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M vamshi krishna

The Pioneers

5.1 Introduction
In a waveguide, electric and magnetic fields are confined within the
hollow space of the guide and thus no power is lost through radiation.
Due to air being the dielectric that fills the hollow region within the
guide, the dielectric loss is also negligible.
Further, if we choose a metal having good conductivity, like copper, for
constructing waveguide walls, then the conductor losses or Ohmic
losses at the guide walls are also negligible.
Thus, a waveguide acts as a lossless medium of transferring

microwave signals from one point to another.

The possible existence of higher-order modes in a waveguide, may


cause power loss during the transmission of electromagnetic waves.
Modes basically correspond to the different possible solutions of the

Maxwells equation inside the waveguide region and can exist if the
frequency of the signal is above a certain value, called the cut-off
frequency.
If the frequency of a signal is below the cut-off frequency, then the
corresponding mode will be attenuated within a short distance.
The cut-off frequency depends on the order of the mode and the
dimensions of waveguides. Thus, each mode has its individual field

pattern and cut-off frequency.


The mode that has the lowest cut-off frequency among all the possible
modes is called a dominant mode.

It is a common practice to operate a waveguide in the dominant mode


for reducing mode loss.
This can be achieved by a proper choice of the waveguide

dimensions, such that the frequency of the input signal is greater than
the cut-off frequency of the dominant mode but less than the cut-off
frequency of the next higher-order mode.

5.2 Formation of Waveguides from Two-wire


Transmission Lines

If we go on increasing the number of


such sections on each side of the line,
the sections will touch each other after

a certain time, forming a rectangular


waveguide.
Insertion of short-circuited quarterwave sections has a prominent impact
on the field configurations of a two-wire
line

system.

As

result,

field

configurations of an isolated two-wire


transmission

line

undergo

many

changes, and finally energy is confined


within the hollow space of a waveguide
rather than travelling along the length of
the guide.

In practice, short-circuited quarter-wave sections become a part of the


rectangular waveguide system.

A waveguide appears to operate satisfactorily only at a particular frequency


because of the existence of short-circuited quarter-wave sections. However,
this is not true. In fact, waves with frequencies, for which the sections are
quarter wavelength long or smaller, do not propagate efficiently through
waveguides, but those with frequencies higher than this may propagate
efficiently.

5.3 Parallel-plate Waveguides

A parallel-plate wave guide can support the transverse electric (TE),


transverse magnetic (TM), as well as transverse electromagnetic (TEM)
modes.

Propagation of TEM Wave:


For the TEM mode the electrostatic potential must satisfy the Laplaces
equation, given by

2tF (x,y) = 0

for 0 x a and 0 y b

The boundary conditions

F (x,0) = 0

F (x,b) = V0

The general solution can be written as


F (x,y) = A + By

Substituting the boundary conditions we get

A= 0

B = V0 b

Therefore F (x,y) = V0 y b

The transverse electric field is therefore given by


uur
uur
V
et (x,y ) = - t F (x,y ) = - 0 a y
b

Therefore the complete electric field can be expressed as

ur
uur
E (x,y,z) = et (x,y )e-

jkz

= -

V0 e
b

jkz

a y

k = w me

The magnetic field, can be expressed as

ur
V
1 ur
H(x,y,z) = a z E (x,y,z) = 0 eh
hb

jkz

a x

h=

me

The voltage at the top plate with respect to the bottom plate can be
expressed as
b

V= -

E dy =
y

V0 e-

jkz

The current at the top plate can be expressed as


a

I=

Hx dx =
0

V0 a e
hb

jkz

Therefore the characteristic impedance of the line is Z0 =

V
hb
=
I
a

The phase velocity of the wave in the line is given by vp =

w
=
b

The attenuation due to dielectric loss is given by a d =

k tan(d)
2

1
me

Np/m

Propagation of TE Wave:
TE wave must satisfy the following wave equation:
k c2 = er k 02 - b2 = k 2 - b2

The general solution is given by hz (x,y) = g0 cos(k c y) + g1 sin(k c y)


Therefore
The boundary conditions Ex = 0 at y = 0,b

Applying the first boundary condition we get g1 = 0


Now applying the second boundary condition we get sin(kc b) = 0

kc =

Therefore we can write

hz (x,y) = g0 cos(k c y)+ g1 sin(k c y)

np
b

for n = 1, 2, 3,K

Other field components are


np y
jb Hz
jb
Hx = - 2
= - 2
e

gn cos
b

kc x
k c x

np y
jb

Hy = gn 2 (k c )sin
e
b

kc

jbz

jbz

= 0

np y
jb

= gn
sin
e

b
kc

np y
jwm Hz
jwm
Ey = 2
= 2
e

gn cos
b

kc x
k c x

jbz

jbz

= 0

Ez = 0

All transverse field components vanishes and hence TE0 mode cannot exist
The propagation constant for the TEn mode

This leads to two cases

The above two cases implies that there must be a cutoff frequency
above which wave will propagate. This reveals the high pass filter
nature of a parallel plate waveguide.
At cutoff frequency

The guided wavelength can be defined as


The phase velocity is expressed as vp

v
v

1 fc2 f 2
1 c

d
2
v

v
1

c
The group velocity is g d
2
Therefore vp v g v

1 c

Now Z0,TE =

Ex
wm
=
Hy
b

The power carrying by a TEn mode is given by

The attenuation constant due to dielectric loss can be expressed as


ad =

k 2 tan (d)
2b

Np/m

whereas the attenuation constant due to conductor loss can be expressed


as

Propagation of TM Wave:
TM wave must satisfy the following wave equation:
k c2 = er k 02 - b2 = k 2 - b2

The general solution is given by


Ez (x,y,z) = ez (x,y)e- jbz = {g0 cos(kc y)+ g1 sin(k c y)}e- jbz

The boundary conditions are Ez = 0 at y = 0,b


Applying the first boundary condition we get, g0 = 0
Now applying the second boundary condition we get, sin(kc b) = 0

kc =

Therefore,

np
b

for n = 1, 2, 3,K

Other field components are

The propagation constant can be found as

At cutoff frequency
we get

Z0,TM = -

Ey
Hx

b
we

Z0,TE Z0,TM =

wm b
m
= = h2
b we e

Since the expression of phase constant of TM mode is same to the TE


mode, their expressions for guided wavelength, phase velocity and
group velocity are also same.

The power carrying by a TMn mode is given by


a

PTMn

1
= Re
2
x= 0 y= 0

a
b
ur uur*
1
*
E H .a z dxdy = - Re E yHx dxdy =

2
x= 0 y= 0

weab
2
g
n Re (b) for n >0
4k c2
weab
2
g
Re (b) for n =0
n
2
2k c

The attenuation constant due to conductor loss can be expressed as


ac =

kRs
Pl
=
for n = 0 Np/m
2P0
bhb

Let us now consider the TM1 mode the propagation inside a parallel plate
waveguide.

The propagation constant and the z-component of the electric field can be
written as
b1 =

k 2 - (p b)

The above expression represents two waves propagating obliquely in the


(-y,+z) and (+y,+z) directions respectively. The angle that each plane
wave makes with the z-axis satisfies the following relations:
k sin(q) = p b

k cos(q) = b1

Taking the ratio we get,


tan(q) =

p
=
bb1

pb
2

> 0 for propagating modes

k - (p b)

0
So the range of q is 0o q 90o . As f fc, b1 0 andq 90 . That is the

wave bounces up and down between the two plates and there is no
motion in the +z direction.
The phase velocity of the wave inside the waveguide is
vp =

w
k
1
=
=
b1 k cos (q) me
cos (q) me

Since cos (q) 1 , v p c where c is the velocity of the wave in the


medium.
Therefore

vp
c

fl
fl

5.4 Introduction to Rectangular Waveguides


A rectangular waveguide is basically hollow metallic tube that is made
of good conductor and having rectangular cross-section.
Like parallel plate waveguide, a rectangular waveguide can also
support a number of modes and each of them will have individual cut-off
frequency.
The cut-off frequency of the modes depends on the dimension of the
waveguide.

Though there are few applications of rectangular waveguide for


supporting higher order modes, a common practice is to design the
waveguide in such a way that only the dominant mode can propagate.
Here also the wave travels down the guide through multiple reflections
from the guide walls and hence characterized by a guided wavelength
that is larger than the free space wavelength.

