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#!

/usr/bin/python
# drivenpend.py
# Physics 338: The Damped Driven Pendulum.
# Integrate Newton's laws for the damped, driven pendulum and illustrate
# the results with a simulation and a phase space plot.
# This version includes sliders for controlling the various parameters
# $Id: drivenpend.py,v 1.8 2003/11/26 15:51:36 doughera Exp $
#
-- Andrew Dougherty
from visual.graph import *
from visual.controls import *
#####################################################################
# DISPLAY SETTINGS:
# Set fancy_display to '0' to show only the phase space window. This
# runs faster, but you have to manually stop, edit, and restart the
# program to change the constants. Set it to '1' to show everything.
fancy_display = 1
# Another way to speed up or slow things down is with the rate()
# command in the main loop near the bottom.
# Set these to the Horizontal and vertical resolution of your screen.
hres = 1024
vres = 768
#####################################################################
# Physical Constants, but
omega0 = 1.0
#
Q
= 2.0
a0
= 1.4
#
omega = 0.67 * omega0 #

in convenient computational form


Natural angular frequency of undamped oscillator
Convenient shorthand for external forcing F0/m
Driving frequency

# Derived physical constants


T0 = 2 * pi / omega0
# Natural period of undamped oscillator
gamma = omega0 / Q
# Damping coefficient
T_driving = 2 * pi / omega # Period of the external forcing.
# Initial conditions
t = 0.0
x = 0.0
v = 0.0
# Time step. Adjust as needed to achieve the desired precision
# and smoothness of plot.
dt = 0.01 # smaller than about T0/200, but rounded for nice display.
T_transient = 0 # 10.0 * Q * T0
# Adjust this to skip plotting
# initial transient.
T_stop = T_transient + 5000 * T0
ntrail = 4000 # Length of trail of 'dots' to leave behind.
npoincare = 40
# Acceleration function.
def accel(x, v, t):
"accel(x,v,t): acceleration for the damped driven pendulum."
a = -omega0**2 * sin(x) - gamma * v + a0 * cos(omega * t)
return a
# 4th Order Runge-Kutta
def rk4(x, v, t, dt):
"rk4(x,v,t,dt): Advance one time step using 4th-order Runge Kutta."

xk1 = dt * v
vk1 = dt * accel(x, v, t)
xk2 = dt * (v + vk1/2.0)
vk2 = dt * accel(x + xk1/2.0,
xk3 = dt * (v + vk2/2.0)
vk3 = dt * accel(x + xk2/2.0,
xk4 = dt * (v + vk3)
vk4 = dt * accel(x + xk3, v +
xnew = x + (xk1 + 2.0 * xk2 +
vnew = v + (vk1 + 2.0 * vk2 +
return [xnew, vnew]

v + vk1/2.0, t + dt/2)
v + vk2/2.0, t + dt/2)
vk3, t + dt)
2.0 * xk3 + xk4) / 6.0
2.0 * vk3 + vk4) / 6.0

# Call-back routines -- these are called when the various buttons in


# the control window are pressed.
def sets_step(ss):
s_stepbox.text = 'step size: %f' % ss.value
def increments_step(ss, amt):
ss.value = ss.value * amt
sets_step(ss)
def setdrivingforce(sf):
global a0
a0 = sf.value
a0box.text = 'a0: %f' % a0
def incrementdrivingforce(sf, fstep):
sf.value = sf.value + fstep
setdrivingforce(sf)
def setdrivingfrequency(sw):
global omega
global T_driving
omega = sw.value
T_driving = 2 * pi / omega
omegabox.text = 'omega: %f' % omega
def incrementdrivingfrequency(sw, fstep):
sw.value = sw.value + fstep
setdrivingfrequency(sw)
def cleartrail():
for n in arange(ntrail):
myplot.dots[n].pos[0] =
myplot.dots[n].pos[1] =
for n in arange(npoincare):
poincare.dots[n].pos[0]
poincare.dots[n].pos[1]

0
0
= 0
= 0

def finishup():
global t
t = T_stop
#################################
# Set up for the various windows.
#################################
###########
# First, the pendulum visualization:
###########

if fancy_display == 1:
window1 = display(title='Chaotic Pendulum',
width= vres/2, height=vres/2, x=0, y=0)
pivot = sphere(display=window1, pos=(0,0,0), radius = 0.01,
color=color.yellow)
# Here's the pendulum.
bob = sphere(display=window1, radius = 0.05, pos=(0,-1,0),
color = color.red)
pendulum = cylinder(display=window1, pos=(0,0,0), axis=bob.pos,
radius=0.005, color=color.cyan)
# Make a small dot to show the forcing
driver = sphere(display=window1, radius = 0.02, pos=(0,-1,0),
color = color.yellow)
print 'The yellow dot indicates the forcing.'
# Finally, an invisible box just to keep Visual from autoscaling
# unintelligently
box(display=window1, pos=(0,0,0), length=2.2, width=0, height=2.2,
color=color.black)
###########
# Second, the phase space plot:
###########
window2 = gdisplay(title="Phase Space Plot", xtitle='position',
ytitle='velocity',width= hres/2, height= vres/2,
x=0, y=vres/2,
xmin = -3.2, xmax = 3.2, ymin = -3.2, ymax = 3.2)
myplot = gdots(display=window2, color=color.cyan)
if fancy_display == 1:
window3 = gdisplay(title="Poincare Section", xtitle='position',
ytitle='velocity',width=hres/2, height=vres/2,
x = hres/2, y = vres/2,
xmin = -3.2, xmax = 3.2, ymin = -3.2, ymax = 3.2)
poincare = gdots(display=window3, color=color.cyan)
# Put a time ticker in the upper-right-hand corner of the graph.
clk = label(pos=(3,2), text='0', display=window2.display)
# Generate an initial plot (This allocates all the points for the plot
# correctly. We'll later just reuse these same points over and over again.)
print "Initializing plot ... "
for n in arange(ntrail):
myplot.plot(pos=(x, v))
if fancy_display == 1:
for n in arange(npoincare):
poincare.plot(pos=(x,v))
print "Done."
##########
# Lastly, the control window. (Coordinates in this window go from
# (-100,-100) to (100,100)
##########
if fancy_display == 1:
ctrl = controls(title="Pendulum Controls", width=vres/2, height = vres/2,
x = hres/2, y = 0)
# Each click on the slider increments the variable by ss.value.
# Step size slider
yctl = -10 # y-coordinate of control slider

