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introduction

wave forces

- piles

- caisson; non-breaking waves

- caisson; breaking waves

- revetments

H1/3 (Hs)

Rigid structure: H1

Flexible structure: Hs H5

Wave Height (flexible structure)

access to construction material

quality and extent of input wave data

Non-breaking

Breaking

Non-breaking

Fig 7-1

x p (4.0 9.25m) H b

ds

d s ( db ) min x p m H b mH b p H b m p

Hb

ds

ds

x

db

m p

m p

Hb

Hb

Implicit expression

(7-5)

Wave at Structure

against the structure

Fig 7-5

Ho

Table 7-1

L6-12

Wave Forces

Classification of wave force problems:

Fig 7-66

H

gT 2

wave steepness

d

gT 2

dimensionless

water depth

D

L

pile diameter to

wavelength

relative pile

roughness

HD

T

pile Reynolds

number

Important Parameters

for Piles

f f i f D CM

D

0.05

LA

1

D 2 du

CD Du u

4 dt

2

(7-20)

(7-21)

Fig 7-67

f f i f D CM

1

D 2 du

CD Du u

4 dt

2

H

2t

cos

2

T

(7-22)

H gT cosh 2( z d ) / L

2t

cos

2 L

cosh(2d / L)

T

(7-23)

du

g H cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t

sin

dt

L

cosh(2d / L)

T

f f i f D CM

(7-24)

1

D 2 du

CD Du u

4 dt

2

Inertia force:

f i C M g

D 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t

H

sin

4

L cosh(2d / L)

T

(7-25)

Drag force:

gT 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L

1

2t

2t

f D CD gDH 2 2

cos

cos

2

4 L cosh(2d / L)

T

T

2

(7-26)

L

L0

1

cosh(2d / L )

K

K and

L

L0

K2

Fig 7-68

f i CM g

fi ( z d )

f i ( z 0)

f D ( z d )

f D ( z 0)

d

gT 2

D 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t

H

sin

4

L cosh(2d / L)

T

1

gT 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L

2t

2t

gDH 2 2

cos

cos

2

4 L cosh(2d / L)

T

T

2

f D CD

Fig 7-69

Fig 7-70

D 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t

sin

H

4

L cosh(2d / L)

T

f i CM g

1

gT 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L

2t

2t

gDH 2 2

cos

cos

2

4 L cosh(2d / L)

T

T

2

f D CD

6-08

Force:

f i dz

f D dz Fi FD

(7-27)

( z d ) f dz ( z d ) f

i

dz M i M D

(7-28)

f i CM g

D 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t

sin

H

4

L cosh(2d / L)

T

gT 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L

1

2t

2t

gDH 2 2

cos

cos

2

4 L cosh(2d / L)

T

T

2

f D CD

(assuming uniform pile & Integration from d SWL)

D 2

HK im

4

Inertia force

Fim CM g

Drag force

1

FDm CD gDH 2 K Dm

2

(7-38)

M im Fim d Sim

(7-39)

M Dm FDm d S Dm

(7-40)

(7-37)

Kim, KDm, Sim, and SDm

Hb= ?

Kim

Fig. 7-71

Kim, KDm, Sim, and SDm

Hb

Fig 7-75

fi dz

f D dz Fi FD

Fm

2000

Fim

FDm

Fm ==

l Fim + FDm

Force (N)

1000

-1000

F

Fi

FD

-2000

0

90

180

270

360

D 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L 2t

sin

f i CM g

H

4

L cosh(2d / L)

T

1

gT 2 cosh 2( z d ) / L

2t

2t

gDH 2 2

cos

cos

2

4 L cosh(2d / L)

T

T

2

f D CD

Maximum force:

Fm _m g CD H 2 D

(7-42)

Maximum moment:

2

Mm

_m g C D H D d

(7-43)

values)

gT2

gT2

m

Fm

wCD H 2D

W 0.05

H

gT 2

d

gT 2

CM D

CD H

(7-41)

Fm

wCD H 2 D

W 0.1

H

gT 2

d

gT 2

Force Coefficients CD

CD

Fig 7-85

u D

Re max

umax

H Lo

T LA

(7-47)

CD

Fig 7-85

u D

Re max

umax

H Lo

T LA

(7-47)

Fig 7-68

Force Coefficients CM

CM=2.0

CM=1.5

(7-53)

10

Transversal Forces

FL FLm cos 2 CL

1

g D H 2 K Dm cos 2

2

FL

(7-44)

CL

CD

FL

Fig. 7-84

Horizontal pipe

Changed!

fzi

fzD

fxi

fxD

f x f xi f xD C M

f z f zi f zD C M

D2

4

D2

4

dz

ax CD

az CL

1

Du |u |

2

1

Du2

2

k N /m (7-20)

k N /m

ax = f(sin), u = f(cos), az = f(cos) => fxi & fxD not simultaneous max, fzi & fzD have simultaneous max

L7-2012

11

A

A

A=A

Fig 7-88

p1

1

gH i

2 cosh(2d / L)

(7-75)

Fig 7-89

Fig. 7-90

12

Total Force

1

Ftotal Fs Fwave g d 2 Fwave

2

(7-76)

