COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
NAME:
SID:
ME091512
GROUP NO. :
4A1
LAB NO. :
06/08/2015
TABLE OF CONTENT
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Tittle
Summary/Abstract
Statement of Purpose
Theory
Equipment
Procedure
Data, Observation and Results
Analysis and Discussion
Conclusion
Page No.
Summary/Abstract
Statement of Purpose
Part 1: The Bending System

To show how to measure strains in an object that bends and compare the
results with theory.
To show how to connect and use shear and torque (torsional) strain gauges to
To show how to connect and use strain gauges to measure strains in two
dimensions.
To show how to connect the displayed tensile strains in two dimensions with
theory and prove Poissons Ratio.
Theory
The Wheatstone Bridge
The basis of most strain measurement is the Wheatstone Bridge. It has four identical
resistance (R1, R2, R3, and R4) connected end to end in a diamond shape. An input
voltage (Vi) connects across two opposite connections. The output voltage is
measured at the other two connections.
The output voltage (Vo) depends on the ratio of the resistors, so that
Vo=
R4
Vi
( R1+R 2R 2 R 3+R
4)
Figure 1
Figure 2
When a single strain gauge replaces one of the resistors, the output voltage
Vo is proportional to the strain in the gauge. When all resistors are equal, the
output potential difference is zero. As the stain gauge resistance increase
(tensile strain), the output potential difference becomes more positive. As the
strain gauge resistance decreases (compressive strain), the output potential
difference becomes more negative.
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
=4
Vo
GF Vi N
Where
= Strain
Vo = Voltage measured across the bridge (V)
GF = Gauge Factor
Vi = Fixed Input Voltage applied to the bridge (V)
N = number of active arms (gauges connected)
The output is then multiplied by 106 to give a result in (micro strain) (strain x 106)
Force F
=
Area A
Strain ()
This is the changes in length (distortion caused by stress) of a material over its
original length. It is found by the equation:
changelength l
=
original length
l
This is a ratio of the tensile stress divided by the tensile strain on a material.
E=
stress
=
strain
Figure 7
G=
Shear Stress F / A
=
=
Shear Stress x /h
Bending of Beams
I=
bd
12
Figure 8
Bending Moment
For a cantilever beam (supported at one end), the bending moment:
M =F (lx)
Figure 9
Stress
From the Engineers theory of bending, the theoretical stress at any point
along the beam is:
My
I
Strain
The theoretical strain is simply rearranged equation of Youngs
Modulus:
Torque
The twisting force (torque) at the end of the bar is the moment of force on
torque arm:
T = F x Torque Arm Length (m)
Figure 10
Shear Stress
The theoretical shear stress for the solid circular bar is:
TD
2J
Shear Strain
The theoretical shear strain for the solid circular bar is
r
=
G l
Direct Strain
When a force changes the length of an object, the direct strain () is:
changelength
original length
So, direct strain is a change in length, but shear strain is caused by a stress in
two dimensions (a change in shape).
Figure 11
The figure 11 shows a force that changes the shape of a rectangle. The force
causes strain in two dimensions to change the diagonal length of the
rectangle (all other dimensions remain the same). The shear strain is the
amount that the diagonal has hanged. For small angles, the approximation is
that = .
From Pythagorass theory, the original (unstrained) diagonal length 2 = 12 + 12
So the unstrained diagonal length = 2
The strained diagonal length2 = 12 + (1+) 2
So the strained diagonal length = [12 + (1+) 2]
This multiplies out to:
1+1+2 + 2
For the small strains in this type of application, is small (much less than 1),
so 2 can be ignored and the equation becomes:
2+ 2
1
Which is
2 ( 1+ ) 2
and approximately
2(1+ )
2
So, as direct strain = change in length/original length, then the direct strain in
the diagonal is:
2 1+ 1
2
2
)=
So, for this application of the solid, circular crosssection bar, direct strain is
half the shear strain. Or:
=
F
xz
Figure 12
The strain in the direction of the force is the stress divided by the Youngs Modulus
for the material:
=
Poissons Ratio ()
This is the ratio of the transverse strain in a material (at right angles to the
applied stress), against longitudinal strain (in the direction of the applied
stress). The French mathematician Simeon Poisson discovered it when he
noticed that a materials crosssection decreases as you stretch it.