ss = slider(min = 0, max = 1, pos=(-50, yctl), length = 100,


axis=(1,0,0), action=lambda: sets_step(ss))
# ... and up and down buttons
bssup = button(pos=(60, yctl), text = '>', width = 10, height = 10,
action = lambda: increments_step(ss, 10))
bssdown = button(pos=(-60, yctl), text = '<', width = 10, height = 10,
action = lambda: increments_step(ss, 0.10))
s_stepbox = label(pos=(0, yctl+15), text = 'step size',
display=ctrl.display)
ss.value = 0.01
# Driving force slider
yctl = 30
sf = slider(min = 0, max = 5, pos=(-50, yctl), length = 100,
axis=(1,0,0), action=lambda: setdrivingforce(sf))
# ... and up and down buttons
bsfup = button(pos=(60, yctl), text = '>', width = 10, height = 10,
action = lambda: incrementdrivingforce(sf, ss.value))
bsfdown = button(pos=(-60, yctl), text = '<', width = 10, height = 10,
action = lambda: incrementdrivingforce(sf, -ss.value))
a0box = label(pos=(0, yctl+15), text = 'a0', display=ctrl.display)
sf.value = a0
# Driving frequency slider
yctl = 70
sw = slider(min = 0, max = 5, pos=(-50, yctl), length = 100,
axis=(1,0,0), action=lambda: setdrivingfrequency(sw))
# ... and up and down buttons
bswup = button(pos=(60, yctl), text = '>', width = 10, height = 10,
action = lambda: incrementdrivingfrequency(sw, ss.value))
bswdown = button(pos=(-60, yctl), text = '<', width = 10, height = 10,
action = lambda: incrementdrivingfrequency(sw, -ss.value))
omegabox = label(pos=(0, yctl+15), text = 'omega', display=ctrl.display)
sw.value = omega
# Clear existing phase space "trail"
bct = button(pos=(-70, -70), text='Clear', action=lambda: cleartrail())
# STOP button.
bstop = button(pos=(70, -70), text = 'Stop', action=lambda: finishup())
#### End of control window
######################
# Calculations
######################
# Skip initial transient
while t < T_transient:
[x, v] = rk4(x, v, t, dt)
if x < (-pi):
x = x + 2.0 * pi
if x > (pi):
x = x - 2.0 * pi
clk.text = '%7.2f' % t
t = t + dt

# Update the clock.

# Integrate forward.
n = 0 # Counts which of our 'ntrail' dots to use for the plot
np = 0

while t < T_stop:


# Comment out or adjust the next line if things are running too slowly.
rate(1000)
if fancy_display == 1:
ctrl.interact() # Check if any controls have been pressed.
[x, v] = rk4(x, v, t, dt)
if x < (-pi):
x = x + 2.0 * pi
if x > (pi):
x = x - 2.0 * pi
if fancy_display == 1:
# Pendulum picture.
bob.pos = (sin(x), -cos(x), 0)
pendulum.axis = bob.pos
# Position of indicator of driving force. Make it at an
# angle theta_driver
theta_driver = a0 * cos(omega * t)
driver.pos = (sin(theta_driver), -cos(theta_driver), 0)
#
# Plot a point for the Poincare section once per driving period.
if (t % T_driving) < 0.01:
if np % npoincare == 0:
np = 0
poincare.dots[np].pos[0] = x
poincare.dots[np].pos[1] = v
np = np + 1
# Phase space plot
if n % ntrail == 0:
n = 0
myplot.dots[n].pos[0] = x
myplot.dots[n].pos[1] = v
n = n + 1
clk.text = '%7.2f' % t
t = t + dt

# Update the clock.


# Advance to the next time step.

print "Done."
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$Log: drivenpend.py,v $
Revision 1.8 2003/11/26 15:51:36 doughera
Don't make the Poincare section plot window unless fancy_display == 1.
Revision 1.7 2003/11/17 16:39:05 doughera
Changed Poincare section color to cyan -- white was getting lost
on the graph axes.
Revision 1.6 2003/11/17 13:58:26 doughera
Added Poincare section plot.
Made window positioning contingent upon resolution of screen
(but you must set hres and vres manually).
Revision 1.5 2003/11/14 14:08:18 doughera
Add small yellow dot to show amplitude and phase of forcing.
Revision 1.4 2003/11/13 16:51:09 doughera
Fixed initial constants to reasonable values for this assignment.
Added additional comments.
Set rate initially at a value suitable for interpreting the graphs.

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Users will want to speed things up after a while.


Revision 1.3 2003/11/13 14:50:35 doughera
Make fancy display optional.
Improve comments.
Revision 1.2 2003/11/13 14:15:24 doughera
Cleaned up ; rearranged controls.
Revision 1.1 2003/11/12 18:32:19 doughera
Initial revision