Fwave

gd 2

Fwav

e

Fs

Fig. 7-91

Total Moment

M total M s M wave Fs

A:

d

1

M wave gd 3 M wave

3

6

M wave

gd 3

Fwav

e

Fs

Fig. 7-92

SWL

SWL

Sliding

Overturning

13

Non-Breaking Waves

Houtside

ho

Hin/2

B

Fwave

yc

ds

di

Fsi

Fso

B/3

p1

po

RH

U1

pi

U2

R

RV

Overturning A:

Mo MI G

B

B

B

2B

U1 U 2 RV

2

2

3

3

Sliding:

z

Houtside

ho

RH

eff

RV

Hin/2

eff 0.75

Fwave

yc

ds

di

Fsi

Fso

B/3

A

p1

RH

po

pi

U1

U2

RV

F '' 1 rf F

M '' 1 rm M

M B'' 1 rm M b 1 rf F

M B'' M A'' bF ''

(7-82)

(7-83)

(7-84)

Fig. 7-98

14

Fig. 7-97

Rm

ds

Rs

Fig. 7-99

pm 101g

Hb ds

D ds

LD D

D d s Ld m

Rm

pm H b

3

M m Rm d s

Rm

(7-88)

(7-86)

pm H b d s

3

Rs

(7-85)

(7-87)

1

2

Rt Rm Rs Rm g d s H b / 2

2

1

3

M t M m M s M m g d s H b / 2

6

Ld

Fig. 7-99

LD

(7-89)

(7-90)

15

Fig. 7-100

Hb/2

Rm

Hin/2

B

G

ds

di

Rso

Rsi

B/6

po

RH

pI

U2

U1

RV

Overturning A:

Mo MI G

B

B

B

5B

U1 U 2 RV

2

2

3

6

z

Hb/2

Rm

Hin/2

Sliding:

RH

eff

RV

B

G

ds

eff 0.9

di

Rso

Rsi

B/6

RH

pI

po

U2

U1

RV

16

Rm

Rs

Fig. 7-101

reduction

Rm' rm Rm

(7-91)

Fig. 7-102

Fig. 7-103

M m' d s Rm (d s a )(1 rm ) Rm

(7-92)

M m' Rm rm (d s a ) a

(7-93)

17

Rm

Rs

1

1

pm C 2 gdb

2

2

hc 0.78 H b

db g

Fig. 7-104

(7-94)

(7-95)

1

Rm pm hc gdb hc

2

M m Rm d s hc / 2

(7-96)

(7-97)

ps g (d s hc )

(7-98)

1

Rs g (d s hc ) 2

(7-99)

2

1

1

M s Rs ( d s hc ) g (d s hc )3

3

6

Rt Rm Rs

(7-101)

Mt Mm Ms

(7-100)

(7-102)

Rm

Rs

x

x

v ' C 1 1 gdb 1 1

x2

x2

x

h ' hc 1 1

x2

(7-103)

(7-104)

18

pm g

x

v '2 1

gdb 1 1

2g 2

x2

1

x

Rm pm h ' gdb hc 1 1

2

x2

M m Rm

h' 1

x

gdb hc2 1 1

2 4

x

2

1

1

x

Rs gh '2 ghc2 1 1

2

2

x2

M s Rs

Rm

Rs

h' 1

x

ghc3 1 1

3 6

x2

Rt Rm Rs

Mt Mm Ms

Eqs. (7-105) (7-111)

Rn R sin '

R ' Rn / W R sin 2

R = Dyn force per unit length of wall

Fig. 7-106

Rm

Rs

Fwave

Fs

Broken

Non-Breaking

Rm

Rs

Breaking

19

Under Layers

wr H 3

K D ( sr 1)3 cot

Hudsons formula

wr = unit weight of armour unit (kg/m3)

Sr = wr/ww

KD = stability coefficient

20

Selection of KD-Value

Value includes:

shape of the blocks

number of layers

placement of the blocks

roughness

type of wave (breaking/non-breaking)

incident wave angle

breakwater shape (height above water level, width etc)

scale effects

A-Jacks

Xbloc

Dolos

Tetrapod

21

Quarrystone

Accropode

Submar

Core Loc

Concrete cubes

?? concrete blocks

Tri Bar

Nikken Grasp

Nikken Sanren

Nikken Rakuna IV

22

Fig. 7-116. Non-breaking waves and one exposed side.

(depending on co-variation with waves)

23

crest elevation

Ru2%

* crest width

1/ 3

W

B nk

wr

( n 3)

Table 7-13

=B

Ru2%

24

=B

Ru2%

in

out

0.3 m

1/3

W

r (W / 10) max 2.0 50

wr

1/ 3

W

r nk

wr

W

1.25 max

wr

n 2 thickness = 2r(W)

r (W / 10) max

0.3m

1/3

W

2.0 50

wr

(7-123)

=B

Ru2%

W50 W / 10

- bottom elevation of cover layer

2 H

for d s 2 H

=B

Ru2%

to bottom for d s 2 H

- under layers

for d s 1.5H

D15,cover D85,under

- filter layer or geotextile

D15,filter D85,underground

25

> 1.5 m

2r

2r

2r

>3m

1/3

W

3r 3k 50

wr

where W50 W / 10

1/3

W

2r 2k 50

wr

Fig 7-120

MAIN ITEMS

- Calculate run-up & overtopping

- Understand & calculate wave forces

L9 -11

26

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