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UNIT-I

moments on the bodyy are due

to only two basic sources

1. Pressure distribution over

the body surface

2. Shear stress distribution

over the bodyy surface

f

how complex the shape of the body, the only way nature

has of communicating an aerodynamic force to a solid

object or surface is through the pressure and shear

stress distributions that exist on the surface.

dimensions of force per unit area

Pressure P acts normal to the surface and shear

stress acts tangential to the surface

Shear stress is due to tugging action on the

surface

f

which

hi h is

i due

d to

t friction

f i ti between

b t

th body

the

b d

and the air

y the net effect of the P

Moment M on the body,

and distributions should be integrated over

the complete surface

Resultant Aerodynamic

y

Force

Lift

v

V

((Sum of Pressure and Shear))

Airfoil

Drag

R resultant force

L lift

D drag

d

N normal force

A Axial force

V - free stream velocity

C - is the chord

- Angle of attack

Ground

Body

Aerodynamic

Therefore the resultant aerodynamic force R

could be split into components in the bodyy or

aerodynamic axes systems, as shown in figure

L = Lift = Component of R perpendicular to

relative wind

D = Drag = component of R parallel to relative

wind

i d

N = Normal force = component of R perpendicular to

chord c

A = axial force = component of R parallel to chord c

The geometric

Th

i relations

l i

b

between

these

h

two sets

of components can be written as

L = N cos A sin

D = N sin + A cos

Consider the 2-dimensional

2 dimensional body

are denoted by Pu and u at a distance of Su from leading

edge along the body

Si il l Pl andd l are the

Similarly

h corresponding

di quantities

ii

on the lower surface

surface and is oriented at an angle relative to the

perpendicular

di l

Shear stress is tangential to the surface and is

oriented at the same angle relative to horizontal

The total normal force N and the total axial force A due

to the pressure and shear stress on the elemental area ds

The

h primes

i

on N andd A denote

d

f

force

per unit

i span

gett momentt about

b t the

th leading

l di edge

d per unit

it span

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