This procedure of propagation down the guide insures that either electric
or magnetic field will be in the direction of propagation.
Therefore the rectangular waveguide supports only the TE or TM mode.
Since the guide has four metal walls these modes are denoted by

or
TE

mn
where m and n are the number of half cycles of the electric or magnetic

TM

mn
field
in the direction of width and height respectively.

5.5 Propagation of TE Modes in Rectangular


Waveguides
The wave that propagates inside a wave is plane wave in nature and hence

follows the following equations


H0z
H0y j E0x
y

H
H0x 0z j E0y
x

E0z
E0y jH0x
y

H0 y
x

H0 x
j E0z
y

E0z
jH0y
x
E0 y E0 x

jH0z
x
y

E0x

Since the TE modes in a rectangular waveguide are characterized by


E0Z 0 the above equations reduces to
H0z
H0y j E0x jcE0x
y
H0y

H
0x 0
x
y

E0 y jH0 x

H0x

E0 x jH0 y

H0z
j E0y jcE0y
x
E0 y
x

E0 x
jH0z
y

Manipulating the above equations we get


2H0z 2H0z

2 c 2 H0z k c2H0z
2
2
x
y

2 2c 2 j j kc2

The above equation is a two dimensional wave equation and can be solved
using the method of separation of variable. To do this we assume
H0z x,y H0z x H0z y

Substituting the trial solution in differential equation we get


1

H0z x

2H0z x
x 2

k
2
c

H0z y

2H0z y
y 2

The right hand side of the above equation is a function of y whereas the
left hand side is a function of x only. This implies that both side of the
above equation must be a constant and we can write
2H0z x
x

k H0z x 0
2
x

2H0z y
y

k 2yH0z y 0

k 2x k 2y k c2

The above equations have well known solution of the form


H0z x A cos k x x Bsin k x x

Therefore
Now

H0z y Ccos k x x Dsin k x x

H0z A cos k x x B sin k x x Ccos k y y D sin k y y

E0x

j H0z
k c2 y

E0y

j H0z
k c2 x

H0x

H0z
k c2 x

H0y

H0z
k c2 y

Therefore substituting the expression of H0z in the above equations we get


E0x

E0y

j
A cos k x x B sin k x x Ck y sin k y y Dk y cos k y y
2
kc

j
Ak x sin k x x Bk x cos k x x Ccos k y y Dsin k y y
2
kc

H0x

Ak x sin k x x Bk x cos k x x Ccos k y y Dsin k y y


k c2

H0y

A cos k x x Bsin k x x Ck y sin k y y Dk y cos k y y


2
kc

The above equations are subjected to the boundary conditions that the
tangential components of electric fields must vanish at the conductor

walls.

x 0 and a E0 y 0 or, Ey 0
E0x 0 or, Ex 0
y 0 and b

Substituting the above boundary conditions we get


B=0

D=0

sin k x a 0 sin m

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

k x m a

sin k yb 0 sin n

where n = 0, 1, 2, 3,.

k y n b

Therefore the complete field components are given by, assuming AC H0


Ex E0x e jt z

j n
mx ny jt z
H
cos
0
a sin b e
b
k c2

Ey E0y e jt z

j m
mx
ny jt z
H
sin
cos
0
a
b e
a
k c2

E z E0z e jt z 0

Hx H0x e jt z

m
mx
ny jt z
H
sin
cos
0

b e
a
a
k c2

Hy H0y e jt z

n
mx ny jt z
H
cos
0
a sin b e
b
k c2

mx
ny jt z
Hz H0z e jt z H0 cos
cos
e

a
b

Magnitude of Y-component of electric field distribution at the aperture for (a)


TE10 and (b) TE11 modes

Y-component of electric field distribution with phase at the aperture for


different (a) TE20 and (b) TE11 modes.
The contour plots of the fields at different surfaces are shown below.

5.6 Propagation of TM Modes in Rectangular


Waveguides
For TM Mode wave propagation H0z 0 and we can write
H0y j E0x jcE0x
H0y
x
E0x

H0x
j E0z jc E0z
y

H0x j E0y jcE0y


E0z
E0y jH0x
y

E
0z jH0y
x

Manipulating the above equations we can write


2E0z 2E0z

k c2E0z
2
2
x
y

To solve the above equation let us assume E0z E0z x E0z y

E0 y
x

E0 x
0
y

Substituting the trial solution in the wave equation we get


1

E0z x

2E0z x
x 2

k
2
c

E0z y

2E0z y
y 2

The right hand side of the above equation is a function of y only whereas
the left hand side is a function of x only. This implies that both side of the
equation must be a constant. Therefore proceeding as before we can write
2E0z x
x

k E0z x 0
2
x

2E0z y
y

k 2yE0z y 0

where

k 2x k 2y k c2

The above equations has well known solution of the form


E0z x Pcos k x x Qsin k x x

Therefore we can write


E0z Pcos k x x Q sin k x x R cos k y y S sin k y y

E0z y Rcos k y y Ssin k y y

For TM mode we can write


E0x

E0z
k c2 x

E0y

E0z
k c2 y

H0x

jc E0z
k c2 y

H0y

Substituting the expression of E0z in the above equations we get


E0x

Pk x sin k x x Qk x cos k x x Rcos k y y Ssin k y y


k c2

E0y

Pcos k x x Qsin k x x Rk y sin k y y Sk y cos k y y


k c2

H0x

jc
Pcos k x x Qsin k x x Rk y sin k y y Sk y cos k y y
2
kc

H0y

jc
Pk x sin k x x Qk x cos k x x Rcos k y y Ssin k y y
2
kc

Above equation are subjected to boundary conditions

x 0 and a

E0Z 0 or,

EZ 0

y 0 and b

E0Z 0

or, EZ 0

jc E0z
k c2 x

Substituting the boundary conditions we get


P=0

R=0

sin k x a 0 sin m

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

kx

sin k yb 0 sin n

where n = 0, 1, 2, 3,

ky

m
a
n
b

Using the above relations and assuming E0 QS


E0x

m
mx ny
2 E0
cos
sin

a
kc
a b

H0x

j
n
mx
ny
2 c E0
sin
cos

b
b
kc
a

E0y
H0y

n
mx
ny
E
sin
cos
0

b
b
k c2
a

jc
m
mx ny
E0
cos
sin b
2
a
a
kc

Therefore the complete field components are given by


Ex E0x e jt z

m
mx ny jt z
E
cos
0
a sin b e
a
k c2

Ey E0y e jt z

n
mx
ny jt z
E
sin
cos
0
a
b e
b
k c2

mx ny jt z
Ez E0z e jt z E0 sin
sin b e
a

Hx H0x e jt z

jc
n
mx
ny jt z
E
sin
cos
0

b e
b
a
k c2

Hy H0y e jt z

jc
m
mx ny jt z
E
cos
0
a sin b e
a
k c2

Hz H0z e jt z 0

Magnitude of Y-component of electric field distribution

at the aperture for (a) TM11 and (b) TM21 modes.

Y-component of electric field distribution at the aperture with phase for (a)
TM12 and (b) TM 22modes.

5.7 Cut-off Frequencies, Cut-off Wavelengths,


and Degenerate Modes
If the dielectric within the waveguide is lossless then the propagation
constant can be expressed as
2

k c2 2
2

m n
k c2 k 2x k 2y

a b

m n

2

a b

The above equation leads to two cases


2

Case I: m n 2
a b

In this case the propagation constant is

real and positive and hence wave will


not propagate and will be attenuated.
2

Case II: m n 2
a b

In this case the propagation constant is


imaginary and positive and hence wave
will propagate.

The above two cases implies that there is a cutoff frequency above which
wave will propagate. This reveals the high pass filter nature of a waveguide.

At cutoff frequency
2

m n
c2
b
a

c m n

2 a b
2

fc

1
2

The corresponding cut-off wavelength is expresses as

fc

2ab
m 2b 2 n2 a 2

The TE and TM modes, that have the same cutoff frequency or


wavelength, are called degenerate modes. Since the cut-off frequencies of
a TEmn and TMmn mode pair are identical therefore these modes are always
degenerate.

