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Introductionto
PenetrantTesting
Developers
Theroleofthedeveloperistopullthetrappedpenetrantmaterialoutof
defectsandspreaditoutonthesurfaceofthepartsoitcanbeseenbyan
inspector.Thefinedeveloperparticlesbothreflectandrefracttheincident
ultravioletlight,allowingmoreofittointeractwiththepenetrant,causing
moreefficientfluorescence.Thedeveloperalsoallowsmorelighttobe
emittedthroughthesamemechanism.Thisiswhyindicationsarebrighter
thanthepenetrantitselfunderUVlight.Anotherfunctionthatsome
developersperformistocreateawhitebackgroundsothereisagreater
degreeofcontrastbetweentheindicationandthesurroundingbackground.
DeveloperForms

Introduction
History
ImprovingDetection
VisualAcuity

ContrastSensitivity

Eye'sResponseto

Light
Principles
StepsforLiquidPI
CommonUsesforPI
ProsandConsofPI

TheAMS2644andMilI25135classifydevelopersintosixstandardforms.
PTMaterials
Theseformsarelistedbelow:
PenetrantTesting
Matl's
1. FormaDryPowder
Penetrants
2. FormbWaterSoluble
SurfaceEnergy

3. FormcWaterSuspendable
SpecificGravity

4. FormdNonaqueousType1Fluorescent(SolventBased)
Viscosity

5. FormeNonaqueousType2VisibleDye(SolventBased)
Colorand

6. FormfSpecialApplications
Fluorescence
Thedeveloperclassificationsarebasedonthemethodthatthedeveloperis
Whythings
applied.Thedevelopercanbeappliedasadrypowder,ordissolvedor
Fluoresce
suspendedinaliquidcarrier.Eachofthedeveloperformshasadvantages
Dimensional
anddisadvantages.
Threshold
Stabilityof

DryPowder
Penetrants
Removability

Emulsifiers
Developers
Methods&
Techniques
Preparation
CleaningMethods

MetalSmear

TechniqueSelection
Application
Technique
PenetrantRemoval

Drypowderdeveloperis
generallyconsideredtobe
theleastsensitivebutitis
inexpensivetouseandeasy
toapply.Drydevelopersare
white,fluffypowdersthatcan
beappliedtoathoroughlydry
surfaceinanumberofways.
Thedevelopercanbeapplied
bydippingpartsina
containerofdeveloper,orby
usingapuffertodustparts
withthedeveloper.Partscan
alsobeplacedinadust
cabinetwherethedeveloperisblownaroundandallowedtosettleonthe
part.Electrostaticpowderspraygunsarealsoavailabletoapplythe
developer.Thegoalistoallowthedevelopertocomeincontactwiththe
wholeinspectionarea.

SelectingDeveloper
Quality&Process
Control
Temperature
Penetrant
Dwell
Emulsifier
Wash
Drying
Developer
Lighting
SystemPerformance
Check
Other
Considerations
DefectNature
Health&Safety

Unlessthepartiselectrostaticallycharged,thepowderwillonlyadhereto
References
areaswheretrappedpenetranthaswetthesurfaceofthepart.The
penetrantwilltrytowetthesurfaceofthepenetrantparticleandfillthevoids
betweentheparticles,whichbringsmorepenetranttothesurfaceofthepartQuizzes

whereitcanbeseen.Sincedrypowderdevelopersonlysticktothearea
wherepenetrantispresent,thedrydeveloperdoesnotprovideauniform
whitebackgroundastheotherformsofdevelopersdo.Havingauniform
lightbackgroundisveryimportantforavisibleinspectiontobeeffectiveand
sincedrydevelopersdonotprovideone,theyareseldomusedforvisible
inspections.Whenadrydeveloperisused,indicationstendtostaybright
andsharpsincethepenetranthasalimitedamountofroomtospread.
WaterSoluble
Asthenameimplies,watersoluble
developersconsistofagroupof
chemicalsthataredissolvedinwater
andformadeveloperlayerwhenthe
waterisevaporatedaway.Thebest
methodforapplyingwatersoluble
developersisbysprayingitonthepart.
Thepartcanbewetordry.Dipping,
pouring,orbrushingthesolutiononto
thesurfaceissometimesusedbutthese
methodsarelessdesirable.Aqueous
developerscontainwettingagentsthatcausethesolutiontofunctionmuch
likedilutehydrophilicemulsifierandcanleadtoadditionalremovalof
entrappedpenetrant.Dryingisachievedbyplacingthewetbutwelldrained
partinarecirculating,warmairdryerwiththetemperatureheldbetween70
and75F.Ifthepartsarenotdriedquickly,theindicationswillwillbeblurred
andindistinct.Properlydevelopedpartswillhaveaneven,palewhite
coatingovertheentiresurface.

WaterSuspendable
Watersuspendabledevelopersconsistofinsolubledeveloperparticles
suspendedinwater.Watersuspendabledevelopersrequirefrequentstirring
oragitationtokeeptheparticlesfromsettlingoutofsuspension.Water
suspendabledevelopersareappliedtopartsinthesamemanneraswater
solubledevelopers.Partscoatedwithawatersuspendabledevelopermust
beforceddriedjustaspartscoatedwithawatersolubledeveloperare
forceddried.Thesurfaceofapartcoatedwithawatersuspendable
developerwillhaveaslightlytranslucentwhitecoating.
Nonaqueous
Nonaqueousdeveloperssuspendthe
developerinavolatilesolventandare
typicallyappliedwithaspraygun.
Nonaqueousdevelopersarecommonly
distributedinaerosolspraycansfor
portability.Thesolventtendstopull
penetrantfromtheindicationsby
solventaction.Sincethesolventis
highlyvolatile,forceddryingisnot
required.Anonaqueousdeveloper
shouldbeappliedtoathoroughlydried
parttoformaslightlytranslucentwhite
coating.
SpecialApplications
Plasticorlacquerdevelopersarespecialdevelopersthatareprimarilyused
whenapermanentrecordoftheinspectionisrequired.

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Eduaction)programthroughgrant#DUE0101709.Opinionsexpressedarethoseofthe
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