y

V0 e-

jkz

a

I=

Hx dx =

0

V0 a e

hb

jkz

V

hb

=

I

a

w

=

b

k tan(d)

2

1

me

Np/m

Propagation of TE Wave:

TE wave must satisfy the following wave equation:

k c2 = er k 02 - b2 = k 2 - b2

Therefore

The boundary conditions Ex = 0 at y = 0,b

Now applying the second boundary condition we get sin(kc b) = 0

kc =

np

b

for n = 1, 2, 3,K

np y

jb Hz

jb

Hx = - 2

= - 2

e

gn cos

b

kc x

k c x

np y

jb

Hy = gn 2 (k c )sin

e

b

kc

jbz

jbz

= 0

np y

jb

= gn

sin

e

b

kc

np y

jwm Hz

jwm

Ey = 2

= 2

e

gn cos

b

kc x

k c x

jbz

jbz

= 0

Ez = 0

All transverse field components vanishes and hence TE0 mode cannot exist

The propagation constant for the TEn mode

The above two cases implies that there must be a cutoff frequency

above which wave will propagate. This reveals the high pass filter

nature of a parallel plate waveguide.

At cutoff frequency

The phase velocity is expressed as vp

v

v

1 fc2 f 2

1 c

d

2

v

v

1

c

The group velocity is g d

2

Therefore vp v g v

1 c

Now Z0,TE =

Ex

wm

=

Hy

b

ad =

k 2 tan (d)

2b

Np/m

as

Propagation of TM Wave:

TM wave must satisfy the following wave equation:

k c2 = er k 02 - b2 = k 2 - b2

Ez (x,y,z) = ez (x,y)e- jbz = {g0 cos(kc y)+ g1 sin(k c y)}e- jbz

Applying the first boundary condition we get, g0 = 0

Now applying the second boundary condition we get, sin(kc b) = 0

kc =

Therefore,

np

b

for n = 1, 2, 3,K

At cutoff frequency

we get

Z0,TM = -

Ey

Hx

b

we

Z0,TE Z0,TM =

wm b

m

= = h2

b we e

mode, their expressions for guided wavelength, phase velocity and

group velocity are also same.

a

PTMn

1

= Re

2

x= 0 y= 0

a

b

ur uur*

1

*

E H .a z dxdy = - Re E yHx dxdy =

2

x= 0 y= 0

weab

2

g

n Re (b) for n >0

4k c2

weab

2

g

Re (b) for n =0

n

2

2k c

ac =

kRs

Pl

=

for n = 0 Np/m

2P0

bhb

Let us now consider the TM1 mode the propagation inside a parallel plate

waveguide.

The propagation constant and the z-component of the electric field can be

written as

b1 =

k 2 - (p b)

(-y,+z) and (+y,+z) directions respectively. The angle that each plane

wave makes with the z-axis satisfies the following relations:

k sin(q) = p b

k cos(q) = b1

tan(q) =

p

=

bb1

pb

2

k - (p b)

0

So the range of q is 0o q 90o . As f fc, b1 0 andq 90 . That is the

wave bounces up and down between the two plates and there is no

motion in the +z direction.

The phase velocity of the wave inside the waveguide is

vp =

w

k

1

=

=

b1 k cos (q) me

cos (q) me

medium.

Therefore

vp

c

fl

fl

A rectangular waveguide is basically hollow metallic tube that is made

of good conductor and having rectangular cross-section.

Like parallel plate waveguide, a rectangular waveguide can also

support a number of modes and each of them will have individual cut-off

frequency.

The cut-off frequency of the modes depends on the dimension of the

waveguide.

supporting higher order modes, a common practice is to design the

waveguide in such a way that only the dominant mode can propagate.

Here also the wave travels down the guide through multiple reflections

from the guide walls and hence characterized by a guided wavelength

that is larger than the free space wavelength.

This procedure of propagation down the guide insures that either electric

or magnetic field will be in the direction of propagation.

Therefore the rectangular waveguide supports only the TE or TM mode.

Since the guide has four metal walls these modes are denoted by

or

TE

mn

where m and n are the number of half cycles of the electric or magnetic

TM

mn

field

in the direction of width and height respectively.

Waveguides

The wave that propagates inside a wave is plane wave in nature and hence

H0z

H0y j E0x

y

H

H0x 0z j E0y

x

E0z

E0y jH0x

y

H0 y

x

H0 x

j E0z

y

E0z

jH0y

x

E0 y E0 x

jH0z

x

y

E0x

E0Z 0 the above equations reduces to

H0z

H0y j E0x jcE0x

y

H0y

H

0x 0

x

y

E0 y jH0 x

H0x

E0 x jH0 y

H0z

j E0y jcE0y

x

E0 y

x

E0 x

jH0z

y

2H0z 2H0z

2 c 2 H0z k c2H0z

2

2

x

y

2 2c 2 j j kc2

The above equation is a two dimensional wave equation and can be solved

using the method of separation of variable. To do this we assume

H0z x,y H0z x H0z y

1

H0z x

2H0z x

x 2

k

2

c

H0z y

2H0z y

y 2

The right hand side of the above equation is a function of y whereas the

left hand side is a function of x only. This implies that both side of the

above equation must be a constant and we can write

2H0z x

x

k H0z x 0

2

x

2H0z y

y

k 2yH0z y 0

k 2x k 2y k c2

H0z x A cos k x x Bsin k x x

Therefore

Now

E0x

j H0z

k c2 y

E0y

j H0z

k c2 x

H0x

H0z

k c2 x

H0y

H0z

k c2 y

E0x

E0y

j

A cos k x x B sin k x x Ck y sin k y y Dk y cos k y y

2

kc

j

Ak x sin k x x Bk x cos k x x Ccos k y y Dsin k y y

2

kc

H0x

k c2

H0y

2

kc

The above equations are subjected to the boundary conditions that the

tangential components of electric fields must vanish at the conductor

walls.

x 0 and a E0 y 0 or, Ey 0

E0x 0 or, Ex 0

y 0 and b

B=0

D=0

sin k x a 0 sin m

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

k x m a

sin k yb 0 sin n

where n = 0, 1, 2, 3,.

k y n b

Ex E0x e jt z

j n

mx ny jt z

H

cos

0

a sin b e

b

k c2

Ey E0y e jt z

j m

mx

ny jt z

H

sin

cos

0

a

b e

a

k c2

E z E0z e jt z 0

Hx H0x e jt z

m

mx

ny jt z

H

sin

cos

0

b e

a

a

k c2

Hy H0y e jt z

n

mx ny jt z

H

cos

0

a sin b e

b

k c2

mx

ny jt z

Hz H0z e jt z H0 cos

cos

e

a

b

TE10 and (b) TE11 modes

different (a) TE20 and (b) TE11 modes.