Since for TMmn modes neither m nor n can be zero, as in such cases the
entire TM field components will vanish, therefore there is no degenerate
TMm0 and TM0n modes corresponding to TEm0 and TE0n modes.
Degenerate modes have found wide applications in multimode circuits
like dual band filters etc.
To obtain a degenerate mode of the TE10 mode we often take square

waveguide for which the width and height are equal.


In such case

and

have same cutoff frequency and hence becomes

degenerate modes.
In a square waveguide the TEmn, TEnm, TMmn and TMnm forms a foursome
degeneracy.

Waveguide are used in a shielded room to restrict the passing of


electromagnetic waves through the ventilators of the room.
Waveguides having cut-off frequencies above the maximum operating

frequency are arranged in a honey-comb fashion. The operating


frequency, being below the cut-off frequency of the guide, cannot
propagate through it while air can easily pass through them.
Another important application of the waveguide that takes the
advantage of the cut-off frequency is found in the front door of a
microwave oven where a number of thin waveguides are arranged in a net
pattern.
The frequency of the microwave radiation in the oven cavity is much
lower than the cut-off frequencies of these waveguides and hence cannot
pass through it and come outside.

On the other hand light waves, having much higher frequencies than the
cut-off frequencies of these waveguides, can pass through it.
Thus the user can easily see the condition of the food inside the oven

and simultaneously stays protected from the high power microwave


radiation.

5.8 Dominant Mode in Rectangular Waveguides


The dominant mode corresponds to the particular combination of m and
n that results in minimum cutoff frequency or maximum cutoff wavelength.

TE Mode:
(a) TE00 Mode For m = 0 and n = 0 the entire field components vanishes.
Therefore TE00 mode cannot exist inside waveguide.

(b) TE01 Mode For m = 0 and n = 1, the cutoff wavelength is given by


c,01

2ab
a2

2b

(c) TE10 Mode For m = 1 and n = 0, the cutoff wavelength is given by


c,10

2ab
b

2a

(d) TE11 Mode For m = 1 and n = 1, the cutoff wavelength is given by


c,11

2ab
a2 b2

Since in a waveguide , therefore the cutoff wavelength corresponding


to m = 1 and n = 0 has the maximum value. Therefore the dominant TE
mode is TE10 .

TM Mode:
(a) TM00 Mode For m = 0 and n = 0 the entire field components vanishes.
Therefore TM00 mode cannot exist inside waveguide.

(b) TM01 Mode For m = 0 and n = 0 the entire field components vanishes.
Therefore TM01 mode cannot exist inside waveguide.
(c) TM10 Mode For m = 0 and n = 0 the entire field components vanishes.
Therefore TM10 mode cannot exist inside waveguide.
(d) TM11 Mode For m = 1 and n = 1, the cutoff wavelength is given by
c,11

2ab
a2 b2

For TM modes the cutoff wavelength corresponding to m = 1 and n = 1


has the maximum cutoff wavelength. Thus for TM mode the dominant
mode is TM11 .

Waveguides are mainly operated in the dominant mode because of the


easiness in coupling and extracting power into and from it. The dominant
mode also has the simplest field configuration.

5.9 Physical Explanation for Wave Propagation


in Rectangular Waveguides
Field equations show that the expressions for the TE and TM mode field
components involves sine or cosine function of the terms mx a and ny b .
Since sine and cosine functions can be represented as a linear combination

of the terms e j and e j therefore the waves, at a point within a waveguide, can
also be resolved into two components propagating along and direction
with respect to waveguide axis.

For the dominant TE mode, we can write, for lossless case


Ey

x j t z
H
sin
0
a e
a
k c2

kc2 k2x k2y a

x
x
j z
a
j z a

Ey
H0 e
e a e jt
2

The above equation represents two TEM waves travelling along the positive
Z-axis at an angle


tan1

Therefore the TE10 mode can be considered as a combination of two TEM


mode propagating along a zigzag path between the guide walls x = 0 and x
= a.

Let us consider the propagation of a plane wave in free space.


The wavefront of such a wave is shown in figure below.

If a second wavefront, propagating in different direction is present and


overlaps with the first then a combined wavefront results as shown.
The figure reveals that the two
wavefront adds on the reference
axis and alternate cancellation
(intersection point of a dashed

and a solid lined wave front) and


addition (intersection point of
two dashed or two solid lined
wave

front)

of

the

two

wavefronts occur at progressive


half-wave apart from it.

That is the wavefront addition takes places along the axis A, C, F and
H whereas wavefront cancellation occurs along the axis B, D, E and G.
Now if we place two metallic plates along the cancellation lines D and

E or B and G, the boundary condition, (i.e., the tangential component of


the electric field on a metal-dielectric boundary must be zero) will be
satisfied.
The satisfaction of the first boundary condition automatically satisfies
the other boundary conditions on these boundaries.
The placing of the metal plates thus insures that the wave front
propagates along the reference axis, which is basically along the length

of the guide, with the individual wavefront moving in a zigzag fashion by


complete reflection from the metallic walls at the top and bottom (or
from side walls).

The expression of

reveals that the angle of incidence depends on

which in turn depends on frequency.

decreases with decrease in frequency and for a particular frequency it


will become zero.
At this value of the angle of incidence becomes 90o and the wavefront
bounces back and forth across the guide walls and no energy is conducted
down the waveguide.

The frequency for which becomes zero is thus the cut-off frequency.
At very high frequency tense to infinity and the angle of incidence
tense to zero.

5.10 Guided Wavelengths


The guided wavelength is defined as the distance traveled by the wave in
order to undergo a phase shift of 2 radians and is less than cutoff
wavelength.
g

m
n
Now j 2
a b

1 c

g 2

1
1
1

2g 2 c2

1 c

5.11 Characteristic Impedances of TE and TM


Modes
The TE and / or TM mode wave impedances are defined as
E x Hy E y Hx

TE Mode:

TM Mode:

TE

TM

E x

Hy

TE

Ex

Hy

TM 1 c
2
Therefore TE TM

1 c

5.12 Phase Velocity and Group Velocity


The phase velocity of a wave inside waveguide is expressed as

vp gf

vp g f

1 c

c
c

1 c

Since c , the above equation implies that v p c


d
v

The group velocity is defined as g d


d 2
d
Now

2 c2
d


d
d
d

vp

1 c

d
1

d c 1 2
c

vg

vg

2
Therefore vp v g c

d
d

d
2
c 1 c
d

5.13 Power Flow in Rectangular Waveguides


The power flow through a waveguide can be calculated by means of
complex Poynting Theorem.
Throughout the analysis it will be assumed that both the ends of the
waveguide is matched terminated or the waveguide is infinitely extended
so that there is no reflections from the end.

From the Poynting theorem the power transmitted through a guide is

given by P P dS 1 E H* dS
tr

TE Mode:
pTE

1
1
*
*
*
*
E H* E0yH0z
a x E0xH0z
a y E0xH0y
E0yH0x
a z
2
2

Therefore the power flowing in the z-direction is given by

pz TE E0xH0y* E0yH0x*
2
1

Substituting the TE mode field components we get

pz TE

2
2

1 2 n
m
2 mx
2 ny
2 mx
2 ny

H0 cos
sin b a sin a cos b
2 k c4
b
a

The total power passing through the cross section of the waveguide is

Pz TE

2 m 2 n 2
4 H0 ab
b for m 0 & n 0
a


8k c

2
a b
2 n
pz TE dxdy 4 H0 ab
for m=0 & n 0
b
4k

0 0
c
2

H ab
for m 0 & n=0
4k c4 0 a

TM Mode:

pTM

1
1
*
*
*
*
E H* E0zH0y
a x E0zH0x
a y E0xH0y
E0yH0x
a z
2
2
Therefore the power flowing in the z-direction is given by

pz TM E0xH0y* E0yH0x*
2
1

Substituting the TM mode field components we get

pz TM

2
2

1 2 m
n
2 mx
2 ny
2 m x
2 ny

E0
cos a sin b b sin a cos b
2 k c4
a

The total power passing through the cross section of the waveguide is

Pz TM

2 m 2 n 2
for m 0 & n 0
4 E0 ab

8k c
a b

2
a b
2 n
pz TMdxdy 4 E0 ab
for m=0 & n 0
b
4k

0 0
c
2

E ab
for m 0 & n=0
4k c4 0 a

5.14 Power-handling Capability of Waveguides


For the dominant TE mode we can write
E0x 0

x
E0y A sin
a

H0x

A
x
sin
TE
a

H0 y 0

Therefore,
pTE,10

1
1 A2
x
*
*
E0xH0y E0yH0x
sin2
2
2 TE
a

a b

PTE,1o
TE

A 2 ab
pTE,10 dxdy
4TE
0 0

1 c

PTE,1o

f
A 2ab

1 c,10
4
f

Assuming break down voltage of dry air to be 30 kV/cm and 377 we get
2

PTE,1o

f
597ab 1 c,10 kW
f

where a and b are in cm.

