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1. The relative volatility of A in a mixture with B is AB = 2.0. The equilibrium

vaporization ratio of B is KB = 0.7. (a) What is the value of BA? , (b) What

is the value of KA?

2. Consider equilibrium in the ternary system of benzene (1), toluene (2) and

o-xylene (3). Given: T = 393 K, P = 1.2 bar and x3 = 0.2. Is the system

completely defined?

3. (a) The overall mole fraction of benzene in a mixture of benzene and

toluene is zF = 0.3 at 1 atm total pressure and 95C. Then the mixture is

(i) a liquid (ii) a vapour (iii) a two-phase mixture. (b) What is the minimum

temperature at which a vapour of this composition can exist at 1 atm total

pressure?

4. Water (1) and formic acid (2) form a higher-boiling azeotrope. At 1 atm

total pressure, the azeotropic composition is x = 0.409. Then which of the

following is correct? (i) 12 = 1, at x = 0.409 (ii) 12 > 1, at x = 0.617 (iii)

12 < 1, at x = 0.803 (iv) 12 < 1 at x = 0.205.

5. The relative volatility of A in a mixture of A and B is AB = 1.5. What is the

mole fraction of B in the first droplet of liquid condensed from an

equimolar saturated vapour mixture of A and B?

6. A binary totally miscible mixture forms a maximum boiling azeotrope at x

= xa. Two sets of equilibrium data points for the system are (x 1, y1*) and

(x2, y2*). If x1 < xa < x2, identify the correct inequalities. (i) x1 < y1* (ii) x2 <

y2* (iii) y1* > y2*

7. A mixture of compounds A and B forms a higher-boiling azeotrope at x =

0.75 at 1 atm total pressure. A solution of this composition has a bubble

point Tb and a vapour same composition has a dew point T d. Then: (i) Tb >

Td (ii) Tb = Td (iii) Tb < Td

8. Consider a mixture of 40 mole% benzene (1), 40% toluene (2) and 20% pxylene (3). The solution is approximately ideal. The following relative

volatility values are know 1 atm total pressure: 12 = 2.4 and 32 = 0.43.

Then

(a) the value of 31 is (i) 0.18 (ii) 1.03 (iii) 5.58

(b) And the mole fraction of toluene in the equilibrium vapour at 100C is

(i) 0.688 (ii) 0.277 (iii) 0.743

(c) Given the values K1 = 1.67 and K2 = 0.688, the value of K3 is (i) 1.15

(ii) 2.43 (iii) 0.296

9. One mole of a solution of A and B (enthalpy = 900 kcal/kmol; x = 0.4) is

mixed two moles of another solution of the components (enthalpy = 1200

kcal/kmol, x = 0.8) Calculate the enthalpy and composition of the

mixture.

10. A ternary solution of n-hexane (20 mole%), n-heptane (40 mole%) and noctane may be considered to be ideal. The equilibrium vaporization ratios

are: K1 = 2.25, K2 = 1.02, and K3 = 0.6 at 1 atm total pressure. The

solution is (i) below its bubble point (ii) saturated (iii) above its bubble

point.

11. A student was asked to do flash calculation of an ideal mixture of four

components having an overall composition (in mole fraction) of w1 = 0.2,

w2 = 0.15, and w3 = 0.40. At the condition of the flash drum, the

equilibrium vaporization ratios were: K1 = 2.1. K2 = 1.02, K3 = 0.6, and

K4 = 0.2. The student reported that 38 mole% of the feed vaporized on

flashing. (a) Was the calculation reasonably correct? (b) What was the

value of relative volatility a43? (i) 0.33 (ii) 3.1 (iii) 0.4

Problems

Equilibrium in a binary mixture

Mixtures of n-hexane and n-octane form essentially ideal solutions. (a)

Prepare the bubble point, dew point and equilibrium curves (Txy and x

y plots) at 1 atm total pressure. (b) Calculate the values of the relative

volatility of n-hexane and n-octane in mixtures containing 10 mole% and

90 mole % hexane using vapour pressure equations. Do these values

suggest that the solutions may be ideal? (c) A solution of concentration x

= 0.2 is slowly heated. What is the composition of the initial vapour

formed if the total pressure is (i) 1 atm, (ii) 2 atm? (d) If a vapour of

composition as in part (c) (ii) above is cooled at 2 atm total pressure and

a differential amount of vapour is formed from the condensate, calculate

its composition. How can the quantities be calculated using the Txy

and xy data?

Bubble point/dew point calculation, ternary mixture

Calculate the bubble point of a mixture of 30% methanol, 30% ethanol and

40% n-propanol (all in mole%) at 1 atm total pressure. Also calculate the

dew point of a vapour of the above composition at 1.5 atm total pressure.

Assume ideal behaviour of the solution.

Equilibrium in a multicomponent heterogeneous system

A heterogeneous mixture containing benzene (0.025 gmol), toluene (0.025

gmol) and water (0.05 gmol) is heated slowly at 1 atm total pressure. The

vapour generated remains in equilibrium with the liquid. Calculate (a) the

temperature at which boiling starts, (b) the composition of the initial

vapour, and (c) the temperature at which vaporization is complete.

Use of enthalpy-concentration relations

atm total pressure (reference temp. = 5C) may be expressed as: HL =

9000 + 1000x kJ/kmol; Hv = 35,000 + 8000y kJ/kmol. The relative

volatility is otAB = 1.8. (a) Calculate the molar heats of condensation of

saturated pure vapours of compounds A and B at 1 atm. (b) We have one

kmol of a liquid (x = 0.3, HL = 8500 kJ/kmol), and one kmol of a vapour (y

= 0.5, Hv = 40,000 kJ/kmol). What is the condition of the liquid

(subcooled, saturated or superheated) and the condition of the vapour

(saturated or superheated)?

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