The contour plots of the fields at different surfaces are shown below.

Waveguides

For TM Mode wave propagation H0z 0 and we can write

H0y j E0x jcE0x

H0y

x

E0x

H0x

j E0z jc E0z

y

E0z

E0y jH0x

y

E

0z jH0y

x

2E0z 2E0z

k c2E0z

2

2

x

y

E0 y

x

E0 x

0

y

1

E0z x

2E0z x

x 2

k

2

c

E0z y

2E0z y

y 2

The right hand side of the above equation is a function of y only whereas

the left hand side is a function of x only. This implies that both side of the

equation must be a constant. Therefore proceeding as before we can write

2E0z x

x

k E0z x 0

2

x

2E0z y

y

k 2yE0z y 0

where

k 2x k 2y k c2

E0z x Pcos k x x Qsin k x x

E0z Pcos k x x Q sin k x x R cos k y y S sin k y y

E0x

E0z

k c2 x

E0y

E0z

k c2 y

H0x

jc E0z

k c2 y

H0y

E0x

k c2

E0y

k c2

H0x

jc

Pcos k x x Qsin k x x Rk y sin k y y Sk y cos k y y

2

kc

H0y

jc

Pk x sin k x x Qk x cos k x x Rcos k y y Ssin k y y

2

kc

x 0 and a

E0Z 0 or,

EZ 0

y 0 and b

E0Z 0

or, EZ 0

jc E0z

k c2 x

P=0

R=0

sin k x a 0 sin m

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

kx

sin k yb 0 sin n

where n = 0, 1, 2, 3,

ky

m

a

n

b

E0x

m

mx ny

2 E0

cos

sin

a

kc

a b

H0x

j

n

mx

ny

2 c E0

sin

cos

b

b

kc

a

E0y

H0y

n

mx

ny

E

sin

cos

0

b

b

k c2

a

jc

m

mx ny

E0

cos

sin b

2

a

a

kc

Ex E0x e jt z

m

mx ny jt z

E

cos

0

a sin b e

a

k c2

Ey E0y e jt z

n

mx

ny jt z

E

sin

cos

0

a

b e

b

k c2

mx ny jt z

Ez E0z e jt z E0 sin

sin b e

a

Hx H0x e jt z

jc

n

mx

ny jt z

E

sin

cos

0

b e

b

a

k c2

Hy H0y e jt z

jc

m

mx ny jt z

E

cos

0

a sin b e

a

k c2

Hz H0z e jt z 0

Y-component of electric field distribution at the aperture with phase for (a)

TM12 and (b) TM 22modes.

and Degenerate Modes

If the dielectric within the waveguide is lossless then the propagation

constant can be expressed as

2

k c2 2

2

m n

k c2 k 2x k 2y

a b

m n

2

a b

2

Case I: m n 2

a b

not propagate and will be attenuated.

2

Case II: m n 2

a b

imaginary and positive and hence wave

will propagate.

The above two cases implies that there is a cutoff frequency above which

wave will propagate. This reveals the high pass filter nature of a waveguide.

At cutoff frequency

2

m n

c2

b

a

c m n

2 a b

2

fc

1

2

fc

2ab

m 2b 2 n2 a 2

wavelength, are called degenerate modes. Since the cut-off frequencies of

a TEmn and TMmn mode pair are identical therefore these modes are always

degenerate.

Since for TMmn modes neither m nor n can be zero, as in such cases the

entire TM field components will vanish, therefore there is no degenerate

TMm0 and TM0n modes corresponding to TEm0 and TE0n modes.

Degenerate modes have found wide applications in multimode circuits

like dual band filters etc.

To obtain a degenerate mode of the TE10 mode we often take square

In such case

and

degenerate modes.

In a square waveguide the TEmn, TEnm, TMmn and TMnm forms a foursome

degeneracy.

electromagnetic waves through the ventilators of the room.

Waveguides having cut-off frequencies above the maximum operating

frequency, being below the cut-off frequency of the guide, cannot

propagate through it while air can easily pass through them.

Another important application of the waveguide that takes the

advantage of the cut-off frequency is found in the front door of a

microwave oven where a number of thin waveguides are arranged in a net

pattern.

The frequency of the microwave radiation in the oven cavity is much

lower than the cut-off frequencies of these waveguides and hence cannot

pass through it and come outside.

On the other hand light waves, having much higher frequencies than the

cut-off frequencies of these waveguides, can pass through it.

Thus the user can easily see the condition of the food inside the oven

radiation.

The dominant mode corresponds to the particular combination of m and

n that results in minimum cutoff frequency or maximum cutoff wavelength.

TE Mode:

(a) TE00 Mode For m = 0 and n = 0 the entire field components vanishes.

Therefore TE00 mode cannot exist inside waveguide.

c,01

2ab

a2

2b

c,10

2ab

b

2a

c,11

2ab

a2 b2

to m = 1 and n = 0 has the maximum value. Therefore the dominant TE

mode is TE10 .

TM Mode:

(a) TM00 Mode For m = 0 and n = 0 the entire field components vanishes.

Therefore TM00 mode cannot exist inside waveguide.

(b) TM01 Mode For m = 0 and n = 0 the entire field components vanishes.

Therefore TM01 mode cannot exist inside waveguide.

(c) TM10 Mode For m = 0 and n = 0 the entire field components vanishes.

Therefore TM10 mode cannot exist inside waveguide.

(d) TM11 Mode For m = 1 and n = 1, the cutoff wavelength is given by

c,11

2ab

a2 b2

has the maximum cutoff wavelength. Thus for TM mode the dominant

mode is TM11 .

easiness in coupling and extracting power into and from it. The dominant

mode also has the simplest field configuration.

in Rectangular Waveguides

Field equations show that the expressions for the TE and TM mode field

components involves sine or cosine function of the terms mx a and ny b .

