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10/16/2009

ANDE Course Electric, Magnetic


and Electromagnetic Techniques
Part 1

October 15, 2009

C.V.Krishnamurthy

Electromagnetic Spectrum

10/16/2009

Statics, Dynamics and Waves


Statics
Quasistatics
Dynamics
dc

Statics:
Dynamics:
Quasistatics:

Frequency, f

Light

f = 0; dc (time derivatives vanish)


No restriction; complete Maxwells equations;
Electromagnetic waves
Low-frequency extension of statics, or
low-frequency approximation of dynamics;
Non-radiative

Overview
Electric fields
Capacitive
Conductive

Magnetic fields
MFL
Barkhausen Noise

Electromagnetic fields
Eddy current (low frequencies)
Radiative (high frequencies)

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Faradays Law

S
C

d
C E dl dt S B dS
Voltage around C, also
known as electromotive
force (emf) around C
(but not really a force),

dS

Magnetic flux crossing S,

Wb m m , or Wb.
2

Right-hand screw Rule


The magnetic flux crossing the
surface S is to be evaluated toward
that side of S a right-hand screw
advances as it is turned in the
sense of C.

Time rate of decrease of


magnetic flux crossing S,

A loop of wire coinciding along the


imaginary contour C will result in a
current flowing in the wire.
Lenzs Law States that the sense of the induced emf is
such that any current it produces, if the closed path
were a loop of wire, tends to oppose the change in the
magnetic flux that produces it. Thus the magnetic flux
produced by the induced current and that is bounded
by C must be such that it opposes the change in the
magnetic flux producing the induced emf.

The emf is known as motional emf.

J, D

C H dl S J dS dt S D dS
A m m, or A.
HJ

A m m , or A.
2

D
t

C m m , or C.

B
t

S
C
dS

Displacement flux, or
electric flux, crossing S,

Current due to flow of


charges crossing S,

Fqv B

Lorentz force on a current


carrying wire is :

Amperes Law

Magnetomotive force
(only by analogy with
electromotive force),

Right-hand screw rule applies.

Time rate of increase of displacement flux


crossing S, or, displacement current crossing S,

C s, or A.

S2
C
I(t)

S1 J dS = I but S2 J dS = 0
S1 D dS = 0 but S2 D dS

S1

d
D dS must be I
dt S2
so that C H dl is unique.

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Gausss Law and


S B dS = 0

S D dS V dv

Magnetic flux emanating from a


closed surface S = 0.

Displacement flux emanating from a closed


surface S = charge contained in the volume
bounded by S = charge enclosed by S.

B0
Solenoidal property of
magnetic field lines.

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF CHARGE

S J dS + dt V dv 0
Current due to flow of charges emanating from a closed
surface S = Time rate of decrease of charge enclosed by S.

t 0

Continuity
Equation

Maxwells Equations
B
t
D
HJ
t
D
E

Faradays Law
Amperes Circuital Law
Gauss Law for the
Electric Field

B 0

Gauss Law for the


Magnetic Field

Continuity Equation

C E dl = dt S B dS

t 0

C H dl = S J dS + dt S D dS

10/16/2009

Radiative and Non-Radiative


Electromagnetic Fields

Transmitter
Non-radiative case:
Electric field lines are perpendicular to
the Electrodes. Electric and Magnetic
fields are independent

Receiver

Radiative case:
Electric and Magnetic fields are inter-dependent and
mutually perpendicular to the propagation direction

Direction of
propagation

10/16/2009

EM Wave in a
Conductor
Maxwells Equations

B
H
E

t
t

E
H J
E
t
t

Use

E ( E ) 2 E

Eddy current testing is typically performed at frequencies


lower than 10 MHz, with probe coil and defect dimensions
less than 1 cm. In the air medium outside the metal
testpiece, the characteristic length is the wavelength . At
usual eddy current test frequencies, is in the range of
kilometers, so the quasistatic approximation is always
applicable in the air medium.
In a highly conducting testpiece, the time derivative
terms in the wave equation reduce to


i
i

in the frequency range for eddy current testing and


convert the wave equation into the diffusion equation,
where the characteristic length is the skin depth

We get the diffusion equation !

