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Design - Overview

introduction

design wave height

wave runup & overtopping

wave forces
- piles
- caisson; non-breaking waves
- caisson; breaking waves
- revetments

Design Wave Height

H1/3 (Hs)

= average of highest 1/3 of all waves

H10 = 1.27Hs = average of highest 10% of all waves

H5 = 1.37Hs = average of highest 5% of all waves

H1 = 1.67Hs = average of highest 1% of all waves

Design Wave Height


Rigid structure: H1

Semi-rigid structure: H10 H1

Flexible structure: Hs H5

Factors Determining Selection of Design


Wave Height (flexible structure)

permissible damage and associated repair costs


access to construction material
quality and extent of input wave data

Breaking or Non-Breaking Waves


Non-breaking

Breaking

Breaker travel distance:

Non-breaking

Fig 7-1

x p (4.0 9.25m) H b

Breaker Height and Depth Index

Fig 7-3 (2-72)

Fig 7-2 (~2-73)

Most Dangerous Breaking Wave at Structure

ds

d s ( db ) min x p m H b mH b p H b m p

Hb

ds
ds

x
db
m p
m p
Hb
Hb

Implicit expression

(7-5)

Iteration (Fig. 7-4)

Determining Most Dangerous Breaking


Wave at Structure

Fig 7-4 Largest possible Hb


against the structure

Fig 7-5
Ho

Most Dangerous Incident Wave Angle

Table 7-1

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Wave Forces on Structures

Wave Forces
Classification of wave force problems:

Fig 7-66

Wave Forces Against Piles

H
gT 2

wave steepness

d
gT 2

dimensionless
water depth

D
L

pile diameter to
wavelength

relative pile
roughness

HD
T

pile Reynolds
number

Important Parameters
for Piles

Vertical Cylindrical Pile and Non-Breaking Waves

f f i f D CM
D
0.05
LA

1
D 2 du
CD Du u
4 dt
2

(7-20)

(7-21)

Fig 7-67

Calculation of Forces and Moments


f f i f D CM

1
D 2 du
CD Du u
4 dt
2

Water surface profile:

H
2t
cos

2
T

(7-22)

Water particle velocity:

H gT cosh 2( z d ) / L
2t
cos

2 L
cosh(2d / L)
T

(7-23)

Water particle acceleration:

du
g H cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t
sin

dt
L
cosh(2d / L)
T

f f i f D CM

(7-24)

1
D 2 du
CD Du u
4 dt
2

Combining these expressions


Inertia force:

f i C M g

D 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t
H
sin

4
L cosh(2d / L)
T

(7-25)

Drag force:

gT 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L
1
2t
2t
f D CD gDH 2 2
cos
cos

2
4 L cosh(2d / L)
T
T
2

(7-26)

Relative Wavelength and Pressure Factor

L
L0

1
cosh(2d / L )

K
K and

L
L0

K2

Fig 7-68

f i CM g

fi ( z d )
f i ( z 0)
f D ( z d )
f D ( z 0)

d
gT 2

D 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t
H
sin

4
L cosh(2d / L)
T

1
gT 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L
2t
2t
gDH 2 2
cos
cos

2
4 L cosh(2d / L)
T
T
2

f D CD

Ratio of Crest Elevation to Wave Height

Fig 7-69

Wavelength Correction Factor

Fig 7-70

D 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t
sin
H

4
L cosh(2d / L)
T

f i CM g

1
gT 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L
2t
2t
gDH 2 2
cos
cos

2
4 L cosh(2d / L)
T
T
2

f D CD
6-08

Total Force and Moment on a Pile


Force:

f i dz

f D dz Fi FD

(7-27)

Moment (around the bottom of the pile):

( z d ) f dz ( z d ) f
i

dz M i M D

(7-28)

f i CM g

D 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t
sin
H

4
L cosh(2d / L)
T

gT 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L
1
2t
2t
gDH 2 2
cos
cos

2
4 L cosh(2d / L)
T
T
2

f D CD

Maximum Values of the Components


(assuming uniform pile & Integration from d SWL)

D 2
HK im
4

Inertia force

Fim CM g

Drag force

1
FDm CD gDH 2 K Dm
2

(7-38)

Moment due to inertia force

M im Fim d Sim

(7-39)

Moment due to drag force

M Dm FDm d S Dm

(7-40)

(7-37)

Note! Maximum values are not attained simultaneously.

Force and Moment Coefficients


Kim, KDm, Sim, and SDm

(Figs. 7-71, 7-72, 7-73, 7-74)

Hb= ?