The equation is:
=
x
y
Figure 13
For most metal, strain in the direction of stress is three times and opposite in
polarity to the strain measured at right angles to the applied stress. So
Poissons ratio for metals is usually 0.3.
When the metal is stretched (positive, tensile strain), the transverse strain is
negative (compressive). This also works in reverse, when the metal is
compressed.
Symbol Notation
Equipment
1) The Strain Gauge Trainer
Figure 14
Figure 15
Technical Details
Table 1
Table 2
Procedure
Part 1: The Bending System
1) Vernier instrument was used to accurately measure the dimensions of the
specimen beam. The measurements then recorded into the result table.
2) The bending system strain gauges connected to the strain display as full
bridge.
3) The knife edge hanger was carefully sledded onto the beam to the 420mm
position.
4) The equipment was leaved to stabilize for approximately one minute. The
zero button was pressed and hold until the display reading becomes 0
(zero).
5) The strain reading was recorded into the table.
6) The small weight hanger then hooked to the knifeedge hanger.
7) 4 x 10g weights was added to the weight hanger to make it to a weight of 50g.
The strain value then recorded into the table.
8) Using a step of 50g, more weight was added to the hanger until a weight of
500g reached. At each step the strain values recorded into the table.
Part 2: The Torsion System
a) To Use Shear and Torque Strain Gauges
1) Blue strain gauge connected to the strain display as a quarter bridge. The
strain Display was adjusted to show the correct gauge factor and the ACT =1.
2) The torque arm then screwed into the threaded hole at the end of the torsion
system.
3) The equipment was leaved to stabilize for 1 minute. Then the zero button
was pressed and hold until the display reading become 0 (zero).
4) A small weight hanger was added to the end of the torque arm.
5) 49 x 10g weights was added to the weight hanger to make it a total weight of
500g. The strain reading and its polarity (+ or ) was recorded into the table.
6) The weights then removed and the experiment was repeated using red,
yellow and green gauges.
b) Compare Strains
1) Procedures for Tensile Strains Only (Red and Yellow Gauges), but the blue
and green gauges used instead of red and yellow gauges.
Force
(g)
(N)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0
0.4905
0.981
1.04715
1.962
2.4525
2.943
3.4335
3.924
4.4145
4.905
Strain
Output
Readin
Voltage
g ()
(V)
0
10
24
38
51
65
78
92
105
119
132
0
28
63
101
135
171
206
243
277
314
349
Bendin
g
Calculated
Calculated
Error
Moment
Stress (N.m2)
Strain ()
(%)
(Nm)
0
0.2060
0.4120
0.6180
0.8240
1.0301
1.2361
1.4421
1.6481
1.8541
2.0601
0
2.04720 x 106
4.9441 x 106
704161 x 106
9.8882 x 106
12.3614 x 106
14.8334 x 106
17.3055 x 106
19.7775 x 106
22.2496 x 106
24.7260 x 106
0
11.9420
23 .8845
35.8266
47.7691
59.7169
71.6589
83.6014
95.5435
107.4860
119.4493
0
16.26
0.48
6.07
6.76
8.85
8.85
10.05
9.90
10.71
10.51
Table 3
Sample Calculation: (for 50g)
1) Second Moment of Area
I=
b d 3 20 mm(5 mm)
=
=208.33mm
12
12
2) Force
F=ma=( 0.05 ) ( 9.81 )=0.4905 N
3) Bending Moment
M =Fx=( 0.4905 ) ( 0.42 )=0.2060 N . m
4) Calculated Stress
My ( 0.2060 ) ( 0.0025 )
=