E
E
t
2

To get the wave equation

E
2E
2
E
2
t
t

For time harmonic fields, Fourier


transform leads to

~
~
~
2 E k 2 E 0; E () [ E(t )]
2

Propagation constant

e.g., for an Al alloy, 7 mm at f 9 kHz

Low Frequency Effects

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Induction Effects

Inductive Reactance
The reduction of current flow in a circuit
due to induction is called inductive
reactance.
The direction of the magnetic field can be
determined by taking your right hand and
pointing your thumb in the direction of the
current. Your fingers will then point in the
direction of the magnetic field.
It can be seen that the magnetic field from
one loop of the wire will cut across the
other loops in the coil and this will induce
current flow (shown in green) in the
circuit.
The induced current working against the
primary current results in a reduction of
current flow in the circuit.

According to Lenz's law, the induced current must flow in


the opposite direction of the primary current.

It should be noted that the inductive


reactance will increase if the number of
winds in the coil is increased since the
magnetic field from one coil will have
more coils to interact with.

Eddy Current Generation

Current carrying wire


produces primary
magnetic field

Primary magnetic field


induces currents in a
nearby conductor

Eddy currents generate secondary


magnetic field which will oppose the
primary magnetic field

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Eddy Current Changes

Secondary magnetic field opposing


the primary magnetic field alters
the current flow in the wire leading to
inductive reactance

Near a flaw, eddy current flow is


disturbed, changing the secondary
magnetic field, which in turn modifies
the inductive reactance

ECT measures Impedance changes


The impedance of an eddy current probe may be affected by the following factors:
variations in operating frequency
variations in electrical conductivity and the magnetic
permeability of a object or structure, caused by structural changes such as
grain structure, work hardening, heat treatment, etc.
changes in liftoff or fill factor resulting from probe wobble, uneven surfaces,
and eccentricity of tubes caused by faulty manufacture or damage
the presence of surface defects such as cracks, and subsurface defects such as
voids and nonmetallic inclusions
dimensional changes, for example, thinning of tube walls due to corrosion,
deposition of metal deposits or sludge, and the effects of denting
the presence of supports, walls, and brackets
the presence of discontinuities such as edges

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Skin Depth

mm

Hz H/mm

% IACS

Impedance Plane Diagram


If the eddy current circuit is balanced in air and then placed
on a piece of aluminum, the resistance component will
increase and the inductive reactance of the coil decreases.
If a crack is present in the material, fewer eddy currents will
be able to form and the resistance will go back down and
the inductive reactance will go back up.
Changes in conductivity will cause the eddy current signal to
change in a different way.
When a probe is placed on a magnetic material such as
steel, the reactance increases. This is because the magnetic
permeability of the steel concentrates the coil's magnetic
field. This increase in the magnetic field strength completely
overshadows the magnetic field of the eddy currents.
The presence of a crack or a change in the conductivity will
produce a change in the eddy current signal similar to that
seen with aluminum.

10/16/2009

Flaw Detection Using ECT


ECT probe movement

Reactance

Reactance

Resistance
Response at 50 kHz

Resistance
Response at 300 kHz

Flaw Detection using ECT in Tubes

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10/16/2009

Electrical Conductivity Measurements


Electrical conductivity of a metal depends on several
factors, such as its chemical composition and the stress
state of its crystalline structure.
It can be used for sorting metals, checking for proper
heat treatment, and inspecting for heat damage.

Induced eddy currents

A
J E
iA
t

The technique can be used to easily sort magnetic


materials from nonmagnetic materials but it is difficult
to separate the conductivity effects from the magnetic
permeability effects, so conductivity measurements are
limited to nonmagnetic materials.
The technique usually involves nulling an absolute
probe in air and placing the probe in contact with the
sample surface. The thickness of the specimen should
generally be greater than three standard depths of
penetration.
Generally large pancake type, surface probes are used
to get a value for a relatively large sample area.
To sort materials using an impedance plane device, the
signal from the unknown sample must be compared to a
signal from a variety of reference standards such as the
IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard).