Since sine and cosine functions can be represented as a linear combination

of the terms e j and e j therefore the waves, at a point within a waveguide, can

also be resolved into two components propagating along and direction

with respect to waveguide axis.

Ey

x j t z

H

sin

0

a e

a

k c2

x

x

j z

a

j z a

Ey

H0 e

e a e jt

2

The above equation represents two TEM waves travelling along the positive

Z-axis at an angle

tan1

mode propagating along a zigzag path between the guide walls x = 0 and x

= a.

The wavefront of such a wave is shown in figure below.

overlaps with the first then a combined wavefront results as shown.

The figure reveals that the two

wavefront adds on the reference

axis and alternate cancellation

(intersection point of a dashed

addition (intersection point of

two dashed or two solid lined

wave

front)

of

the

two

half-wave apart from it.

That is the wavefront addition takes places along the axis A, C, F and

H whereas wavefront cancellation occurs along the axis B, D, E and G.

Now if we place two metallic plates along the cancellation lines D and

the electric field on a metal-dielectric boundary must be zero) will be

satisfied.

The satisfaction of the first boundary condition automatically satisfies

the other boundary conditions on these boundaries.

The placing of the metal plates thus insures that the wave front

propagates along the reference axis, which is basically along the length

complete reflection from the metallic walls at the top and bottom (or

from side walls).

The expression of

will become zero.

At this value of the angle of incidence becomes 90o and the wavefront

bounces back and forth across the guide walls and no energy is conducted

down the waveguide.

The frequency for which becomes zero is thus the cut-off frequency.

At very high frequency tense to infinity and the angle of incidence

tense to zero.

The guided wavelength is defined as the distance traveled by the wave in

order to undergo a phase shift of 2 radians and is less than cutoff

wavelength.

g

m

n

Now j 2

a b

1 c

g 2

1

1

1

2g 2 c2

1 c

Modes

The TE and / or TM mode wave impedances are defined as

E x Hy E y Hx

TE Mode:

TM Mode:

TE

TM

E x

Hy

TE

Ex

Hy

TM 1 c

2

Therefore TE TM

1 c

The phase velocity of a wave inside waveguide is expressed as

vp gf

vp g f

1 c

c

c

1 c

d

v

d 2

d

Now

2 c2

d

d

d

d

vp

1 c

d

1

d c 1 2

c

vg

vg

2

Therefore vp v g c

d

d

d

2

c 1 c

d

The power flow through a waveguide can be calculated by means of

complex Poynting Theorem.

Throughout the analysis it will be assumed that both the ends of the

waveguide is matched terminated or the waveguide is infinitely extended

so that there is no reflections from the end.

given by P P dS 1 E H* dS

tr

TE Mode:

pTE

1

1

*

*

*

*

E H* E0yH0z

a x E0xH0z

a y E0xH0y

E0yH0x

a z

2

2

pz TE E0xH0y* E0yH0x*

2

1

pz TE

2

2

1 2 n

m

2 mx

2 ny

2 mx

2 ny

H0 cos

sin b a sin a cos b

2 k c4

b

a

The total power passing through the cross section of the waveguide is

Pz TE

2 m 2 n 2

4 H0 ab

b for m 0 & n 0

a

8k c

2

a b

2 n

pz TE dxdy 4 H0 ab

for m=0 & n 0

b

4k

0 0

c

2

H ab

for m 0 & n=0

4k c4 0 a

TM Mode:

pTM

1

1

*

*

*

*

E H* E0zH0y

a x E0zH0x

a y E0xH0y

E0yH0x

a z

2

2

Therefore the power flowing in the z-direction is given by

pz TM E0xH0y* E0yH0x*

2

1

pz TM

2

2

1 2 m

n

2 mx

2 ny

2 m x

2 ny

E0

cos a sin b b sin a cos b

2 k c4

a

The total power passing through the cross section of the waveguide is

Pz TM

2 m 2 n 2

for m 0 & n 0

4 E0 ab

8k c

a b

2

a b

2 n

pz TMdxdy 4 E0 ab

for m=0 & n 0

b

4k

0 0

c

2

E ab

for m 0 & n=0

4k c4 0 a

For the dominant TE mode we can write

E0x 0

x

E0y A sin

a

H0x

A

x

sin

TE

a

H0 y 0

Therefore,

pTE,10

1

1 A2

x

*

*

E0xH0y E0yH0x

sin2

2

2 TE

a

a b

PTE,1o

TE

A 2 ab

pTE,10 dxdy

4TE

0 0

1 c

PTE,1o

f

A 2ab

1 c,10

4

f

Assuming break down voltage of dry air to be 30 kV/cm and 377 we get

2

PTE,1o

f

597ab 1 c,10 kW

f

Due to finite conductivity of both the conducting walls and the dielectric

filling, two types of power loss are associated in a rectangular waveguide,

namely, (1) Losses in dielectric and (2) Losses in guide walls.

waveguide, for the TE and TM modes, are respectively given by

d,TE

d,TM

2 1 fc f

2

1 fc f

2

material for which the attenuation loss is very small.

In such cases losses in the guide walls plays a major role.

assuming a uniform current density through the guide walls.

