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Technology Integration 5E Lesson Plan

Using Order of Operations to Evaluate and Simplify Expressions


Lesson Title
Subject area/grade
level
Introduction
Lesson Length
Materials

Lesson Overview

Tennessee Standards

Lesson objective(s)

ENGAGEMENT
Describe how
the teacher will
capture
students
interest.

Chelle Daniels
Using Order of Operations to Evaluate and/or Simplify Expressions
Mathematics Grade 6
A major focus of pre-algebra courses is the familiarize students with variable
expressions. This lesson is a bridge between simplifying numerical expressions
and evaluating algebraic expressions.
2 class periods
Index cards (Alternative: Loaf of bread, jar of jelly, knife, plate)
For Target Number set of 5 number cubes per small group & game sheet
For Order Please one set of 5 number cubes per class; Order Please Chart for
projector or board
TI-73 calculator (optional)
The lesson applies/extends the order of operations with practice in a game
context. Together with property of substitution, the order of operations is used to
evaluate a variable expression.
Online applets (NCTM Illuminations) and technology (TI-73) are employed to
deepen understanding about substitution and evaluation of expressions.
TN Grade 6
SPI 0606.3.2 Use order of operations and parentheses to simplify expressions
and solve problems.
SPI 0606.3.4 Rewrite expressions to represent quantities in different ways.
0606.1.11 Model algebraic expressions with manipulatives, technology, and
pencil and paper.
SPI 0606.1.5 Model algebraic expressions using algebra tiles.
GLE 0606.3.2 Interpret and represent algebraic relationships with variables in
expressions, simple equations and inequalities.
0606.3.3 Recognize the use of juxtaposition (such as 3x, ab) to stand for
multiplication, and the convention in these cases of writing numbers before
letters.
0606.3.7 Move fluently between different representations (such as verbal,
tabular, numerical, algebraic, and graphical) of equations and expressions.
SPI 0606.3.5 Translate between verbal expressions and algebraic expressions.
Use expressions, equations and formulas to solve problems.
Write and solve two-step equations and inequalities.
Interpret and represent algebraic relationships with variables in expressions,
simple equations and inequalities.
The Learner will
correctly verbalize order of operations
apply order of operations when simplifying/evaluating expressions
Ask students to arrange index cards, each of which contains one step of an
use correct notation to write a numerical expression
everyday process for which order of steps is unique.
substitute
a variable
using
grouping symbols
Grocery
Shoppinga value for
Build
a housein an expression
Wrap
a gift
to retain
of operations
Drive toappropriately
store
Getorder
materials
Secure item for gift
technology
withMake
appropriate
notation to evaluate
expressions
Park caruse
in store
parking
foundation
Remove
price tag
lot
Build floor
Place item in box
Training
Statements
Exit
car Discussion: I Can
Make
frame for (expressions/equations)
walls
Cut paper to fit box
Walk to store entrance
Add roof
size
Get a cart to roll thru
Add windows and doors
Wrap paper around
store
Add electrical lines/water box
Fill cart with groceries
pipes
Fold paper to box
Roll cart to check out
Insulate walls
shape
Place cart items on
Cover wall studs with
Tape folds of paper in
counter
drywall
place
Pay for groceries
Paint walls
Wrap ribbon around
Put bags back into cart
box
Exit store
Tie ribbon in bow
Walk cart to car
Add card to top of box
Put groceries in car
Get in car to go home

Technology Integration 5E Lesson Plan


Using Order of Operations to Evaluate and Simplify Expressions
Chelle Daniels
OR
Ask students to write down instructions to make a jelly sandwich; take them up
and select one to follow. Follow instructions extremely literally and expect to
make a mess. But take suggestions on how the directions should be amended to
explicitly describe actions. Discuss implied instructions (such as, get bread
implies youll have take the closure off the package, reach in and take a piece
out) and conventions (such as putting jelly on bread requires spreading with a
knife).
When does order of actions matter in math?
What kind of math problem has multiple steps?
How and when do we write action (operation) steps for computations?
Explain that we have need for these same types of communication and
understanding in mathematics, i.e. there is an order to operations so that
everyone gets the same value when evaluating a numerical statement.

What kind of
questions should
the students ask
themselves after
the
engagement?
EXPLORATION
Describe what
hands-on/mindson activities
students will be
doing.