Kim

Fig. 7-71

Force and Moment Coefficients


Kim, KDm, Sim, and SDm

Hb

Fig 7-75

Figs. 7-71, 7-72, 7-73, 7-74

fi dz

f D dz Fi FD

Ex: F = Fi + FD = 1683 sin + 1260 cos |cos|

Fm

2000

Fim
FDm

Fm ==
l Fim + FDm

Force (N)

1000

-1000

F
Fi
FD

-2000
0

90

180

270

360

Phase Angle (deg)

D 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t
sin
f i CM g
H

4
L cosh(2d / L)
T
1
gT 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L
2t
2t
gDH 2 2
cos
cos

2
4 L cosh(2d / L)
T
T
2

f D CD

Maximum Value for Inertia and Drag Combined

Maximum force:

Fm _m g CD H 2 D

(7-42)

Maximum moment:
2
Mm
_m g C D H D d

(7-43)

(In your book g w)

Isolines of m and m versus H and d (different W


values)
gT2
gT2
m

Fm
wCD H 2D

W 0.05

H
gT 2

d
gT 2

CM D
CD H

(7-41)

Fm
wCD H 2 D
W 0.1

H
gT 2

Figs. 7-76 7-83

d
gT 2

Force Coefficients CD
CD

Fig 7-85

u D
Re max

umax

H Lo
T LA

(7-47)

CD

Fig 7-85

u D
Re max

umax

H Lo
T LA

(7-47)

Fig 7-68

Force Coefficients CM
CM=2.0

when Re < 2.5 105

CM=2.5 - Re 5 10-5 when 2.5 105 < Re < 5 105


CM=1.5

when 5 105 < Re

(7-53)

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Transversal Forces
FL FLm cos 2 CL

1
g D H 2 K Dm cos 2
2

FL

(7-44)

H/gT2 < 0.0075

CL
CD

H/gT2 > 0.0075

FL

Fig. 7-84

Horizontal pipe
Changed!

fzi
fzD

fxi
fxD

f x f xi f xD C M

f z f zi f zD C M

D2
4

D2
4

dz

ax CD

az CL

1
Du |u |
2

1
Du2
2

k N /m (7-20)

k N /m

ax = f(sin), u = f(cos), az = f(cos) => fxi & fxD not simultaneous max, fzi & fzD have simultaneous max
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Wave Forces on Breakwaters

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Non-breaking waves against a wall (caisson)

A
A

A=A

Fig 7-88

Pressure Distribution for Non-Breaking Waves

p1

1
gH i
2 cosh(2d / L)

(7-75)

Fig 7-89

Clapotis Orbit Center

Fig. 7-90

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Total Force
1
Ftotal Fs Fwave g d 2 Fwave
2

(7-76)

Fwave
gd 2

Fwav
e

Fs

Fig. 7-91

Total Moment

M total M s M wave Fs

A:

d
1
M wave gd 3 M wave
3
6

M wave
gd 3

Fwav
e

Fs

Fig. 7-92

Caisson Failure Modes

SWL

SWL

Sliding

Overturning

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Forces and Moments on a Caisson


Non-Breaking Waves

Houtside
ho

Hin/2
B

Fwave

yc

ds

di
Fsi

Fso

B/3

p1
po

RH

U1

pi

U2
R

RV

Stability of a Caisson, Non-Breaking Waves


Overturning A:

Mo MI G

B
B
B
2B
U1 U 2 RV
2
2
3
3

Sliding:
z

Houtside
ho

RH
eff
RV

Hin/2

eff 0.75

Fwave

yc

ds

di
Fsi

Fso

Rock foundation, non-breaking waves

B/3

A
p1

RH

po

pi

U1
U2

RV

RH Fwave Fso Fsi , RV G U1 U 2

Caisson on Rubble Foundation

F '' 1 rf F
M '' 1 rm M
M B'' 1 rm M b 1 rf F
M B'' M A'' bF ''

(7-82)
(7-83)

(7-84)

Fig. 7-98

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Fig. 7-97

Breaking Waves on Caisson Minikin Method

Rm

ds

Rs

Fig. 7-99

Breaking Waves on Caisson: Theory

pm 101g

Hb ds
D ds
LD D

D d s Ld m
Rm

pm H b
3

M m Rm d s

Rm

(7-88)
(7-86)

pm H b d s
3

Rs

(7-85)

(7-87)

1
2
Rt Rm Rs Rm g d s H b / 2
2
1
3
M t M m M s M m g d s H b / 2
6

Ld

Fig. 7-99

LD

(7-89)

(7-90)

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Dimensionless Minikin Wave Pressure and Force

Fig. 7-100

Stability of a Caisson, Breaking Waves

Hb/2
Rm

Hin/2
B
G

ds

di

Rso
Rsi
B/6
po

RH
pI

U2

U1

RV

Stability of a Caisson, Breaking Waves

Overturning A:

Mo MI G

B
B
B
5B
U1 U 2 RV
2
2
3
6
z

Hb/2
Rm

Hin/2

Sliding:

RH
eff
RV

B
G
ds

eff 0.9

Rock foundation, breaking waves

di

Rso
Rsi

B/6

RH
pI

po
U2

U1

RV

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Caisson on Rubble Foundation