2

m m

ix H0z dz

iz H0x dx

and

Again,

Rx

1 dx

m dz

and

Rz

1 dz

m dx

dPz

1 2

ixRx i2zRz

2

dPz dx m

2

2

H0x

H0z

dz

2 2m

dPz

dx

2

2

H0x

H0z

dz

2m

2

m m

Therefore the total per unit length power loss in the x-z plane is given by

WL x,z

Rs

2

2

2

H0x H0z dxdz

where

Rs

m

2m

(surface resistance

of the waveguide)

Rs

2

2

0y

2

dydz

H0z

The total power loss in guide walls will be the contribution from each of

the walls of the waveguide and is given by

Due to symmetry WBottom WTop and WLeft WRight

Therefore WTotal 2 WBottom WLeft

2 z

The power flow in a waveguide can be expressed as Pz P0 e

Pz

z

z

Pz P0 e 2 z

Pz

2Pz

z

Pz z

2Pz

TE Mode:

Substituting the TE mode field expressions in the expressions of WL x,z

and WL y,z we get

WBottom,TE

WLeft,TE

y 0

x 0

1

2 m 2 a a

RsH02 4

2

k c a 2 2

1

2

RsH0 a

2

1

2 n 2 b b

2

RsH0 4

2

k c b 2 2

1

2

RsH0b

2

for m 0

for m=0

for n 0

for n=0

Wz,TE

2 2

m2 n2

1

2

RsH0 a b

4

2

b

kc a

Therefore

W

Pz z

z,TE

2Pz

2Pz

2 m2 n2

a b

4

4

b

kc a

2k c Rs

2

2

m n

ab

a b

2 2 m2 n2

a b 4

4

a

b

k

2k c Rs

c

m 2 n 2

ab

b

a

Wz,TE

a 2 a 2

RsH b 1 2

2

2

0

Therefore

a 2 a 2

2 Rs b 1 2

2

a3b

2

W

Pz z

z,TE

2Pz

2Pz

TM Mode

For TM mode

2

WBottom,TM

y 0

2 c n 2 a

1

2

RsE0

2

k c4 b 2

2

WLeft,TM

x 0

2

2

1

m

c

RsE02

2

k c4 a 2

2

2

2

2

1

m

n

c

RsE02

b

a

b

2

a

k c4

Wz,TM

2

m 2

n

2Rs c b a

b

a

m 2 n 2

ab

a b

The quality factor of a waveguide is defined as

Q

Energy stord per unit length

Power lost per unit length

For a waveguide

Energy stored per unit length

Therefore

Now

Power transmitted

vg

Power transmitted

v g Power lost per unit length

2

Power transmitted

2 v g

vp v g c 2

Q

vp

2c 2

c

vp

1 c

2c 1 c

Waveguides

Let us first consider that TEM mode exists within a waveguide.

Now the Maxwell equation insures that H forms a closed loop.

Since for TEM wave

H must be perpendicular

to the direction of propagation or at the cross-sectional plane of the

waveguide.

Now since inside the waveguide J 0

waveguide.

The presence of D along the axis of the waveguide insures the existence

of Ealong the axis of the waveguide that is in the direction of propagation.

existence of the TEM wave.

Therefore TEM wave cannot exist inside the hollow waveguide.

That why TEM mode propagation required a two conductor system.

TE equivalent model:

For TE wave, using the Maxwells curl equations, we can write that

Ey

z

jHx

Hz Hy

jE x

y

z

z

The above implies that in the X-Y plane we can define a magnetic scalar

potential satisfying the relations:

U

Hx

x

Hy

U

y

j Hz

k c2 x

E y

z

j Hz

z k c2 x

Ey

z

jHx

j Hz

z k c2 x

j Hz

k c2 y

jHx

Hx

U

x

j

2 Hz jU

z k c

Hy

Hz Hy

jE x

y

z

2 Hz

1 2

z

k c y

Hy

U

y

k c2

j

U

j 2 Hz

z

j

k c

Since the parameter jHz k c2 has a unit of voltage and U has a unit of

current, we can write the followings

j

2 Hz jU

z k c

VTE

ZTEITE

z

k c2

j

U

j 2 Hz

z

j

k c

ITE

YTE VTE

z

TE

ZTE j

where

where

j

k c2

j

j

YTE

k c2

j

j

k c2

j2 2

k c2

2

k c2 c2

TE

f

1 c

f

1

c

TM equivalent model:

For TM wave, using the Maxwells curl equations, we can write that

Hy

z

jEx

and

Ex Ez

jHy

z

x

The above equation implies that in the X-Y plane we can define an

Ex

V

x

Ey

V

y

j Ez

k c2 x

Hy

z

j Ez

z k c2 x

Hy

z

j Ez

jE x

z k c2 x

jEx

Ex

V

x

j

Ez jV

z k c2

Now,

Ex Ez

jHy

z

x

Hy

E x 2 Ez

1 2

z

k c x

j Ez

k c2 x

Ex

V

x

k c2

j

V

j 2 Ez

z

j

k c

2

Since the parameter jE z k c has a unit of current and V has a unit of

ITM

YTM VTM

z

j

Ez jV

z k c2

where YTM j

VTM

ZTMITM

z

k c2

j

V

j 2 Ez

z

j

k c

where

Z TM

k c2

j

j

TM

k c2

2

f

1 c 1

f

c

2

TM

k c2 c2

Waveguides

The desired field intensities of a particular mode can be established

by means of probe or loop coupling.

The probe and the loops are basically a monopole and a loop antenna

respectively.

The probes are located to excite the electric field intensity of the mode

whereas the loop is used to generate the magnetic field intensity of the

desired mode.

The aperture electric field distribution of the TE10 mode is shown below.

For this mode the electric

field intensity is directed

towards Y-direction and is

maximum at the center of

the aperture. There is no X-

field for this mode.

So the best position of the probe to generate the TE10 mode is at the top /

Therefore the wave travelling in the negative z-direction will be reflected

back by the short circuit and will travel a distance l 2 before adding in

The probes for exciting the TE20 mode can be placed as shown.

In this case we must take care

about the phase relation between

the currents in the two probes.

Since the direction of the electric

opposite to each other therefore

the

currents

at

the

respective

difference of 180o .

between the probes.

The electric fields for the TM mode have both X and Y-component.

Therefore the right place for inserting the feed probe is through the

shorting wall. The position of the probes for the TM11 and TM21 mode is shown.

The corresponding aperture electric field distribution is shown below.

It should be noted that in addition to the intended modes, some higher

However, these higher order modes are attenuated within a short

distance and only the dominant mode propagates down the guide.

A proper impedance matching reduces these higher order modes at the

feed point.

stubs or transformers on the coaxial line / guide.

It also should be remembered that a probe, that excites a given mode in

the guide also serves as a receptor of energy for that mode.

waveguide should be small so that a constant current on the probe

radiates electromagnetic field inside the guide.

quarter wavelength, from the probe to insure propagation in one

direction.

The distance l and d is adjusted to achieve pure resistive

impedance equal to the characteristic impedance of the waveguide.

The reactance of the probe, resulting from higher order modes, can be

made negligible by making the probe diameter very small 0.15a .