5.15 Waveguide Attenuation


Due to finite conductivity of both the conducting walls and the dielectric
filling, two types of power loss are associated in a rectangular waveguide,
namely, (1) Losses in dielectric and (2) Losses in guide walls.

The attenuation caused by the low loss dielectric in the rectangular


waveguide, for the TE and TM modes, are respectively given by

d,TE

d,TM

2 1 fc f

2
1 fc f
2

In most of the practical applications air is taken as the dielectric


material for which the attenuation loss is very small.
In such cases losses in the guide walls plays a major role.

We can calculate the power losses caused by the guide walls


assuming a uniform current density through the guide walls.

Skin depth is expressed as

2
m m

From Amperes law


ix H0z dz

iz H0x dx

and

Again,
Rx

1 dx
m dz

and

Rz

1 dz
m dx

The total power loss for the element is given by


dPz

1 2
ixRx i2zRz
2

dPz dx m
2
2
H0x

H0z
dz
2 2m

dPz
dx
2
2
H0x

H0z
dz
2m

2
m m

Therefore the total per unit length power loss in the x-z plane is given by
WL x,z

Rs
2

2
2
H0x H0z dxdz

where

Rs

m
2m

(surface resistance
of the waveguide)

Similarly for the x y plane WL y,z

Rs
2

2
0y

2
dydz
H0z

The total power loss in guide walls will be the contribution from each of
the walls of the waveguide and is given by

WTotal WBottom WTop WLeft WRight


Due to symmetry WBottom WTop and WLeft WRight
Therefore WTotal 2 WBottom WLeft
2 z
The power flow in a waveguide can be expressed as Pz P0 e

Differentiating with respect to z we get


Pz

P0 e2z 2P0 e2z

z
z

Pz P0 e 2 z

Pz
2Pz
z

The negative sign indicates the power loss at any point z.

Pz z
2Pz

TE Mode:
Substituting the TE mode field expressions in the expressions of WL x,z
and WL y,z we get

WBottom,TE

WLeft,TE

y 0

x 0

1
2 m 2 a a
RsH02 4

2
k c a 2 2

1
2
RsH0 a
2

1
2 n 2 b b
2
RsH0 4
2
k c b 2 2

1
2
RsH0b
2

for m 0
for m=0

for n 0
for n=0

Therefore the total cross sectional loss (for m 0 and n 0 ) is given by


Wz,TE

2 2

m2 n2
1
2
RsH0 a b

4
2
b
kc a

Therefore

W
Pz z
z,TE
2Pz
2Pz

2 m2 n2
a b

4
4
b
kc a
2k c Rs

2
2

m n
ab

a b

If attenuation is small then 2 and we get

2 2 m2 n2

a b 4
4
a
b
k
2k c Rs
c

m 2 n 2
ab
b
a

For dominant mode excitation m = 1 and n = 0 and we get


Wz,TE

a 2 a 2
RsH b 1 2
2

2
0

Therefore

a 2 a 2
2 Rs b 1 2
2

a3b
2

W
Pz z
z,TE
2Pz
2Pz

TM Mode
For TM mode
2

WBottom,TM

y 0

2 c n 2 a
1
2
RsE0

2
k c4 b 2
2

WLeft,TM

x 0

2
2

1
m

c
RsE02

2
k c4 a 2

Therefore the total cross sectional loss (for m 0 and n 0 ) is given by


2
2
2
2

1
m
n

c
RsE02
b

a

b
2
a
k c4

Wz,TM

The attenuation constant is given by


2
m 2
n
2Rs c b a
b
a

m 2 n 2
ab
a b

5.16 Quality Factor Q of Waveguides


The quality factor of a waveguide is defined as
Q

Energy stord per unit length


Energy stord per unit length

Energy lost per unit length per second


Power lost per unit length

For a waveguide
Energy stored per unit length

Therefore
Now

Power transmitted
vg

Power transmitted
v g Power lost per unit length

Power lost per unit length


2
Power transmitted

The above equation implies Q

2 v g

vp v g c 2
Q

vp
2c 2
c

vp

1 c

2c 1 c

5.17 Non-existence of TEM Modes in Hollow


Waveguides
Let us first consider that TEM mode exists within a waveguide.
Now the Maxwell equation insures that H forms a closed loop.
Since for TEM wave

must be perpendicular to the direction of

propagation therefore the closed loop of lines also


H must be perpendicular
to the direction of propagation or at the cross-sectional plane of the

waveguide.
Now since inside the waveguide J 0

H.dl D J .dS implies that

therefore Maxwells equation,

D 0 and must be along the axis of the

waveguide.
The presence of D along the axis of the waveguide insures the existence
of Ealong the axis of the waveguide that is in the direction of propagation.

The last conclusion contradicts with our initial assumption of the


existence of the TEM wave.
Therefore TEM wave cannot exist inside the hollow waveguide.

Practically propagation of axial current requires a center conductor.


That why TEM mode propagation required a two conductor system.

5.18 Transmission Line Analogy of Waveguides


TE equivalent model:
For TE wave, using the Maxwells curl equations, we can write that
Ey
z

jHx

Hz Hy

jE x
y
z

Since for TE mode H 0 we can write


z

The above implies that in the X-Y plane we can define a magnetic scalar
potential satisfying the relations:
U
Hx
x

Hy

Again for TE mode Ey

U
y

j Hz
k c2 x

Differentiating on both sides with respect to z we get,


E y
z

j Hz

z k c2 x

Ey
z

jHx

Further for TE mode Ex

j Hz

z k c2 x

j Hz
k c2 y

jHx

Hx

U
x

j
2 Hz jU
z k c

Hy

Hz Hy

jE x
y
z

2 Hz

1 2
z
k c y
Hy

U
y

k c2
j
U

j 2 Hz
z
j
k c

Since the parameter jHz k c2 has a unit of voltage and U has a unit of
current, we can write the followings
j
2 Hz jU
z k c

VTE
ZTEITE
z

k c2
j
U

j 2 Hz
z
j
k c

The characteristic impedance is

ITE
YTE VTE
z
TE

ZTE j

where

where
j
k c2
j
j

YTE

k c2

j
j

k c2

j2 2

k c2
2

k c2 c2

TE

f
1 c
f


1
c

TM equivalent model:
For TM wave, using the Maxwells curl equations, we can write that
Hy
z

jEx

and

Ex Ez

jHy
z
x

Since for TM mode Hz 0 we can write

The above equation implies that in the X-Y plane we can define an

electric scalar potential satisfying the relations:


Ex

V
x

Ey

V
y

Again for TM mode Hy

j Ez
k c2 x

Differentiating on both sides with respect to z we get,


Hy
z

j Ez

z k c2 x

Hy
z

j Ez

jE x
z k c2 x
jEx

Ex

V
x

j
Ez jV

z k c2

Now,
Ex Ez

jHy
z
x

Hy

E x 2 Ez
1 2
z
k c x

j Ez
k c2 x

Ex

V
x

k c2
j
V

j 2 Ez
z
j

k c

2
Since the parameter jE z k c has a unit of current and V has a unit of

voltage, we can write


ITM
YTM VTM
z

j
Ez jV

z k c2

where YTM j

VTM
ZTMITM
z

k c2
j
V

j 2 Ez
z
j
k c

where

Z TM

k c2

j
j

The characteristic impedance is


TM

k c2
2


f
1 c 1
f
c
2

TM
k c2 c2

5.19 Excitation of Modes in Rectangular


Waveguides
The desired field intensities of a particular mode can be established
by means of probe or loop coupling.
The probe and the loops are basically a monopole and a loop antenna
respectively.