=2.4720 106 N . m2
10
I
(2.0833 10 )
5) Calculated Strain
2.4720 10 6
= =
=11.9420 106
9
E
207 10
6) % Error
TheoryExperiment
11.942010
=
100 =
100 =16.26
Theory
11.9420
25000000
f(x) = 188646012344.19x
20000000
15000000
10000000
5000000
0
0
Experimental Strain,
Graph 1
Strain Gauge
()
23
21
23
22
Blue
Red
Yellow
Green
Polarity (+/)
Type of Strain
Negative
Positive
Negative
Positive
Compressive
Tensile
Compressive
Tensile
Table 4
Load
Force
Torque
(kg)
(N)
(Nm)
0
0.25
0.5
0
2.4525
4.905
0
0.3679
0.7358
Output
Strain
Voltage
reading
(V)
0
122
242
()
0
47
94
Table 5
2) Force:
F=ma=0.5 9.81=4.905 N
3) Torque :
T =F armlength=4.905 0.15=0.7358 N . m
Calculated
Calculated
()
0
11.7695
23.5389
( 0.7358 ) ( 0.01 )
TD
=
=3.7474 106 N . m2
2 J 2(981.75 1012 )
3.7474 10
9
G
79.6 10
6
= = =
=23.5389 10
2 2
2
Calculated
Calculated
Tensile Stress
Tensile
% Error
(N.m2)
0 x 106
0.49 x 106
0.98 x 106
1.47 x 106
1.96 x 106
2.45 x 106
2.94 x 106
3.43 x 106
3.92 x 106
4.41 x 106
Strain ()
0
4.7
9.3
14.0
18.7
23.3
28.0
32.7
37.3
42.0
0
6.38
7.53
14.29
12.30
11.59
10.71
10.09
9.92
11.90
Table 6
Force (N)
0
9.81
19.62
29.42
39.23
49.03
58.84
68.65
78.45
88.26
Displayed Strain ()
0
1
3
4
6
8
9
10
12
14
Table 7
Full Bridge
Load (kg)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Force (N)
0
9.81
19.62
29.42
39.23
49.03
58.84
68.65
78.45
88.26
Table 8
Displayed Strain ()
0
5
10
15
21
26
31
36
42
47
12.30
20
25
30
4
6
Compressive Strain
8
10
12
14
16
Tensile Strain
Graph 2
Discussion
35
40
45
50
Displayed Strain
Theoretical Direct
()
0
47
94
Strain ()
0
11.7695
23.5389
0
0.25
0.5
% Error
0
499.34
499.34
Table 9
3) Errors and precautions from this experiment:
a) Errors
 The reading of the strain may be not accurate due to high sensitivity of the

N
This means when the number of gauges is maximum (full bridge) N=4, this
will give the exact value of strain reading.
Conclusion
Part 1: The Bending System
The experiment was conducted to measure strains in an object that bends
and to compare the results with theory values.
Based on the experiment it found that the experimental values is quite similar
to the theoretical values. Based on the graph plotted, it been found that the Youngs
Modulus of the beam is 200x109 N.m2 which is slightly different than the actual
Youngs Modulus of the beam which is 207x109 N.m2.
There is some errors in the experiment that can be eliminated by taking some
precaution measures into account. Overall the objective of this experiment was
achieved.
Part 2: The Torsion System
The experiment was conducted to show how to connect and use shear and
torque (torsional) strain gauges to measure strains in an object that twist and to
show how to compare displayed strains with theory for a torsion beam.
From the experiment it been able to identify which gauges reads the same
strain value and which gauges reads compressive or tensile strain. Blue and yellow
gauges measures compressive strain while red and green gauges reads tensile
strain.
It been also identify that how to compare the displayed strain value that
obtained from the experiment with the calculated direct strain value which is 4 times
less than the displayed strain value.
Thus, the objective of this experiment was achieved.
Vo
GF Vi N