Electromagnetic energy can also be excited inside a waveguide with the

help of a coupling loop.

For exciting dominant mode inside a waveguide the loop is placed at

the middle of the two broad walls of the guide with its plane transverse to

the waveguide.

A short circuit is placed at a distance l from the loop to insure

propagation in one direction only.

equal to the characteristic impedance of the

length l.

amount of energy.

This can be achieved by using loose coupling.

or by moving it out of the center of the E-field.

It is also possible to achieve loose coupling by partially shielding the

probe.

For the case where the amount of coupling must be varied the probe

must be made retractable so that its length can be varied.

Loose coupling can also be achieved by rotating the loops until it

Another way to achieve loose coupling is to mill slots / apertures at the

shorting wall of the guide.

For proper slot dimensions the electric field, existing outside the

waveguide, can penetrate the slot and can excite EM fields inside the

waveguide.

While the probe length and positions may control the power

coupling, the diameter of the probe may control the power handling

capability and bandwidth.

handling much higher power and bandwidth than a conventional

probe.

In general as the diameter of the probe is increased the bandwidth is

also increased.

Matched terminations:

The basic concept behind the design of a matched termination is to

use a resistive or absorptive material that will absorb the field incident

on it.

termination and hence the SWR of line remains 1. The absorbed energy

is dissipated as heat.

One method of obtaining matched termination using this technique is

to fill the end of the guide with a graphite and sand mixture.

Instead of the sand and graphite mixture high resistive rod can also be

placed at the end.

The electric field incident on it induces a current in the rod to flow but

the high resistance of the rod dissipates the energy in the form of heat.

Another common form of matched load uses a wedge of highly resistive

material. Again, as before, the electric field gets absorbed by the wedge

and the energy is dissipated as heat.

material as absorbent depends on the position of the wedges and the

existing mode pattern inside the guide.

The basic rule is to coincide the tip of the wedge with the maximum

electric field. Therefore for TE10 mode the wedge should be placed as

shown in figure.

With such arrangement the maximum electric field, at the center, will

travel longer path through the resistive wedge than a weaker electric

field at the sides and hence at the end of the wedge the stronger electric

field will be absorbed more than a weaker electric field.

Even if reflection occurs at the end, the reflected field, corresponding

to the stronger electric field, will again travel more than that corresponds

to a weaker field.

Since TE20 mode has zero electric field at the center of the guide crosssection therefore the matched load geometry for the TE10 mode will not be

effective to match the TE20 mode.

For TE20 mode two such wedges, with their tips at a/4 and 3a/4 should be

used.

Waveguide

matched

loads

provides

reflected power and hence easily get heated.

Therefore

for

high

power

applications

for cooling the matched load.

Short Circuit:

Waveguide short circuit can be obtained by simply inserting a metal plate at

the end of the guide, as shown

A short circuit plunger is basically a variable short circuit whose

distance from the reference plane can be adjusted to achieve any reactive

should be as low as possible and also constant along the line.

These requirements can be mate by modifying the shorting section as

shown.

There are two cascaded g 4 section.

The short circuit at the end of second section is transferred to an open

short circuit at the reference plane of the short circuit.

choke plunger.

A choke plunger consists of two cascaded g 4 section, as shown.

The widths of the plungers are uniform and are slightly less than the

internal guide width of the broad wall whereas the height of the

plungers are different and are b 2b1 and b 2b2 respectively.

For satisfactory performance b1 should as small as possible while

b2 is as large as possible.

zero air gap.

wave sections then the input impedance seen at the plane is given by

Zin Z01 Z02 Zsc b1 b2 Zsc

2

Where Zsc is the input impedance at the plane BB and is almost zero.

Since b2

b1 , i.e., Z02

Zsc .

For circular waveguide operating in the TE01mode choke plungers are not

required because due to absence of longitudinal currents.

Open circuit:

leaving the terminating end of the guide open as in the case of two wire

transmission line.

This is because radiation occurs from the open end of the guide.

In practice an open circuit in waveguide can be achieved by inserting

quarter wave section between the guide and the shorting plate.

Like the two wire or other transmission line systems waveguides are

also subjected to load mismatch.

The amount of mismatch depends on the load impedance and the

characteristic impedance of the guide.

The concepts that are used to match a transmission line with a load are

also applicable for the waveguides.

Irises:

Irises are basically metallic obstacles inside the waveguide with an

opening through which electromagnetic energy can pass.

inductive, capacitive or resonant.

When dominant mode faces such discontinuities higher order TE and

TM modes are generated to satisfy the boundary condition. These higher

order modes are evanescent in nature and die down within a quarter

wavelength distance from the junction.

If the irises are inductive in nature then they will store magnetic energy

from these higher order modes whereas if the irises are capacitive in

nature then they will store electric energy.

is the width of the opening / aperture along the width of the guide and b is

the height of the opening / aperture along the height of the guide and is

equal to the guide height. That is the edges of the inductive irises are

perpendicular to the magnetic plane.

cross-sectional dimension a X d where a is the width of the opening /

aperture along the width of the guide and is equal to the guide width

and d is the height of the opening / aperture along the height of the

guide. Therefore the edges of a capacitive iris are perpendicular to the

electric plane.

A resonant iris has opening of cross-sectional dimension l X d where

l is the width of the opening / aperture along the width of the guide and

d is the height of the opening / aperture along the height of the guide.

At the resonance point it behaves as a shunt resistance otherwise it

The amount of inductance and capacitance produce by such circuit

depends on the dimensions (Width, height and thickness).

Symmetrical Inductive:

2

l

g cot 2 l 1 1 l

for

1

a

2a

6

g

B

2

Y0

2 a l 8 2 a l

al

g

2

for

1

cot

1

2

a

a

3

Asymmetrical Inductive:

B

2

g 2 a l

Y0

2

al

2

a l

2a 1 2 a l ln

for

g

2

a

a

Symmetrical Capacitive:

4b 2b b2

d

ln 2 for

b

B g d 2 g

Y0 2 b d2

bd

for

b

2b g

Asymmetrical capacitive:

8b 2b 2b2

d

ln 2 for

b

B g d g

Y0 2 b d 2

bd

for

b g

b

B 3ab g

Y0 16r03

for r0

A thin screw of diameter

h g 4 , infinite reactance if

h g 4

by the screws depends on the radius and length of the post.