The probes are located to excite the electric field intensity of the mode
whereas the loop is used to generate the magnetic field intensity of the
desired mode.
The aperture electric field distribution of the TE10 mode is shown below.
For this mode the electric
field intensity is directed
towards Y-direction and is
maximum at the center of
the aperture. There is no X-

component of the electric


field for this mode.
So the best position of the probe to generate the TE10 mode is at the top /

bottom wall of the guide and at the center of the aperture

In practice a short circuit is placed at a distance l 4 at the source end.


Therefore the wave travelling in the negative z-direction will be reflected
back by the short circuit and will travel a distance l 2 before adding in

opposite phase with the negative z-directed wave.


The probes for exciting the TE20 mode can be placed as shown.
In this case we must take care
about the phase relation between
the currents in the two probes.
Since the direction of the electric

fields at the position a 4and 3a 4 are


opposite to each other therefore
the

currents

at

the

respective

probes should also have a phase


difference of 180o .

This condition can be satisfied by inserting an extra l 2 length cable


between the probes.

Now let us consider the TM Modes.


The electric fields for the TM mode have both X and Y-component.
Therefore the right place for inserting the feed probe is through the
shorting wall. The position of the probes for the TM11 and TM21 mode is shown.
The corresponding aperture electric field distribution is shown below.
It should be noted that in addition to the intended modes, some higher

order modes are also generated at the position of the probe.


However, these higher order modes are attenuated within a short
distance and only the dominant mode propagates down the guide.
A proper impedance matching reduces these higher order modes at the
feed point.

Such impedance matching is in general obtained by varying the position

and depth of the probe in the guide or by using impedance matching


stubs or transformers on the coaxial line / guide.
It also should be remembered that a probe, that excites a given mode in
the guide also serves as a receptor of energy for that mode.

To achieve a satisfactory result, the depth of the probe inside the


waveguide should be small so that a constant current on the probe
radiates electromagnetic field inside the guide.

A short circuit plate is also placed at a distance l, approximately


quarter wavelength, from the probe to insure propagation in one
direction.
The distance l and d is adjusted to achieve pure resistive
impedance equal to the characteristic impedance of the waveguide.

The reactance of the probe, resulting from higher order modes, can be
made negligible by making the probe diameter very small 0.15a .
Electromagnetic energy can also be excited inside a waveguide with the
help of a coupling loop.
For exciting dominant mode inside a waveguide the loop is placed at
the middle of the two broad walls of the guide with its plane transverse to

the waveguide.
A short circuit is placed at a distance l from the loop to insure
propagation in one direction only.

The input impedance is made resistive and


equal to the characteristic impedance of the

guide by adjusting the loop diameter and


length l.

In microwave circuits it is sometimes required to transfer a lesser


amount of energy.
This can be achieved by using loose coupling.

Loose coupling can be achieved by decreasing the length of the probe


or by moving it out of the center of the E-field.
It is also possible to achieve loose coupling by partially shielding the
probe.
For the case where the amount of coupling must be varied the probe
must be made retractable so that its length can be varied.
Loose coupling can also be achieved by rotating the loops until it

encircles a smaller number of magnetic field lines.


Another way to achieve loose coupling is to mill slots / apertures at the
shorting wall of the guide.

For proper slot dimensions the electric field, existing outside the
waveguide, can penetrate the slot and can excite EM fields inside the
waveguide.
While the probe length and positions may control the power
coupling, the diameter of the probe may control the power handling
capability and bandwidth.

A door knob probe (similar in shape of a door knob) is capable of


handling much higher power and bandwidth than a conventional
probe.
In general as the diameter of the probe is increased the bandwidth is
also increased.

5.20 Waveguide Terminations


Matched terminations:
The basic concept behind the design of a matched termination is to
use a resistive or absorptive material that will absorb the field incident
on it.

Since the fields are absorbed there is no reflection from the


termination and hence the SWR of line remains 1. The absorbed energy
is dissipated as heat.
One method of obtaining matched termination using this technique is
to fill the end of the guide with a graphite and sand mixture.
Instead of the sand and graphite mixture high resistive rod can also be
placed at the end.

The electric field incident on it induces a current in the rod to flow but
the high resistance of the rod dissipates the energy in the form of heat.
Another common form of matched load uses a wedge of highly resistive
material. Again, as before, the electric field gets absorbed by the wedge
and the energy is dissipated as heat.

The efficiency of a matched load, using wedges of highly resistive


material as absorbent depends on the position of the wedges and the
existing mode pattern inside the guide.
The basic rule is to coincide the tip of the wedge with the maximum
electric field. Therefore for TE10 mode the wedge should be placed as
shown in figure.

With such arrangement the maximum electric field, at the center, will
travel longer path through the resistive wedge than a weaker electric
field at the sides and hence at the end of the wedge the stronger electric
field will be absorbed more than a weaker electric field.
Even if reflection occurs at the end, the reflected field, corresponding
to the stronger electric field, will again travel more than that corresponds
to a weaker field.

Since TE20 mode has zero electric field at the center of the guide crosssection therefore the matched load geometry for the TE10 mode will not be
effective to match the TE20 mode.

For TE20 mode two such wedges, with their tips at a/4 and 3a/4 should be
used.
Waveguide

matched

loads

provides

matching by absorbing the incident and


reflected power and hence easily get heated.
Therefore

for

high

power

applications

separate cooling mechanism like are required


for cooling the matched load.

For low power applications the generated heat is automatically lost by

radiation and hence no separate cooling mechanism is required.

Short Circuit:
Waveguide short circuit can be obtained by simply inserting a metal plate at
the end of the guide, as shown

Short circuit plunger:


A short circuit plunger is basically a variable short circuit whose
distance from the reference plane can be adjusted to achieve any reactive

impedance in the range j to j .

To achieve a better result the contact resistance at the guide walls


should be as low as possible and also constant along the line.
These requirements can be mate by modifying the shorting section as
shown.
There are two cascaded g 4 section.
The short circuit at the end of second section is transferred to an open

circuit at the joint of the two g 4section which further transferred to a


short circuit at the reference plane of the short circuit.

Another short circuit plunger has better performance is called a


choke plunger.
A choke plunger consists of two cascaded g 4 section, as shown.

The widths of the plungers are uniform and are slightly less than the
internal guide width of the broad wall whereas the height of the
plungers are different and are b 2b1 and b 2b2 respectively.
For satisfactory performance b1 should as small as possible while
b2 is as large as possible.

The extreme back sections makes a

sliding fit in the guide with almost


zero air gap.

If Z01and Z02 are the characteristic impedances of the respective quarter


wave sections then the input impedance seen at the plane is given by
Zin Z01 Z02 Zsc b1 b2 Zsc
2

Where Zsc is the input impedance at the plane BB and is almost zero.
Since b2

b1 , i.e., Z02

Z01 therefore Zin

Zsc .

The main disadvantage of a choke plunger is its bandwidth limitation

which is only 20% to 30% at the mid frequency.


For circular waveguide operating in the TE01mode choke plungers are not
required because due to absence of longitudinal currents.
Open circuit:

For waveguide it is not possible to obtain an open circuit simply by


leaving the terminating end of the guide open as in the case of two wire
transmission line.

This is because radiation occurs from the open end of the guide.
In practice an open circuit in waveguide can be achieved by inserting
quarter wave section between the guide and the shorting plate.

5.21 Impedance Matching in Waveguides


Like the two wire or other transmission line systems waveguides are
also subjected to load mismatch.
The amount of mismatch depends on the load impedance and the
characteristic impedance of the guide.
The concepts that are used to match a transmission line with a load are
also applicable for the waveguides.

Irises:
Irises are basically metallic obstacles inside the waveguide with an
opening through which electromagnetic energy can pass.

Depending on the geometry, a waveguide iris may be classified as


inductive, capacitive or resonant.
When dominant mode faces such discontinuities higher order TE and
TM modes are generated to satisfy the boundary condition. These higher
order modes are evanescent in nature and die down within a quarter
wavelength distance from the junction.
If the irises are inductive in nature then they will store magnetic energy

from these higher order modes whereas if the irises are capacitive in
nature then they will store electric energy.

An inductive iris has opening of cross-sectional dimension l X b where l


is the width of the opening / aperture along the width of the guide and b is
the height of the opening / aperture along the height of the guide and is

equal to the guide height. That is the edges of the inductive irises are
perpendicular to the magnetic plane.

