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AS3: REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

MODULE 3 : REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB


What isa Slab (Structural definition)
A slab is a broad, flat plate, usually horizontal, with top and bottom
surfaces parallel or nearly parallel.
In RC Construction, slabs are used to provide flat, useful surfaces.
The slab in buildings is the primary element that resists the applied loads.
May be edge supported, or directly supported by the columns.
Floor Slab Types
One-Way Slab or One Way Construction

Two-Way Slab or Two Way Construction

Flat Plate or Flat Slab

Grid Slab or Waffle Slab

Major Difference b/n One wayand TwoWayslab


In Terms of Dimension

lb

lb

la
One Way Slab:
m = la/lb < 0.50

la
Two Way Slab:
m = la/lb > 0.50

In Terms of Load Distribution and Rebar Placement

One Way Slab:

Two Way Slab:

Loads are distributed along


the short span only

Loads are distributed in proportion to span


lengths

Main Rebars are placed


along the short span only

Main Rebars are placed in proportion to


span lengths

Analysis of One WaySlab

Depth Limitation for One-Way Slabs NSCP

Values shown are valid for normal weight concrete and Grade 60 reinforcement (Fy=414 Mpa)
For Fy other than 414 Mpa, the values will be multiplied by (0.4+fy/700)

Analysis and Design Procedure


1. The simplest approach in analysing One-way Slabs is to assume
that the slab is a rectangular beam with a large width to depth ratio
and that this beam can be divided into 1-m strips.

1m
1m
1m

lb

1m
1m

la
2. Then you can take a single strip and analyse it as a beam with a
b=1m and a certain h(determined thickness)
1m
d

h
h

1m
la

Code Requirements for Maximum spacing of flexural reinforcement


Section of 1m strip
for Slabs.
@PortionsCriticaltobending
S

max

= 2h

@Portionswherebendingisnotcritical
S
= 380 (280/fs) 2.5 Cc
max

But not greater than,


S

max

= 300 (280/fs)

NSCP Requirements for Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement

For fy = 275 Mpa (Gr 40)


Astemp = .002 bh
For fy = 414 Mpa (Gr 60)
Astemp = .0018 bh
Max spacing of Temperature Bars as per NSCP = 5h

NSCP Requirements for Reinforcement @ discontinuous edges

-Asdiscont = (+Asmispan)/3

Examples
Determine the required reinforcement for the slab of the structural system shown below.

G-1
fc=21 Mpa
Fy = 275 Mpa

B-1

J-1

5m

B-1

Superimposed DL = 3.6 Kpa

G-1
2.0m

2.0m

LL = 2.4 KPa

Step 1: Determine what the problem provides and requires.


The problem requires the amount of reinforcement of the beam (As)
When it comes to formulas, beams and slabs share the same
formulas when it comes to flexure. So, the same formula applies
for slabs in terms of As.

As =

M
fs j d

Step 2: Determine the slab thickness(t)


Our example shows the slab being supported by beams on both ends while
a joist supports it along the midspan. We can say that this is a slab which
is continuous on one end because of the mid support.
W in Kn/m

As per NSCP, for a solid one way slab continuous over one support:
t = L/24 = 3.0/24 = 0.125 m or 125 mm

Step 2: Determine the loads on the slab


Take note that the uniform load W is in KN/m, while the given date is in
Kn/m2. This simply means you need to multiply the given data to a
tributary width. For one way slabs or slabs in general this is taken to be
1m only since we analyse the slabs in 1m strips

Given:

DL=3.6 Kn/m2 (weight of the slab will be added)


Wtslab = unit weight of concrete x thickness
= 24 Kn/m3 x 0.125
Wtslab = 3.0 Kn/m2

DL=3.6 + 3.0 = 6.6 Kn/m2


LL = 2.4 Kn/m2

WDL = 6.6 ( 1m ) = 6.6 Kn/m


WLL = 2.4 ( 1 m] ) = 2.4 Kn/m
Then the total load on the joist is simply the sum of these two:
WT = 6.6 + 2.4 = 9.0 Kn/m

Step 3: Compute for the maximum bending moment (M).


For simplicity slabs can be assumed to act as simply supported. But if a more
accurate analysis is required, then moment values will be computed by shear and
moment diagram.

Assuming the slab is simply supported Mmax =

Substituting, Mmax =

Wt L2
8

9.0 (3)2
8

Mmax = 10.125 Kn-m


Step 4: Compute for As.
This step is simply filling up the formula

M
fs j d

As =

Solve for : fs = 0.40 (fy)


fs = 0.40 (275)
fs = 110 MPa

j = 1 k/3

Solve for :

k=

Solve for : d = h - Cc (b/2)

n
n + (fs/fc)
n = 12
fc = .45 fc
fc = .45 (21)
fc = 9.45 Mpa

k=

fy =275 Mpa

h = 125mm
Cc = Concrete Cover
= 20 mm
b = Bar diameter
= 12 mm

d = 125 - 20 (12/2)
d = 99 mm

12
12 + (110/9.45)

k = 0.508
j = 1 0.508/3
j = .8308
Substitute everything to the formula

As =

10.125
110x1000 (.8308)(.099)

As = .001119 m2 x 10002 = 1119 mm2


Step 5: Compute for bar spacing.
For slabs it is easier to implement at site if
the plans will indicate the spacing of the
rebars rather than the number.

S = Ab (1000)

As

Ab = Area of rebar
Area of 12mm rebar = 113 mm2

S = 113 (1000)

1119
s = 101.06 mm say 100 mm

Step 6: Compute for temperature reinforcement (Astemp)


For Grade 40 bars
Astemp = .002 bh

Temperature bars are placed perpendicular


to the main reinforcement. These prevent
the slab from cracking due to constant
changes in temperature.

Astemp = .002 (1000)(125)


Astemp = 250 mm2
S = Ab (1000)

As
S = 113 (1000)

250
s = 452 mm say 450 mm < 5 x (125 ) = 625mm
Use s = 450mm