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Composite wall

apparatus

instrute
ch

INSTRUCTION
MANUAL

THEORY AND PRINCIPLES

Conduction (heat transfer by diffusion) is the transport of energy from


the more energetic to the less energetic particles of a substance due to a
temperature gradient, and the physical mechanism is that of random atomic
and molecular activity. For one-dimensional, steady-state heat conduction in
a plane wall with no heat generation, temperature is a function of the x
coordinate only and heat is transferred exclusively in this direction. Thus, the
temperature distribution for the heat conduction through plane wall must be
linear as shown in Figure 1.
T s,1

T s,2

qx
x

x=L

Figure-1: Heat transfer through a plane wall

The heat transfer rate (qx) by conduction through a plane wall is


directly proportional to the cross sectional area (A) and the temperature
difference (T), whereas it is inversely proportional to the wall thickness (x).

In addition to single plane wall, heat transfer through composite wall is


also important. Such walls may involve any number of series and parallel
layers made of different materials. In the case of steady state onedimensional heat conduction with no heat generation, temperature profile
through each layer becomes linear as shown in Figure 2. Heat transfer

through composite systems is usually described by an overall heat transfer


coefficient. Simply, the overall heat transfer coefficient is related to the total
thermal resistance.

Ts,1

T2

kA

T3
kC

kB

Ts,4

A
xA

B
xB

C
xC

Figure-2: Heat transfer through composite systems.

DESCRIPTION:
The apparatus consists of a central heater sandwiched between two sheets.
Three types of
Slabs are provided both sides of heater, which forms a composite structure.
A small hand
Press frame is provided to ensure the perfect contact between the slabs. A
dimmer-stat is
Provided for varying the input to the heater and measurement of input is
carried out by a
Voltmeter, Ammeter.
Thermocouples are embedded between interfaces of the slabs, to read the
temperature at
the surface.

The experiments can be conducted at various values of input and calculation


can be made
accordingly.

SPECIFICATIONS:
1. Slab assembly arranged symmetrically on both sides of heater
2. Heater: Nichrome heater wound on mica former and insulation, with
control unit capacity 600 watt maximum.
3. Heater Control Unit : 0-230V. Ammeter - 0-2Amps.
4. Single phase dimmer-stat (1No.).
5. Voltmeter 0-100-300V.
6. Temperature Indicator (digital type): 0-200 C. (pt-100)
7. Service required A. C. single phase 230 V. proper earthed electric supply.
EXPERIMENTS TO BE CARRIED OUT:
a) To determine total thermal resistance and thermal conductivity of
composite wall.
b) To plot temperature gradient along composite wall structure.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero before start.
2. Increase the voltage slowly.
3. Keep all the assembly undisturbed.
4. Remove air gap between plates by moving hand press gently.
5. While removing the plates do not disturb the thermocouples.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
PROCEDURE :
Arrange the plates in proper fashion (symmetrical) on both sides of
the heater plates.
1. See that plates are symmetrically arranged on both sides of the heater
plates.

2. Operate the hand press properly to ensure perfect contact between the
plates.
3. Start the supply of heater by varying the dimmer stat; adjust the input at
the desired value.
4. Take readings of all the thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until
fairly steady temperatures are achieved and rate of rise is negligible.
5. Note down the reading in observation table.

ASSEMBLY:
1. COMPOSITE SLABS:
a. STEEL with electroplating = Thickness b. Bakelite = Thickness
c. Wood = Thickness 2. Slab diameter = 180 mm.
3. Thermocouples: PT -100.

IMORTANT:
Do not rotate press handle excess. Its purpose is to ensure perfect contact
between surfaces.

OBSERVATIONS:
READINGS
VOLTMETER V =
AMMETER A =
HEAT SUPPLIED

I SET

II SET

Q= V X I. SI unit.
Or 0.86*V*I (MKS
unit)
TEMP. Readings T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
67
T8

To get average temp. of each, calculate mean reading.


T A=

T 1 +T 2
2
T B=

TC =

T 5 +T 6
2

T 3 +T 4
2

III SET

T D=

T 7 +T 8
2

CALCULATIONS :
Read the Heat supplied Q = V x I Watts (In S. I. Units) For calculating the
thermal conductivity of composite walls, it is assumed that due to large
diameter of the plates, heat flowing through central portion is unidirectional
i. e. axial flow. Thus for calculation, central half diameter area, where
unidirectional flow is considered. Accordingly, thermocouples are fixed at
close to center of the plates.
Now Q = Heat flux = ---------- [W / m2]
HEAT FLUX =
Where

Q
2
W /m .
A

area= d 2 (half area)


4

1. Total thermal resistance of composite slab


R Total=

T A T D
Q

2. Thermal conductivity of composite slab. =

K Composite=

where B is total thickness of composite slab.


3. Plot thickness of slab material v/s temperature gradient.

QB
T A T D