As compared to inductive irises a capacitive iris has opening of


cross-sectional dimension a X d where a is the width of the opening /
aperture along the width of the guide and is equal to the guide width

and d is the height of the opening / aperture along the height of the
guide. Therefore the edges of a capacitive iris are perpendicular to the
electric plane.
A resonant iris has opening of cross-sectional dimension l X d where
l is the width of the opening / aperture along the width of the guide and
d is the height of the opening / aperture along the height of the guide.
At the resonance point it behaves as a shunt resistance otherwise it

behaves as inductor or capacitor.


The amount of inductance and capacitance produce by such circuit
depends on the dimensions (Width, height and thickness).

Symmetrical Inductive:
2

l
g cot 2 l 1 1 l
for
1

a
2a
6


g
B

2
Y0
2 a l 8 2 a l
al
g
2

for
1
cot
1

2
a
a
3

Asymmetrical Inductive:
B
2
g 2 a l

Y0

2
al
2
a l
2a 1 2 a l ln
for

g
2
a
a

Symmetrical Capacitive:
4b 2b b2
d
ln 2 for

b
B g d 2 g

Y0 2 b d2
bd
for

b
2b g

Center hole inductive iris:

Asymmetrical capacitive:
8b 2b 2b2
d
ln 2 for

b
B g d g

Y0 2 b d 2
bd
for

b g
b

B 3ab g

Y0 16r03

for r0

Posts and screws:


A thin screw of diameter
h g 4 , infinite reactance if

g 4 posses a capacitive reactance when

h g 4

and inductive reactance if

h g 4 where h is the depth of penetration inside the waveguide.

However, again, the exact amount of capacitance / inductance produced


by the screws depends on the radius and length of the post.
Screws also can be inserted inside a waveguide through a longitudinal
slot cut along the broad wall of a waveguide.
Such arrangement provides more flexibility of varying both the

penetration and position of the screw for better matching.

Thin cylindrical posts inserted through the broad wall and extending
completely across the narrow width of the guide provides an inductive
susceptance whereas the cylindrical posts inserted through the narrow

wall and extending completely across the broad width of the guide
provides an inductive susceptance for the dominant mode. However,
again, the exact value of the inductive / capacitive reactance depends on
the diameter of the post.
A combination of two screws / posts,
one having length h g 4 while the

other having length


separated

by

h g 4

and

a 3 g 8 distance

produces a parallel L C combination

In practice, if the post or screw is


parallel to the electric field it will have
more

effect

than

when

it

is

perpendicular to the electric field.


Further the posts or screws, nearer
to

the

side walls

produces

more

reflection than that at the center.


Waveguide Stub:
In rectangular waveguides stubs are connected in the E-plane or H-plane
by placing a waveguide short circuit plunger.
For the E-plane stub the electric field lines penetrates into the stub
guide and thus offers reactance in series with the main line whereas for Hplane stub the magnetic field lines penetrate into the stub guide and thus

presents a parallel susceptance with the main guide.

Such stubs are also called E-plane and H-plane tuners.


A combination of E-plane and H-plane tuner, called an E-H tuner is also
used to match a wide range of load impedances.

Waveguide Quarter wave Impedance Transformer:


Waveguide quarter wave impedance transformers are designed by
making steps either in the E-plane or H-plane

b2 b1 b3

(for E-plane step)

a2

g2

a1a3
g1 g3

(for H-plane step)

Waveguide Taper:
Waveguide taper results from the gradual connection of two similar or
dissimilar waveguides of different cross-section.
For a smooth transition and lower reflection coefficient the taper
length must be at least long at the operating frequency.

Depending on the flaring dimensions, a taper can be classified as Eplane, H-plane of E-H plane taper.

5.22 Waveguide Bends


and Twists
Twists:
Twists are sometimes used to
achieve proper phase matching with
the load.
Care must be taken to form the

twist so that the reflection becomes


minimum.
This can be achieved by twisting
the guide gradually over a length
greater than two wavelengths

Bends:
In microwave circuits it is often required to bend the waveguide to
achieve flexibility of connecting adapters, terminators or other loads.
However any abrupt change in the shape of the guide will launch
reflected waves from the discontinuity. Therefore to form the bends
special care must be taken.
Depending on the geometry a waveguide bend may be classified as Eplane, H-plane or sharp bend.
Out of these E-plane and H-plane bends are gradual bends.

The E-plane bends distorts only the electric field distribution whereas
the H-plane bends distorts only the magnetic field distribution.
To achieve a satisfactory performance the bending radius of both the

bends must be greater than two wavelengths and the mean length of
the bend must be an odd multiple of quarter wavelength to cancel
reflections from both the end.
In contrast to smooth bends a sharp bends can also be used. F
or the sharp bend the two 45o bends are quarter wavelength apart and
therefore the reflections that occur at each of the bends cancel each
other leaving the fields of the main guide as if no reflections have

occurred.
The bend is also called a mittered corner.

5.23 Waveguide Flanges


Cover flanges are basically a square shaped metal block having a
central slot of dimensions equal to the outer dimension of the waveguide
and four holes at each corner.
The surface of the flange must be smooth and clean to make a proper
contact.

Since RF current flows across it, the metal should also be highly
conducting in order to reduce Ohmic loss.
A properly designed flange produces SWR less than 1.03 and has
advantages of simpler structure, ease of fabrication and low costing.
There is often a fair chance of existence of air gap between the two
flanges connected together which may cause voltage breakdown in high
power application.

Choke Flange:
Choke flange is machined to form a
radial transmission line of g 4 length

in between the guide and point of


contact of the two flanges.
At the point of contact between the
two flanges, another g 4 line is formed
by a circular groove.
The short circuit at the end of this
groove is transformed into an open

circuit at the at the contact point of


the flanges.

Any resistance, existing at the contact point, comes in series with this
open circuit impedance and hence has no effect.
The open circuit impedance, existing at the contact point, further

transforms to a short circuit at the edges of the waveguide.


Due to existence of equivalent short circuit impedance, the voltage
drop across the Ohmic contact between the flanges is very small and
thus removes the probability of voltage break down in high power
applications.
In spite of these advantages choke flanges has one major
disadvantage of being more frequency dependent than cover flanges

due to the existence of the g 4 sections.


The choke flange can produce SWR as low as 1.05.

5.24 Introduction to Circular Cylindrical


Waveguides
A circular cylindrical waveguide is a hollow metallic pipe having a
circular cross section.
Like the rectangular waveguide, the dimension of the cylindrical
waveguide is also determined by the cutoff frequency of the lowest order
or dominant mode and the next higher order mode.
The Maxwells curl equations inside the waveguide at steady state is given
by

E jH
H jc E

Using the definition of curl of a vector in cylindrical coordinate we can


write the above equations as
E
Ez
r
jrHr

Er Ez

jH
z
r

rE r jrHz

H
Hz
r
jc rEr

Hr Hz

jc E
z
r

rH r jcrEz

where the electric and magnetic fields are expressed as


E r, ,z Er a r Ea Ez a z E0r a r E0 a E0z a z e z
H r, ,z Ha r Ha Hza z H0r a r H0 a H0za z e z

5.25 Propagation of TE Mode in Circular


Waveguides
The TE mode is characterized by E0z 0
Therefore we can write

E0 jH0r

H0z rH0 jcrE0r

E0r jH0

rE0 E0r jrH0z

H0r H0z jc E0
r

rH

0 H0r 0
r

Manipulating the above equations we get


1 H0z
r

r r r
1 H0z
r
r r r

2
1 H0z
2
2

c H0z 0
r 2 2

2
1 H0z
2
r 2 2 k c H0z 0

To solve let us start with the trial solution


H0z r, H0z r H0z

Substitution of the above trial solution in the wave equation gives


r

H0z r

2H0z r
r 2

H0z r

H0z r
r

k r
2 2
c

H0z

2H0z
2

Left hand side of the above equation is a function of r whereas the right
hand side is a function of only. This implies that above equation may
be separated in the following two equations
r

2H0z r
r 2

H0z r
r

k c2r 2 n2 H0z r 0

2H0z
2

n2H0z 0

where n2 is a constant.
The general solution of the first equation is given by
H0z r AJn kc r BNn k cr

Where Jn k c r is the Bessels function of order n of argument k c r and Nn kcr


is the Numens function of order n of argument k c r .