Screws also can be inserted inside a waveguide through a longitudinal

slot cut along the broad wall of a waveguide.

Such arrangement provides more flexibility of varying both the

Thin cylindrical posts inserted through the broad wall and extending

completely across the narrow width of the guide provides an inductive

susceptance whereas the cylindrical posts inserted through the narrow

wall and extending completely across the broad width of the guide

provides an inductive susceptance for the dominant mode. However,

again, the exact value of the inductive / capacitive reactance depends on

the diameter of the post.

A combination of two screws / posts,

one having length h g 4 while the

separated

by

h g 4

and

a 3 g 8 distance

parallel to the electric field it will have

more

effect

than

when

it

is

Further the posts or screws, nearer

to

the

side walls

produces

more

Waveguide Stub:

In rectangular waveguides stubs are connected in the E-plane or H-plane

by placing a waveguide short circuit plunger.

For the E-plane stub the electric field lines penetrates into the stub

guide and thus offers reactance in series with the main line whereas for Hplane stub the magnetic field lines penetrate into the stub guide and thus

A combination of E-plane and H-plane tuner, called an E-H tuner is also

used to match a wide range of load impedances.

Waveguide quarter wave impedance transformers are designed by

making steps either in the E-plane or H-plane

b2 b1 b3

a2

g2

a1a3

g1 g3

Waveguide Taper:

Waveguide taper results from the gradual connection of two similar or

dissimilar waveguides of different cross-section.

For a smooth transition and lower reflection coefficient the taper

length must be at least long at the operating frequency.

Depending on the flaring dimensions, a taper can be classified as Eplane, H-plane of E-H plane taper.

and Twists

Twists:

Twists are sometimes used to

achieve proper phase matching with

the load.

Care must be taken to form the

minimum.

This can be achieved by twisting

the guide gradually over a length

greater than two wavelengths

Bends:

In microwave circuits it is often required to bend the waveguide to

achieve flexibility of connecting adapters, terminators or other loads.

However any abrupt change in the shape of the guide will launch

reflected waves from the discontinuity. Therefore to form the bends

special care must be taken.

Depending on the geometry a waveguide bend may be classified as Eplane, H-plane or sharp bend.

Out of these E-plane and H-plane bends are gradual bends.

The E-plane bends distorts only the electric field distribution whereas

the H-plane bends distorts only the magnetic field distribution.

To achieve a satisfactory performance the bending radius of both the

bends must be greater than two wavelengths and the mean length of

the bend must be an odd multiple of quarter wavelength to cancel

reflections from both the end.

In contrast to smooth bends a sharp bends can also be used. F

or the sharp bend the two 45o bends are quarter wavelength apart and

therefore the reflections that occur at each of the bends cancel each

other leaving the fields of the main guide as if no reflections have

occurred.

The bend is also called a mittered corner.

Cover flanges are basically a square shaped metal block having a

central slot of dimensions equal to the outer dimension of the waveguide

and four holes at each corner.

The surface of the flange must be smooth and clean to make a proper

contact.

Since RF current flows across it, the metal should also be highly

conducting in order to reduce Ohmic loss.

A properly designed flange produces SWR less than 1.03 and has

advantages of simpler structure, ease of fabrication and low costing.

There is often a fair chance of existence of air gap between the two

flanges connected together which may cause voltage breakdown in high

power application.

Choke Flange:

Choke flange is machined to form a

radial transmission line of g 4 length

contact of the two flanges.

At the point of contact between the

two flanges, another g 4 line is formed

by a circular groove.

The short circuit at the end of this

groove is transformed into an open

the flanges.

Any resistance, existing at the contact point, comes in series with this

open circuit impedance and hence has no effect.

The open circuit impedance, existing at the contact point, further

Due to existence of equivalent short circuit impedance, the voltage

drop across the Ohmic contact between the flanges is very small and

thus removes the probability of voltage break down in high power

applications.

In spite of these advantages choke flanges has one major

disadvantage of being more frequency dependent than cover flanges

The choke flange can produce SWR as low as 1.05.

Waveguides

A circular cylindrical waveguide is a hollow metallic pipe having a

circular cross section.

Like the rectangular waveguide, the dimension of the cylindrical

waveguide is also determined by the cutoff frequency of the lowest order

or dominant mode and the next higher order mode.

The Maxwells curl equations inside the waveguide at steady state is given

by

E jH

H jc E

write the above equations as

E

Ez

r

jrHr

Er Ez

jH

z

r

rE r jrHz

H

Hz

r

jc rEr

Hr Hz

jc E

z

r

rH r jcrEz

E r, ,z Er a r Ea Ez a z E0r a r E0 a E0z a z e z

H r, ,z Ha r Ha Hza z H0r a r H0 a H0za z e z

Waveguides

The TE mode is characterized by E0z 0

Therefore we can write

E0 jH0r

E0r jH0

H0r H0z jc E0

r

rH

0 H0r 0

r

1 H0z

r

r r r

1 H0z

r

r r r

2

1 H0z

2

2

c H0z 0

r 2 2

2

1 H0z

2

r 2 2 k c H0z 0

H0z r, H0z r H0z

r

H0z r

2H0z r

r 2

H0z r

H0z r

r

k r

2 2

c

H0z

2H0z

2

Left hand side of the above equation is a function of r whereas the right

hand side is a function of only. This implies that above equation may

be separated in the following two equations

r

2H0z r

r 2

H0z r

r

k c2r 2 n2 H0z r 0

2H0z

2

n2H0z 0

where n2 is a constant.

The general solution of the first equation is given by

H0z r AJn kc r BNn k cr

is the Numens function of order n of argument k c r .

Now Nn kcr at r = 0

B=0

Therefore

H0z r AJn k c r

H0z Pcos n Qsin n

where

P AP

and Q AQ

In the solution there are two arbitrary amplitude constants P ,and Q that

controls the amplitudes of cos n and sin n terms respectively.

Because of the azimuthal symmetry of the waveguide both of these two

terms are valid and can be present. The actual amplitudes of these two

terms depend on the excitation of the waveguide.