Metal thickness measurements


On the impedance plane, thickness
variations exhibit the same type of eddy
current signal response as a subsurface
defect, except that the signal represents a
void of infinite size and depth. The phase
rotation pattern is the same, but the signal
amplitude is greater.
The depth of penetration of the eddy
currents must cover the entire range of
thicknesses being measured. Typically, a
frequency is selected that produces about
one standard depth of penetration at the
maximum thickness.
But at lower frequencies the probe
impedance is more sensitive to changes in
electrical conductivity. Any variations of
conductivity over the region of interest
have to be at a sufficiently low level for
reliable measurements..

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10/16/2009

Thickness of Nonmetallic Coatings on


Metal Substrates

The thickness of nonmetallic coatings on metal substrates can be


determined simply from the effect of liftoff on impedance. The
coating serves as a spacer between the probe and the conductive
surface. Thicknesses between 0.5 and 25 m can be measured to an
accuracy between 10% for lower values and 4% for higher values.

Contributions to impedance changes due to conductivity variations should be


phased out, unless it is known that conductivity variations are negligible, as normally
found at higher frequencies.

Imaging with ECT

Schematic representations of defect profile curves.


(a) Small probe diameter. (b) Large probe diameter.

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10/16/2009

Recent developments
Meandering Winding
Magnetometer (MWM)
is a novel eddy current
sensor that can measure
absolute magnetic and
conducting properties of
ferrous and nonferrous
alloys on flat and curved
surfaces

Typical MWM sensor and MWM-Arrays: (a) MWM sensor, (b) scanning fiveelement MWM-Array, (c) eight-element MWM-Array for detection on fatigue
initiation, (d) four-element MWM-Rosette for detection and monitoring of fatigue
cracks at fasteners (note that (c) and (d) are examples of MWM-Arrays designed
for permanent mounting).

Features of MWM Sensors


MWM can detect precrack
fatigue damage in austenitic
stainless steels.

MWM provides the capability for


continuous on-line monitoring of
crack initiation and growth during
fatigue tests of coupons,
components, and full-scale test
articles.

MWM sensors and MWM-Arrays can be permanently


mounted for crack detection and monitoring in difficult-toaccess fatigue-critical locations on operating equipment,
e.g. in fuel tanks on aircraft, or between layers in a lapjoint

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10/16/2009

Example of MWM Sensor for


Fatigue Damage Assessment

Representative measurement grids relating the


magnitude and phase of the sensor transimpedance to the (a) lift-off and magnetic
permeability for 4340 alloy steel and (b) lift-off
and electrical conductivity for titanium and
Type 304 stainless steel.

Detection of fatigue damage in Type 304


stainless steel by MWM bi-directional
permeability measurements.

Pulsed ECT

(a) Schematic representation of the model for theoretical


calculations. Coil impedances of two cases (with and
without coating) are calculated and used to predict the
time-domain current differences.
(b) The step-function voltage that was applied to excite the
coils in the PEC measurements and the resulting
current difference between the two cases.

Comparison of measured data and theoretical


calculations using the PEC method:
(a) non-magnetic coatings on magnetic base metal
(zinc on steel) and
(b) magnetic coatings on non-magnetic base metal
(nickel on copper).

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10/16/2009

Advantages and Limitations of ECT


Advantages are:

Some of the limitations of eddy current inspection


include:

Crack detection (Sensitive to small cracks and


other defects)

Only conductive materials can be inspected

Detects surface and near surface defects

Surface must be accessible to the probe

Material thickness measurements

Skill and training required is more extensive than


other techniques

Coating thickness measurements


Conductivity measurements for:
Material identification
Heat damage detection
Case depth determination
Heat treatment monitoring
Equipment is very portable

Surface finish and and roughness may interfere


Reference standards needed for setup
Depth of penetration is limited
Flaws such as delaminations that lie parallel to the
probe coil winding and probe scan direction are
undetectable

Test probe does not need to contact the part


Inspects complex shapes and sizes of conductive
materials

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