Now Nn kcr at r = 0

B=0

Therefore

H0z r AJn k c r

The solution of second differential equation is given by


H0z Pcos n Qsin n

Thus the complete solution is given by

H0z Jn kcr P cos n Qsin n

where

P AP

and Q AQ

In the solution there are two arbitrary amplitude constants P ,and Q that
controls the amplitudes of cos n and sin n terms respectively.
Because of the azimuthal symmetry of the waveguide both of these two
terms are valid and can be present. The actual amplitudes of these two
terms depend on the excitation of the waveguide.
However rotating the waveguide about z axis, any one term between
these two can be made equal to zero.

Under such circumstance the solution can be written as


cos n

H0z H0 Jn k c r

sin
n

Therefore
sin n
j 1
E0r 2 H0nJn k c r

kc r
cos n

E0

cos n
H0r H0 Jn k c r

kc
sin n
where

cos n
j

H0 Jn k c r

sin
n

kc

H0

1
sin n
H
nJ
k
r

0
n
c
cos
n

k c2 r

Jn k cr Jn k cr
r

Now the boundary condition is H0r 0 at r = R


Applying the boundary condition we get
Therefore for n = 0 k c01

3.83
R

and

k c02

Jn k cR 0

7.02
R

and for n = 1

k c11

1.84
R

and k c12

5.33
R

2
2
2
For lossless dielectric nm k c,nm

At cutoff frequency

k
2
c

2
c,nm

fc

k c,nm
2

Since for a given R, k c11 has the minimum value therefore the dominant
TE mode in circular waveguide is TE11 .

5.26 Propagation of TM Mode in Circular


Waveguides
For the TM mode Hz 0 and we get
E0z
rE0 jrH0r

E0r

rE0 0r 0

rH0 0r jc rE0z

E0z
jH0
r

H0r jc E0

H0 jc E0r

Manipulating the above equations we get


1 E0z
r
r r r

2
1 E0z
2
r 2 2 k c E0z 0

To solve the above equation let us assume that Eoz r, Eoz r Eoz
Substituting the above trial solution in the above wave equation we get
r

Eoz r

2Eoz r
r 2

Eoz r

Eoz r
r

k r
2 2
c

Eoz

2Eoz
2

Left hand side of above equation is a function of both r and whereas


the right hand side is zero. This implies that the equation may be
separated in the following two equations
r

2Eoz r
r

Eoz r
r

2Eoz

k c2r 2 n2 Eoz r 0

n2Eoz 0

where n 2 is a constant.
The general solution is given by E0z r AJn kc r BNn k cr
where Jn k c r is the Bessels function of order n of argument k c r and Nn k c r
is the Numens function of order n of argument k c r .
Now Nn kcr at r = 0

B=0

Therefore E0z r AJn k c r


The solution of second wave equation is given by E0z Pcos n Qsin n

Therefore the final solution can be written as


E0z Jn kc r P cos n Qsin n

where P AP

and

Q AQ

Following previous arguments we can write


cos n

E0z E0 Jn k c r

sin
n

Therefore

E0r

H0r

cos n

E
J
k
r

0 n
c
k c2
sin n

E0

sin n
jc 1
E
nJ
k
r

0
n c
k c2 r
cos n

1
sin n
E
nJ
k
r

0
n
c
cos
n

k c2 r

H0

Now the boundary condition is E0z 0

cos n
jc

E
J
k
r

0 n c
k c2
sin n

at r = R

Applying the boundary condition we get Jn k cR 0


This gives for n=0 k c01

2.405
R

and k c02

5.52
R

and for n=0

k c11

3.85
7.02
and k c12
R
R

The expression of cutoff frequency is same for TE and TM modes.


Since for a given R, k c,01 has the minimum value therefore the dominant

TM mode in circular waveguide is TM01 .

TM01 mode preferred over TE01 mode because it requires smaller waveguide

diameter for the same cut-off wavelength.

5.27 Mode Numbering System in Circular


Waveguides
For circular waveguide the first subscript represents the number of

full wave pattern around the circumference of the waveguide whereas


the second subscript indicates the number of half wave patterns across
the diameter.

If we follow the electric field pattern in the


counterclockwise direction, starting at the top,
the electric field lines go from zero, maximum

positive, zero, maximum negative and then


backs to zero. This is one full cycle and
therefore the first subscript is 1.

Along the diameter the electric field


lines go from zero through maximum
and then returns to zero and thus

complete one half cycle. Therefore the


second subscript is also 1.

5.28 Power Transmission in Circular


Waveguides
If the dielectric is lossless then the time average power transmitted

through a circular waveguide is given by


2p R

2p R

2
2
1
Z
2
2
Ptr =
E
+
E
d
f
rdr
=
H
+
H

df rdr
f
f
r
r

2Z
2
0 0
0 0

where

Z=

Ef
Er
= Hf
Hr

For TEmn mode, the average power transmitted through the circular
waveguide is given by
2 2p R

Ptr,TEmn =

1- (fc f )
2h

2
2
E
+
E

df rdr
r
f

0 0

where h =

me

Similarly for TMmn mode, the average power transmitted through the
circular waveguide is given by
2p R

Ptr,TMmn =

2h 1- (fc f )

2
2
E
+
E

df rdr
r
f

0 0

The TE11 mode fields can be written as


Hz H0 J1 kc r sin e jz

Er

j
H0 J1 k c r cos e jz
2
kcr

j
H0 J1 k c r sin e jz
kc

j
j
j z
H

H0 J1 k c r cos e jz

2
Hr H0 J1 k c r sin e
kcr
kc

Ez 0

Therefore the power carrying by the guide can be calculated as


H0 Re
2

P0

4k

4
c

2 1 J12 k cR
p11

where

R
k c,11 p11

The attenuation due to dielectric loss is given by d


Now

R
Pl s
2

Np/m

k 2 tan

Js

H0 RsR
2 2
Rd
1 4 2 J1 k cR
2
kcR

Therefore the attenuation constant due to conductor loss is

Rs 2
Pl
k2
c

k c 2
Np/m
2P0 kR
1
p11
The power handling capabilities of a circular waveguide for the
dominant TE11 mode and TE01 mode are given by

PTE11 1790R2 1 fc,11 f kW


2

PTE01 1805R2 1 fc,01 f kW


2

TE01 has the lowest attenuation per

unit length for frequencies greater


than 10 GHz.

5.29 Excitation of Modes in Circular


Waveguides
Since for the TE modes there is no electric field component along the
direction of propagation therefore these modes can be exited if we place
the probe / loop in the guide in such a way that it does not excite any
component of the electric field along the axis of the guide.

Similarly if we place the probe / loop in such a way that it does not
excite any component of the magnetic field along the axis of the guide
then the propagating mode will be a TM mode.
For both the cases, however, the position and number of probes and
phase of the currents in the probe is determined by the field
configurations of the intended modes.

Introduction of the probe to the guide


creates an impedance discontinuity and
excites higher order modes.
The higher order modes decay within a
very short distance and we are left only
with the desired modes.
Impedance mismatch often requires

tuning device to minimize the reflection.

5.30 Waveguide Mode Filters


We already know that the propagation of a particular waveguide mode
depends upon the dimension of the guide and operating frequency.
In practice waveguides are operated in the dominant mode only and
hence its dimensions and operating frequency are adjusted accordingly.
If we want to operate the waveguide at a higher order mode then either

the operating frequency should be increased or its dimensions should


be readjusted.
However in both cases, by virtue of having lower cut-off frequency, the
lower order modes will also exist along with the desired higher order
mode.
Therefore to operate the waveguide only at a particular higher order
mode we need to use a mode filter.

A mode filter is a series of conducting strips or wires inserted in the


guide to reflect unwanted modes without interfering with the desired
modes.

The strips, in general, are arranged parallel to the electric field lines of
the mode to be filtered out.
The conducting strips being parallel to the electric field will reflect them
strongly and thus filtering out it.

5.31 Waveguide Transition


In microwave circuit it is often required a transition between a
rectangular and circular waveguide and vice-versa. The simplest type of

such transition is a rectangular to circular waveguide taper.