Present one or more numerical/variable expressions including multiple


operations and ask students to determine a number that they believe is the
same as the given expression and to write that value on an index to be handed
to the teacher
Simplify 14 6 x 4 2 (20 5 1)
Evaluate 5ab2 4a/2 + b when
a = 12 and b = 4
Before you begin as a class to look at the values, (HOT) ask students to make
observations (record their observations on the board) about each expression one
at a time and to make comparisons between them. (CQ) Can they identify which
is called a numerical expression and which is called a variable (algebraic)
expression?
List class members values on the board. In case all the answers are correct,
have a few cards ready with answers gained by incorrect order of operations so
you can indicate the importance of all using the same conventions or order of
operations. Ask volunteers to show how the value might be different depending
upon which operation is performed first, second, third, etc.
(CQ) Conclude with the question: Which one is correct?
Students have some experience with order of operations. Ask students what
order of operation rules they already know. Generate a list on the board.
(CQ) Ask: What about those expressions we have discussed is confusing to you?
What do you see in this expression that isnt covered by the rules we already
know? Generate a list of issues not addressed by rules they already know (e.g.
unknown operation symbols; grouping symbols; exponents; change in symbols
to accommodate a variable changed to a numeral (substitution), etc.)

List big idea


conceptual
questions the

Big Idea: We need an order of operations that is consistent so we will know what
value an expression has.
(CQ) Conceptual questions embedded throughout scripted lesson.

Technology Integration 5E Lesson Plan


Using Order of Operations to Evaluate and Simplify Expressions
Chelle Daniels
teacher will use
to encourage
and/or focus
students
exploration
EXPLANATION
Student
explanations
should precede
introduction of
terms or
explanations by
the teacher.
What questions
or techniques
will the teacher
use to help
students
connect their
exploration to
the concept
under
examination?
List higher order
thinking (HOT)
questions which
teachers will use
to solicit student
explanations
and help them
to justify their
explanations.
ELABORATION
Describe how
students will
develop a more
sophisticated
understanding
of the concept.
What vocabulary
will be
introduced and
how will it
connect to
students
observations?
How is this
knowledge
applied in our
daily lives?

(CQ) Ask students to explain their understanding of terms: evaluate, simplify.


(HOT) Generalize common notions.
Revisit problems:
Simplify 14 6x4-2(205-1)
Evaluate 5ab2 4a/2 + b when a = 12 and b = 4
Deal with identified issues: unknown operation symbols; grouping symbols;
exponents; change in symbols to accommodate a variable changed to a numeral
(substitution), etc.
(HOT) Are there some implied instructions as discovered when making the
jelly sandwich to operations implied by mathematical notation (i.e. m/5 means m
x 1/5 or m5; implied multiplication: 3n means 3 times n and the number in a
position like 3 is called a numerical coefficient; (4)(5) means 4 x 5) and
conventions (i.e. writing coefficients before variables in a term, writing
variable factors in alphabetical order.)
(HOT): Summarize: What can we change or add to our (student generated)
order of operations list to establish a comprehensive set of rules?
(HOT) Ask students for suggestions to refine order of operations graphic.
Apply caution when students say PEMDAS: identify and clarify issues inherent in
the PEMDAS acronym for order of operations. Immediately use established order
of operations to simplify the given expressions to one value.
(HOT) Develop understanding of the term expression. (Concept card, Math
journal vocabulary page) Add new terms as identified in lesson to Word Wall and
incorporate them into word wall activities. (Training Handouts)
(OE) Student partners together on 2-3 practice problems (from text or board)
while teacher circulates.
Training Discussion: Agree or not? Games/competition peak student interest.
Identify PROS/CONS.
(HOTS) These activities give students practice writing numerical expressions
using math symbols. Students develop strategies.
(OE) Order Please? From TN DOE Gateway Training Manual, Phase I (Game
board handout)
In this activity, teams collaborate as they compete to be the first to cover four
numbers in a row on a game board. Students will create a numerical expression
that equals one of the numbers on the game board using a set of numbers
gained from rolling three number cubes. Teams must present their CORRECTLY
written and simplified expression before they can use their teams marker to
cover a number.
(OE) Target Number: construct numerical expression to compute given
value or one close to it.
In this activity, students will have a target number and a set of numbers that
they can use to try to hit (or get close to) the target number. Score on each
round is the difference between target number and value of constructed
expression. Lowest total score wins. (Game sheet with instructions handout.)
Notes to teacher: In both activities, choice and order of operations are student
decisions. However, it is not as easy as it sounds! Quite often students will be
able to verbalize what they will do with the set of numbers to get the target