Rm
Rs

Fig. 7-101

Influence of a Low Wall

Force and moment


reduction

Rm' rm Rm

(7-91)

Fig. 7-102

Parameter in Moment Reduction, Low Wall


Fig. 7-103

M m' d s Rm (d s a )(1 rm ) Rm

(7-92)

M m' Rm rm (d s a ) a

(7-93)

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Broken Waves, Caisson in the Water

Rm
Rs

1
1
pm C 2 gdb
2
2
hc 0.78 H b

db g

Fig. 7-104

(7-94)
(7-95)

1
Rm pm hc gdb hc
2
M m Rm d s hc / 2

(7-96)

(7-97)

Total Force and Moment on Caisson in Water

ps g (d s hc )

(7-98)

1
Rs g (d s hc ) 2
(7-99)
2
1
1
M s Rs ( d s hc ) g (d s hc )3
3
6
Rt Rm Rs
(7-101)
Mt Mm Ms

(7-100)

(7-102)
Rm
Rs

Broken Waves, Caisson on Land

x
x
v ' C 1 1 gdb 1 1
x2
x2

x
h ' hc 1 1
x2

(7-103)

(7-104)

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Total Force and Moment on Caisson on Land

pm g

x
v '2 1
gdb 1 1
2g 2
x2

1
x
Rm pm h ' gdb hc 1 1
2
x2
M m Rm

h' 1
x
gdb hc2 1 1
2 4
x
2

1
1
x
Rs gh '2 ghc2 1 1
2
2
x2
M s Rs

Rm
Rs

h' 1
x
ghc3 1 1
3 6
x2

Rt Rm Rs

Mt Mm Ms
Eqs. (7-105) (7-111)

Effect of Angle of Wave Approach


Rn R sin '
R ' Rn / W R sin 2
R = Dyn force per unit length of wall

Fig. 7-106

The reduction is not applicable to rubble structures!

MODES OF WAVE FORCES AGAINST A WALL


Rm
Rs

Fwave
Fs

Broken

Non-Breaking

Rm

Rs

Breaking

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Rubble Mound Breakwaters

Rubble Mound Breakwaters

Cover Layer/Armour Layer


Under Layers

wr H 3
K D ( sr 1)3 cot

Hudsons formula

W = weight of individual armour unit (kg)


wr = unit weight of armour unit (kg/m3)
Sr = wr/ww
KD = stability coefficient

Suggested KD-Values for Determining Armor Unit Weight

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Selection of KD-Value
Value includes:
shape of the blocks
number of layers
placement of the blocks
roughness
type of wave (breaking/non-breaking)
incident wave angle
breakwater shape (height above water level, width etc)
scale effects

Breakwater Armor Units

A-Jacks

Xbloc

Dolos

Tetrapod

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Quarrystone

Accropode

Submar
Core Loc

Concrete cubes
?? concrete blocks

Tri Bar

Antifer concrete blocks

Nikken stone blocks

Nikken Grasp

Nikken Sanren

Nikken Rakuna IV

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Typical Breakwater Designs

Recommended Three-Layer Section


Fig. 7-116. Non-breaking waves and one exposed side.

Typical Breakwater Designs

Fig. 7-117. Breaking waves or two exposed sides.

Breakwater Design Elements

* Still water level(s)


(depending on co-variation with waves)

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Breakwater Design Elements

* Design wave height Hs

Breakwater Design Elements

* Run-up level Ru2%

crest elevation

Ru2%

Breakwater Design Elements

* crest width
1/ 3

W
B nk
wr
( n 3)

Table 7-13
=B
Ru2%

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Breakwater Design Elements

* side slopes (~ 1:1.5 1:3)

=B
Ru2%

in

out

Breakwater Design Elements


0.3 m
1/3

- Layer thickness (W)

W
r (W / 10) max 2.0 50
wr

1/ 3

W
r nk
wr

W
1.25 max
wr

n 2 thickness = 2r(W)

- Rock units (W/10)

r (W / 10) max

0.3m
1/3

W
2.0 50
wr

(7-123)

=B
Ru2%

W50 W / 10

Breakwater Design Elements


- bottom elevation of cover layer

2 H

for d s 2 H

=B
Ru2%

to bottom for d s 2 H

- toe berm W/10

- under layers

for d s 1.5H

to bottom for d s 1.5 H

D15,cover D85,under
- filter layer or geotextile

D15,filter D85,underground

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Breaking waves or two exposed sides.

> 1.5 m

Non-breaking waves and one exposed side.

2r

2r

2r

>3m

1/3

W
3r 3k 50
wr

where W50 W / 10
1/3

W
2r 2k 50
wr

STABILITY OF RUBBLE FOUNDATION AND TOE PROTECTION

Fig 7-120

MAIN ITEMS

- Understand most dangerous (biggest) breaking wave


- Calculate run-up & overtopping
- Understand & calculate wave forces

L9 -11

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