In this circuit the dominant TE10 mode in rectangular waveguide is
converted in the dominant TE11 mode in circular waveguide.
If

we

choose

the

circular

waveguide

dimension such that the excitation frequency is


above the cut-off frequency of the TE11 mode but

below the cut-off frequency of the next higher


order modes then all the higher order modes,
generated at the discontinuity, will be localized
around the discontinuity and at the output we
will get only the TE11 mode.

The above transition can also be used to convert the dominant TE10 in
rectangular waveguide to TE01 mode in circular waveguide.
However for this case the guide dimension should be such that it can

support the TE01 mode.


However since TE11 mode is the dominant mode it will also exist with the
desired TE01 mode.
Now if TE11 mode filter is used then TE11 mode will be suppressed and at
the output we will get only the desired TE01 mode.

5.32 Waveguide Rotary Joints


In waveguide rotary joint the two rectangular waveguides, operating in
the TE10 mode, are connected by a circular waveguide, specially designed
to operate at the symmetric TM01 mode.

The diameter of the circular waveguide is chosen in such a way that


modes higher than TM01 are not supported by the guide.
However since the dominant mode for the circular waveguide is
TE11 and have lower cut-off frequency than TM01 mode a special

arrangement is required to suppress it.


This is accomplished by using a ring filter.

In addition the end lengths of the circular waveguide is chosen


such that it is an odd multiple of quarter guided wavelength for the
TE11 mode but an even multiple of quarter guided wavelength for the

TM01 mode.

This particular length insure an infinite input impedance at the


rectangular to circular waveguide junction for the TE11 mode and zero
input impedance at the rectangular to circular waveguide junction for

the TM01 mode.

Therefore TE11 mode is weakly excited whereas the TM01 mode is


strongly excited inside the guide.
The

distance

between the

input

and

output

rectangular

waveguide is also selected in such a way that resonance of


TE11 mode is avoided in this section.

The impedance at the


rectangular

to

circular

waveguide

junction

is

further matched by using

a receiving tuner such as


irises.
Such rotary joints can
produce a SWR less than
1.1.

5.33 Comparison of Rectangular and Circular


Waveguides
The dominant TEmn mode in rectangular waveguide is TE10 whereas
TE11 is dominant

TEmn

mode in circular waveguide. The dominant

TMmn mode in rectangular waveguide is TM whereas TM is dominant


11
01
TMmn mode in circular waveguide.

Let us consider a rectangular of dimension a b where a 2b and a


circular waveguide of radius R have same periphery L. This gives
R

L
2

Therefore the corresponding dominant mode cutoff frequencies are


c,Re c tan gular

L
2a 2 0.667L
3

c,Circular

2
2R
L

0.543L
k c11 k c11R 1.84

Therefore cutoff frequency is lower in a circular waveguide provided

the periphery is same for both the waveguide.

The attenuation is larger in rectangular waveguide than a circular


waveguide.
Volume of the material of circular waveguide is more than that of
rectangular waveguide and hence circular waveguide is costlier than
rectangular waveguide.
The bending of circular waveguide is much more difficult than that

of rectangular waveguide.
Since is lower for circular waveguide than rectangular waveguide
therefore the Q value for circular waveguide is higher than
rectangular waveguide.

5.34 Other Waveguides


Ridge Waveguide:

A ridge waveguide is formed by developing rectangular ridges inside a


rectangular waveguide.
Ridges are developed typically at the position of the maximum electric
field and therefore for the dominant mode of operation the preferred
position of the ridges are at the center of the wide walls.
It has the effect of increasing the capacitance between the wide walls
of the guide and therefore reducing the effective impedance and cut-off

frequency of the guide.


The cut-off frequency of a ridge waveguide can be expressed as
fc

1
4g
2 bd a d

Ridge waveguides also have some disadvantages like (i) higher


attenuation and (ii) reduction in power handling capability

Since for TE20 mode the electric field is either zero or very weak at / near

the center of the broad walls of the guide the ridge, shown above, does
not disturb the TE20 mode.
The ridged section behaves almost as a parallel plate waveguide and
consequently ridge waveguide has a much lower cut-off frequency than
a hollow metallic waveguide.

Dielectric Rod Waveguide:


A uniform cylindrical low-loss, high permittivity dielectric rods can
guide waves through it by the process of total internal reflection from

the dielectric air boundary.


The modes that are supported by such waveguides are both purely TE
and TM modes as well as hybrid HE or EH modes.
The axi-symmetric modes are pure TE and TM modes with non-zero
cut-off frequencies whereas all other modes with angular dependence
are a combinations of both TE and TM modes and are called hybrid EH
or HE modes.

Hybrid modes contains all components of electric and magnetic fields.


The dominant mode of a dielectric rod waveguide is HE11 mode and has
zero cut-off frequency.

The cut-off wavelength for the first higher order mode is expressed as
c 2.6R r 1

where R is the radius of the dielectric guide.

The rod is tapered to obtain


impedance matching with the
circular guide.
However

due

discontinuity

existing

to

the
at

the

aperture a reflected wave is


launched

in

the

circular

Dielectric rod waveguide

waveguide.

This decreases the efficiency of launching. The efficiency of launching


can be expressed as

S12
Surface Wave Power
L

Input Power-Reflected Power 1 S11 2

5.35 Advantages and Disadvantages of


Waveguides
Advantages:
Lower Ohmic loss: Due to larger surface area of the conductor the
Ohmic Loss is lower.
Lower dielectric loss: Waveguide uses air as dielectric. Since Air has
lower dielectric loss the dielectric loss of the waveguide is also small.
High power handling capability: Since air has higher breakdown
voltages therefore waveguide is suitable for carrying high power. If

necessary the hollow space can be vacuumed to handle more power.


Ease of fabrication: Due to its simpler structure waveguide can be
easily fabricated:
Rugged: The single conductor metallic structure of the waveguide
makes it rugged.

Disadvantages:
Bulky size at lower frequencies: Since the width of the waveguide is
approximately of half wavelength therefore at lower frequencies
waveguide is bulky.
Heavy: The complete metallic structure makes the waveguide heavy
as compared to others.
Difficult to install: Because of their rigid and hollow pipe shape the

installation of waveguide is difficult and special care is required for


bending, twisting and coupling.
Costly: Due to requirement of highly conducting metals like copper,
brass or aluminum for fabrication, it is costly as compared to others.
Further to reduce skin effect often silver / gold plating at the inner
surface of the waveguide is required. This further increases the cost
of the waveguide.

Not amendable to Integrated Circuit fabrication.

5.36 Finlines
Finline is a quasi-planar transmission line structure that was proposed
to achieve large bandwidth, compatibility with planar circuit technology
in absence of radiation.
A basic finline can be thought as a shielded slot line mounted in the Eplane of a rectangular waveguide.
Therefore for the specified frequency band the dimensions of a finline
are identical to a waveguide operates at that band.
In addition, the finlines may also be considered as a printed version of
a ridge waveguide.
The unilateral finlines are the simplest and best for finline component
fabrication whereas bilateral finlines provide greater flexibility for
biasing of active devices due to metallization on both sides.

The bilateral finlines also have lower loss and can provide
characteristic impedance as low as 100 .
Antipodal finlines can provide characteristic impedance of the

order of 10 and are suitable for transition between a microstrip line


and a waveguide.

In finline structures, the fins concentrate the electric field in the fingap region.
Such field configuration leads to a capacitive loading to the
dominant HE mode propagation in the slab waveguide.

The capacitive loading, in turn, lowers the cut-off frequency of the


fundamental mode by a considerable amount and the next higher
order modes by a negligible amount and thus increases the overall
bandwidth of the fundamental mode of operation.

In addition to the larger bandwidth, the devices and components that


are integrated in the finline for integrated circuit application are
subjected to high power densities resulting in better matching.
However the higher field densities also results in higher conduction
and dielectric loss due to the presence of the dielectric slab as
compared to waveguide.

It also results in high current density at the fin edges.


The attenuation of fin line is high and of the order of 0.1 dB/
wavelength.
Therefore felines are not suitable for long distance power
transmission.

Similar to the case of planar transmission line, the analysis of finline


structures is very difficult and cumbersome because in both the cases
inhomogeneous dielectric and sharp metal edges exist.

The modes exist in a finline are HE and EH mode with dominant

Hz and Ez fields. Such fields, on cut-off, reduce to TE and TM modes


respectively.