Technology Integration 5E Lesson Plan


Using Order of Operations to Evaluate and Simplify Expressions
Chelle Daniels
number but it takes some practice for them to be able to put the symbols
together so that the expression, following the order of operations, actually
equals the number they intend for it to equal. Be sure to work enough examples
as a whole group before you let them play the game. If one person hits the
target number very quickly, (HOT) ask if students can think of other ways to hit
the same target with the same set of working numbers. As they give their ideas,
let them verbalize the order of operations and describe the notation they will
use. Keep working to get the expression to contain all required numbers and get
close to the target number. Emphasize that the objective of this game is to get
a low score!
The following examples given in terms of the Target Numbers activity
apply to both activities.
Address the issue of getting all numbers into an expression with this
example.
Example: Target number = 41 Working numbers {3,3,5,2,1}
One way to get the 41 is to number 6 and 7, multiply them, and subtract 1
appropriately written as
(3+3)(5+2)-1 = 41
Beginners may write 3+3=6 and 5+2 = 7 and 6x7=42 and 42-1 = 41 which is
not a numerical expression containing all five working numbers. You will have
to help them include all five numbers and operations into one expression.
Address the issue of improper use of the = sign with this example
Example: Target Number = 31 Working numbers {4,3,3,3,5}
A beginner may write 3+3=6x5=30+4=34-3=31. The operations used to put
the number together are correct but the use of the string of equals signs is
not correct. This statement actually says that 6=30=34=31. Remind students
that we have a way to circumvent the MDAS order i.e. use of parentheses.)
(HOT) Ask students for an improvement on plan shown in the example.
Help students develop mathematical concepts as well as strategies as
they construct expressions with this example.
Example: Target number = 18 Working numbers {4,2,2,3,6}
It is possible to get the target 18 using only two of these numbers 3 x 6. One
strategy is to figure out a way to make the rest of the numbers equal 1. (HOT)
Ask students how that will help if you multiply the expression that equals 1 by
the existing value, the answer will not change, i.e. 1 x 18 = 18. (1 is called the
identity element for multiplication because when you multiply a number by
1 you get a product identical to the number you multiplied it by.) Ask: How can
we do this?
Another strategy is to figure out a way to make the rest of the numbers equal 0.
(HOT) Ask students how that will help if you add the expression that equals 0
to the existing value, the answer will not change, i.e. 0 + 18 = 18. (0 is called
the identity element for addition because when you add 0 to a number, you
get a sum identical to the number you added it to.) Ask: How can we do this?

EXTENSION
INVOLVING
TECHNOLOGY

Vocabulary (see use in examples): numerical expression, variable (algebraic)


expression, numerical coefficient, evaluate, simplify; meaning of mathematical
symbols, equality and equal sign, identity element for addition/multiplication
http:/illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetali.aspx?ID=216

Technology Integration 5E Lesson Plan


Using Order of Operations to Evaluate and Simplify Expressions
EVALUATION
How will
students
demonstrate
that they have
achieved the
lesson
objective?
This should be
embedded
throughout the
lesson as well as
at the end of the
lesson

Chelle Daniels
(OE) denotes Opportunities for Evaluation embedded in exercises,
games, and activities.
Students can demonstrate correct application in traditional format in board
work, homework, quiz, warm-up in succeeding class.
Alternative Opportunities for Evaluation
A. SNATCH: Practice with whiteboard/dry erase marker (provides immediate
feedback.)
B. Centers: Students collaborate in pairs or small groups to complete one or
more tasks at each center Select any of the following ideas or develop your own.
1) Task: Manual application of order of operations involving whole numbers
2) Task: Manual application of order of operations in problems involving
fractions, decimals, or mixed numbers.
3) Task: Manual evaluation of variable expressions using substitution and
order of operations.
4) Task: Using provided TI-73 or TI-84 calculators, check work from one of
previous centers. Write about errors you discovered.
5) Task: Simplify expressions to decode answer to a riddle (see Algebra with
Pizzazz)
6) Task: Hands-on evaluation of expression using set of algebra tiles.
7) Task: Generate a worksheet to be used with VersaTiles (ETA/Cuisenaire
(Automatic check by creation of correct tile pattern)
8) Task: Computer (one or more) available for students to use applet in
NCTM Illuminations (demonstrated in training)
9) Task: Correct and explain in writing error(s) you can find in the work
shown.
10) Task: Use one of your names (first, middle, last) or some combination of
your names so that you have at least 5 letters. Assign letter values (a=1,
b=2, c=3, etc.) and use those values to create a numerical expression
that will simplify to your age. (If you cant get exactly your age, get close
as close to it as you can.)
11) Task: Use the numerical expression you created in the previous center.
Substitute the letters in place of the numbers in the numerical expression
to get a variable expression that will simplify to your age (or to a number
close to your age).
C. Individual evaluation
Make the Number (handout), Out of Order (handout), 1-2-3 Order Me Please
(handout)