However rotating the waveguide about z axis, any one term between

these two can be made equal to zero.

cos n

H0z H0 Jn k c r

sin

n

Therefore

sin n

j 1

E0r 2 H0nJn k c r

kc r

cos n

E0

cos n

H0r H0 Jn k c r

kc

sin n

where

cos n

j

H0 Jn k c r

sin

n

kc

H0

1

sin n

H

nJ

k

r

0

n

c

cos

n

k c2 r

Jn k cr Jn k cr

r

Applying the boundary condition we get

Therefore for n = 0 k c01

3.83

R

and

k c02

Jn k cR 0

7.02

R

and for n = 1

k c11

1.84

R

and k c12

5.33

R

2

2

2

For lossless dielectric nm k c,nm

At cutoff frequency

k

2

c

2

c,nm

fc

k c,nm

2

Since for a given R, k c11 has the minimum value therefore the dominant

TE mode in circular waveguide is TE11 .

Waveguides

For the TM mode Hz 0 and we get

E0z

rE0 jrH0r

E0r

rE0 0r 0

rH0 0r jc rE0z

E0z

jH0

r

H0r jc E0

H0 jc E0r

1 E0z

r

r r r

2

1 E0z

2

r 2 2 k c E0z 0

To solve the above equation let us assume that Eoz r, Eoz r Eoz

Substituting the above trial solution in the above wave equation we get

r

Eoz r

2Eoz r

r 2

Eoz r

Eoz r

r

k r

2 2

c

Eoz

2Eoz

2

the right hand side is zero. This implies that the equation may be

separated in the following two equations

r

2Eoz r

r

Eoz r

r

2Eoz

k c2r 2 n2 Eoz r 0

n2Eoz 0

where n 2 is a constant.

The general solution is given by E0z r AJn kc r BNn k cr

where Jn k c r is the Bessels function of order n of argument k c r and Nn k c r

is the Numens function of order n of argument k c r .

Now Nn kcr at r = 0

B=0

The solution of second wave equation is given by E0z Pcos n Qsin n

E0z Jn kc r P cos n Qsin n

where P AP

and

Q AQ

cos n

E0z E0 Jn k c r

sin

n

Therefore

E0r

H0r

cos n

E

J

k

r

0 n

c

k c2

sin n

E0

sin n

jc 1

E

nJ

k

r

0

n c

k c2 r

cos n

1

sin n

E

nJ

k

r

0

n

c

cos

n

k c2 r

H0

cos n

jc

E

J

k

r

0 n c

k c2

sin n

at r = R

This gives for n=0 k c01

2.405

R

and k c02

5.52

R

k c11

3.85

7.02

and k c12

R

R

Since for a given R, k c,01 has the minimum value therefore the dominant

TM01 mode preferred over TE01 mode because it requires smaller waveguide

Waveguides

For circular waveguide the first subscript represents the number of

the second subscript indicates the number of half wave patterns across

the diameter.

counterclockwise direction, starting at the top,

the electric field lines go from zero, maximum

backs to zero. This is one full cycle and

therefore the first subscript is 1.

lines go from zero through maximum

and then returns to zero and thus

second subscript is also 1.

Waveguides

If the dielectric is lossless then the time average power transmitted

2p R

2p R

2

2

1

Z

2

2

Ptr =

E

+

E

d

f

rdr

=

H

+

H

df rdr

f

f

r

r

2Z

2

0 0

0 0

where

Z=

Ef

Er

= Hf

Hr

For TEmn mode, the average power transmitted through the circular

waveguide is given by

2 2p R

Ptr,TEmn =

1- (fc f )

2h

2

2

E

+

E

df rdr

r

f

0 0

where h =

me

Similarly for TMmn mode, the average power transmitted through the

circular waveguide is given by

2p R

Ptr,TMmn =

2h 1- (fc f )

2

2

E

+

E

df rdr

r

f

0 0

Hz H0 J1 kc r sin e jz

Er

j

H0 J1 k c r cos e jz

2

kcr

j

H0 J1 k c r sin e jz

kc

j

j

j z

H

H0 J1 k c r cos e jz

2

Hr H0 J1 k c r sin e

kcr

kc

Ez 0

H0 Re

2

P0

4k

4

c

2 1 J12 k cR

p11

where

R

k c,11 p11

Now

R

Pl s

2

Np/m

k 2 tan

Js

H0 RsR

2 2

Rd

1 4 2 J1 k cR

2

kcR

Rs 2

Pl

k2

c

k c 2

Np/m

2P0 kR

1

p11

The power handling capabilities of a circular waveguide for the

dominant TE11 mode and TE01 mode are given by

2

2

than 10 GHz.

Waveguides

Since for the TE modes there is no electric field component along the

direction of propagation therefore these modes can be exited if we place

the probe / loop in the guide in such a way that it does not excite any

component of the electric field along the axis of the guide.

Similarly if we place the probe / loop in such a way that it does not

excite any component of the magnetic field along the axis of the guide

then the propagating mode will be a TM mode.

For both the cases, however, the position and number of probes and

phase of the currents in the probe is determined by the field

configurations of the intended modes.

creates an impedance discontinuity and

excites higher order modes.

The higher order modes decay within a

very short distance and we are left only

with the desired modes.

Impedance mismatch often requires

We already know that the propagation of a particular waveguide mode

depends upon the dimension of the guide and operating frequency.

In practice waveguides are operated in the dominant mode only and

hence its dimensions and operating frequency are adjusted accordingly.

If we want to operate the waveguide at a higher order mode then either

be readjusted.

However in both cases, by virtue of having lower cut-off frequency, the

lower order modes will also exist along with the desired higher order

mode.

Therefore to operate the waveguide only at a particular higher order

mode we need to use a mode filter.

guide to reflect unwanted modes without interfering with the desired

modes.

The strips, in general, are arranged parallel to the electric field lines of

the mode to be filtered out.

The conducting strips being parallel to the electric field will reflect them

strongly and thus filtering out it.

In microwave circuit it is often required a transition between a

rectangular and circular waveguide and vice-versa. The simplest type of

In this circuit the dominant TE10 mode in rectangular waveguide is

converted in the dominant TE11 mode in circular waveguide.

