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Fundamentals

of Earthquake Engineering
developed by

Finley A. Charney, Ph.D., P.E


Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Blacksburg, Virginia

Center for Extreme Load Effect on Structures

Introduction
Revised 3/09/06

Purpose of The Course

The purpose of this course is to introduce the


FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS of earthquake
engineering.

This is done by providing a strong theoretical


basis, rooted in seismic hazard development,
structural dynamics, and structural behavior.

While building code concepts will be discussed, this


is NOT a design course.

Introduction

Building Code
Development Cycle

NEHRP Recommended
Provisions

ASCE 7-05
International
Building Code
Introduction

Introduction

U. S. Seismic Design Practice


(Prequil)

Seismic requirements provide minimum standards for


use in building design to maintain public safety in an
extreme earthquake.

Seismic requirements safeguard against major failures


and loss of life -- NOT to limit damage, maintain
function, or provide for easy repair.

Design forces are based on the assumption that a


significant amount of inelastic behavior will take place
in the structure during a design earthquake.

Introduction

U. S. Seismic Design Practice


(Prequil)

For reasons of economy and affordability, the design forces


are much lower than those that would be required if the
structure were to remain elastic.
In contrast, wind resistant structures are designed to
remain elastic under factored forces

Specified code requirements are intended to provide for


the necessary inelastic seismic behavior.

In nearly all buildings designed today, survival in large


earthquakes depends directly on the ability of their framing
systems to dissipate energy hysteretically while undergoing
large inelastic deformations.

Introduction

The Difference Between Wind Resistant Design


and Earthquake Resistant Design
Wind:
Excitation is an applied pressure or FORCE on the faade
Loading is dynamic, but (for most structures) response is nearly STATIC
Structure deforms due to applied force
Deformations are MONOTONIC (unidirectional)
Structure is designed to respond ELASTICALLY under factored loads
The controlling life safety limit state is STRENGTH
Provide enough strength to resist forces elastically

Introduction

Pressure

BEHAVIOR UNDER WIND EXCITATION


F
Time

Factored 50 yr Wind
Unfactored 50 yr Wind
10 yr Wind

First Significant
Yield

Introduction

The Difference Between Wind Resistant Design


and Earthquake Resistant Design

Earthquake:
Excitation is an applied DISPLACEMENT at the base
Loading and response are truly DYNAMIC
Structural system deforms as a result of INERTIAL FORCES
Deformations are fully REVERSED
The structure is designed to respond INELASTICALLY under factored loads
The controlling life safety limit state is DEFORMABILITY
Provide enough strength to assure that deformation demands do
not exceed deformation capacity
Introduction

Ground Disp.

BEHAVIOR UNDER SEISMIC EXCITATION


(Elastic Response)
Time

Factored Seismic
Elastic Strength
Demand

Factored Wind

G
F

In general, it is not economically


feasible to design structures to
respond elastically to earthquake
ground motions.
Introduction 10

Ground Disp.

BEHAVIOR UNDER SEISMIC EXCITATION


(Inelastic Response)
F
Time

Loading

G
F
Introduction 11

Ground Disp.

BEHAVIOR UNDER SEISMIC EXCITATION


(Inelastic Response)
F
Time

Unloading

Deformation
Reversal

G
F
Introduction 12

Ground Disp.

BEHAVIOR UNDER SEISMIC EXCITATION


(Inelastic Response)
F
Time

Reloading

G
F
Introduction 13

Definition of Ductility,
Stress or Force or Moment

u
=
y
Strain
or Displacement
or (Curvature or Rotation)

Hysteresis
Curve
Introduction 14

Definition of Energy Dissipation,


Stress or Force or Moment

Area = = Energy Dissipated


Units = Force x Displacement

Strain
or Displacement
or Rotation

Introduction 15

Basic Earthquake Engineering


Performance Objective
An adequate design is accomplished when a structure
is dimensioned and detailed in such a way that the
local ductility supply is greater than the corresponding
demand.

Supplied Demand
Supplied Demand
Introduction 16

The Role of Design

The role of Design is to estimate the strength of


the structure that is required to limit the ductility
demand to the available supply, and to provide the
desired engineering economy.

Introduction 17

Another View of Ductility Demand


(Definitions)
Inherent Capacity
That capacity provided by the gravity system or by
gravity plus wind.
Affordable Capacity
The capacity governed by reasonable (ordinary) building
costs in the geographic area of interest.
Seismic Premium
The ratio of the (reduced) seismic strength demand to the
Inherent Capacity.
Introduction 18

Another View of Ductility Demand


Elastic Seismic Demand
Ductility Demand =

Affordable Capacity

Strength
Elastic
Seismic
Demand

Affordable
Capacity

Yield
Deformation

Deformation
Demand

Def.
Introduction 19

Another View of Ductility Demand


If Affordable Capacity is relatively constant, then
ductility demand is primarily a function of elastic
seismic demand.
Because elastic seismic demand is a function
of local seismicity, ductility demand is directly
proportional to local seismicity.
Hence, Berkeley California, which has higher seismicity
than (say) Austin Texas, has a higher inherent ductility
demand than does Austin.

Introduction 20

Ductility Demand vs Seismicity


Elastic Demand
Berkeley

Boston
Austin
Affordable
Strength

1.0Y 1.8Y

3.0Y

5.0Y

Def.
Introduction 21

Limitation
The ductility demand can not exceed the ductility supply.
Moment Frame Ductility Supply
Ordinary Detailing
Intermediate Detailing
Special Detailing

1.5
2.5
5.0

In California, the high seismicity dictates a high


ductility demand (typically > 3) hence, only moment
frames with Special Detailing may be used.
Introduction 22

Limitation (continued)
In Austin, the relatively low seismicity dictates a low
ductility demand (typically < 2) hence, Intermediate
and special Special Detailing may be used.
However, there is no motivation to use Special Detailing if
the resulting design forces fall below the inherent
capacity.

Introduction 23

What if Supplied Ductility


can not meet the Demand?
Ductility Demand =

Elastic Seismic Demand


Affordable Capacity

Increase Affordable Capacity


(Pay a higher seismic premium)

Reduce Elastic Seismic Demand


Base Isolation
Added Damping
Introduction 24

Basic ASCE-7 Equations for Predicting


Strength Demand of Buildings

V = C SW
S DS
CS =
R/I

S D1
CS =
T (R / I )
Introduction 25

Important Concepts to Understand:


S D1
CS =
T (R / I )

S DS
CS =
R/I

1) The Cause and Effect of Earthquakes (SDS, SD1)


2) Seismic Hazard Analysis (SDS, SD1)
3) Structural Dynamics (T, SDS, SD1)
4) Inelastic Behavior of Structures (R)
5) Current Design Philosophy (SDS, SD1, R, I)
6) Future Trends

Introduction 26

1) The Cause and Effect of Earthquakes

Why Earthquakes Occur


How Earthquakes are Measured
Earthquake Effects
Mitigation Strategy
Earthquake Ground Motions

Introduction 27

2) Seismic Hazard Analysis

Deterministic/Probabilistic Analysis
USGS Hazard Maps
ASCE 7-05 Hazard Maps
Site Amplification
Elastic Response Spectra
Near Source Effects

Introduction 28

3) Structural Dynamics (Linear Response)

Equations of Motion for SDOF Systems


Response to Simple Loading
Response to Earthquake Loading
Elastic Response Spectra
Equations of Motion for MDOF Systems
Modal Analysis
Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis

Introduction 29

4) Inelastic Behavior of Structures

Why Inelastic Behavior is Necessary


Inelastic Behavior of Components
Equal Displacement Concept
Basic Design Equation

Introduction 30

5) Current Design Philosophy

ASCE 7-05 Philosophy


Seismic Resistant Structural Systems
Example Building Analysis

Introduction 31

Course Schedule
Day 1 a.m.

p.m.

Day 2 a.m.

p.m.

Introduction
Earthquakes: Cause and Effect
SDOF Structural Dynamics
SDOF Structural Dynamics (continued)
Seismic Hazard Analysis

MDOF Structural Dynamics


Inelastic Behavior of Structures
Structural Design Philosophy
Structural Systems
Example

Introduction 32

Course Materials

Course Visuals
References
NONLIN Manual and CD
FEMA 450 and 451

[(800) 480-2520]

http://filebox.vt.edu/users/fcharney/
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