If

we

choose

the

circular

waveguide

above the cut-off frequency of the TE11 mode but

order modes then all the higher order modes,

generated at the discontinuity, will be localized

around the discontinuity and at the output we

will get only the TE11 mode.

The above transition can also be used to convert the dominant TE10 in

rectangular waveguide to TE01 mode in circular waveguide.

However for this case the guide dimension should be such that it can

However since TE11 mode is the dominant mode it will also exist with the

desired TE01 mode.

Now if TE11 mode filter is used then TE11 mode will be suppressed and at

the output we will get only the desired TE01 mode.

In waveguide rotary joint the two rectangular waveguides, operating in

the TE10 mode, are connected by a circular waveguide, specially designed

to operate at the symmetric TM01 mode.

modes higher than TM01 are not supported by the guide.

However since the dominant mode for the circular waveguide is

TE11 and have lower cut-off frequency than TM01 mode a special

This is accomplished by using a ring filter.

such that it is an odd multiple of quarter guided wavelength for the

TE11 mode but an even multiple of quarter guided wavelength for the

TM01 mode.

rectangular to circular waveguide junction for the TE11 mode and zero

input impedance at the rectangular to circular waveguide junction for

strongly excited inside the guide.

The

distance

between the

input

and

output

rectangular

TE11 mode is avoided in this section.

rectangular

to

circular

waveguide

junction

is

irises.

Such rotary joints can

produce a SWR less than

1.1.

Waveguides

The dominant TEmn mode in rectangular waveguide is TE10 whereas

TE11 is dominant

TEmn

11

01

TMmn mode in circular waveguide.

circular waveguide of radius R have same periphery L. This gives

R

L

2

c,Re c tan gular

L

2a 2 0.667L

3

c,Circular

2

2R

L

0.543L

k c11 k c11R 1.84

waveguide.

Volume of the material of circular waveguide is more than that of

rectangular waveguide and hence circular waveguide is costlier than

rectangular waveguide.

The bending of circular waveguide is much more difficult than that

of rectangular waveguide.

Since is lower for circular waveguide than rectangular waveguide

therefore the Q value for circular waveguide is higher than

rectangular waveguide.

Ridge Waveguide:

rectangular waveguide.

Ridges are developed typically at the position of the maximum electric

field and therefore for the dominant mode of operation the preferred

position of the ridges are at the center of the wide walls.

It has the effect of increasing the capacitance between the wide walls

of the guide and therefore reducing the effective impedance and cut-off

The cut-off frequency of a ridge waveguide can be expressed as

fc

1

4g

2 bd a d

attenuation and (ii) reduction in power handling capability

Since for TE20 mode the electric field is either zero or very weak at / near

the center of the broad walls of the guide the ridge, shown above, does

not disturb the TE20 mode.

The ridged section behaves almost as a parallel plate waveguide and

consequently ridge waveguide has a much lower cut-off frequency than

a hollow metallic waveguide.

A uniform cylindrical low-loss, high permittivity dielectric rods can

guide waves through it by the process of total internal reflection from

The modes that are supported by such waveguides are both purely TE

and TM modes as well as hybrid HE or EH modes.

The axi-symmetric modes are pure TE and TM modes with non-zero

cut-off frequencies whereas all other modes with angular dependence

are a combinations of both TE and TM modes and are called hybrid EH

or HE modes.

The dominant mode of a dielectric rod waveguide is HE11 mode and has

zero cut-off frequency.

The cut-off wavelength for the first higher order mode is expressed as

c 2.6R r 1

impedance matching with the

circular guide.

However

due

discontinuity

existing

to

the

at

the

launched

in

the

circular

waveguide.

can be expressed as

S12

Surface Wave Power

L

Waveguides

Advantages:

Lower Ohmic loss: Due to larger surface area of the conductor the

Ohmic Loss is lower.

Lower dielectric loss: Waveguide uses air as dielectric. Since Air has

lower dielectric loss the dielectric loss of the waveguide is also small.

High power handling capability: Since air has higher breakdown

voltages therefore waveguide is suitable for carrying high power. If

Ease of fabrication: Due to its simpler structure waveguide can be

easily fabricated:

Rugged: The single conductor metallic structure of the waveguide

makes it rugged.

Disadvantages:

Bulky size at lower frequencies: Since the width of the waveguide is

approximately of half wavelength therefore at lower frequencies

waveguide is bulky.

Heavy: The complete metallic structure makes the waveguide heavy

as compared to others.

Difficult to install: Because of their rigid and hollow pipe shape the

bending, twisting and coupling.

Costly: Due to requirement of highly conducting metals like copper,

brass or aluminum for fabrication, it is costly as compared to others.

Further to reduce skin effect often silver / gold plating at the inner

surface of the waveguide is required. This further increases the cost

of the waveguide.

5.36 Finlines

Finline is a quasi-planar transmission line structure that was proposed

to achieve large bandwidth, compatibility with planar circuit technology

in absence of radiation.

A basic finline can be thought as a shielded slot line mounted in the Eplane of a rectangular waveguide.

Therefore for the specified frequency band the dimensions of a finline

are identical to a waveguide operates at that band.

In addition, the finlines may also be considered as a printed version of

a ridge waveguide.

The unilateral finlines are the simplest and best for finline component

fabrication whereas bilateral finlines provide greater flexibility for

biasing of active devices due to metallization on both sides.

The bilateral finlines also have lower loss and can provide

characteristic impedance as low as 100 .

Antipodal finlines can provide characteristic impedance of the

and a waveguide.

In finline structures, the fins concentrate the electric field in the fingap region.

Such field configuration leads to a capacitive loading to the

dominant HE mode propagation in the slab waveguide.

fundamental mode by a considerable amount and the next higher

order modes by a negligible amount and thus increases the overall

bandwidth of the fundamental mode of operation.

are integrated in the finline for integrated circuit application are

subjected to high power densities resulting in better matching.

However the higher field densities also results in higher conduction

and dielectric loss due to the presence of the dielectric slab as

compared to waveguide.

The attenuation of fin line is high and of the order of 0.1 dB/

wavelength.

Therefore felines are not suitable for long distance power

transmission.

structures is very difficult and cumbersome because in both the cases

inhomogeneous dielectric and sharp metal edges exist.

respectively.

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