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UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MESB333 ENGINEERING MEASURAMENT AND LAB


FORMAL REPORT
STRAIN MEASURAMENT

NAME:

NAVIN RAJ A/L K SAKARAN

SID:

ME091512

GROUP NO. :

4A1

LAB NO. :

DATE PERFORMED: 11/06/2015


DATE SUBMITTED:

06/08/2015

TABLE OF CONTENT

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Tittle
Summary/Abstract
Statement of Purpose
Theory
Equipment
Procedure
Data, Observation and Results
Analysis and Discussion
Conclusion

Page No.

Summary/Abstract

Statement of Purpose
Part 1: The Bending System
-

To show how to measure strains in an object that bends and compare the
results with theory.

Part 2: The Torsion System


-

To show how to connect and use shear and torque (torsional) strain gauges to

measure strains in an object that twists.


To show how to compare displayed strains with theory for a torsion beam.

Part 3: The Tension System


-

To show how to connect and use strain gauges to measure strains in two

dimensions.
To show how to connect the displayed tensile strains in two dimensions with
theory and prove Poissons Ratio.

Theory
The Wheatstone Bridge
The basis of most strain measurement is the Wheatstone Bridge. It has four identical
resistance (R1, R2, R3, and R4) connected end to end in a diamond shape. An input
voltage (Vi) connects across two opposite connections. The output voltage is
measured at the other two connections.
The output voltage (Vo) depends on the ratio of the resistors, so that
Vo=

R4
Vi
( R1+R 2R 2 R 3+R
4)

Figure 1

Figure 2

Type of Bridge Connections

1) The quarter bridge connection

When a single strain gauge replaces one of the resistors, the output voltage
Vo is proportional to the strain in the gauge. When all resistors are equal, the
output potential difference is zero. As the stain gauge resistance increase
(tensile strain), the output potential difference becomes more positive. As the
strain gauge resistance decreases (compressive strain), the output potential
difference becomes more negative.

Figure 3

2) Half Bridge 1 (Opposite Arms)


If the resistance of R1 and its opposite resistor (R4) both increase by the
same amount, the output voltage changes twice as much as if only one
resistor changes. This can obtain more output and therefore higher sensitivity
if two identical stain gauges used together. Each gauge is opposite to the
other, so both gauges must measure the same strain, so that they both
change resistance in the same way. So, two opposing gauges must measure
the same type of strain (tensile or compressive) at e same place on the test
structure.

Figure 4

3) Half Bridge 2 (Adjacent Arms)


The changes in the stain gauges resistance will cancel out each other, so they
must measure identical but opposite strains on the same part of the structure
under test. One gauge must measure compressive strain and the other must
measure tensile strain (or the opposite way around). This bridge will also give
twice as much output as Quarter Bridge. When both strains are equal in
magnitude, the output from the bridges is almost linear.

Figure 5

4) Full Bridge Connection


This bridge gives twice as much voltage output and sensitivity than the
standard half bridge (and four times the output of a quarter bridge). As in the
half bridge, each opposite gauge must measure the same part of the
structure. For example gauges 1 and 4 must measure tensile strain, while
gauges 2 and 3 must measure compressive strain, or the other way around.
When all strains are equal in magnitude, the output from the bridge is linear.

Figure 6

Strain Bridge Equation


To calculate the strain from the dc voltage across the bridge, the Strain Display uses
a standard equation:

=4

Vo
GF Vi N

Where
= Strain
Vo = Voltage measured across the bridge (V)
GF = Gauge Factor
Vi = Fixed Input Voltage applied to the bridge (V)
N = number of active arms (gauges connected)
The output is then multiplied by 106 to give a result in (micro strain) (strain x 10-6)

Mass, Weight and Force


Force (N) = Mass (kg) x Acceleration due to gravity (m.s-2)
Acceleration due gravity, g = 9.81 ms-2
Direct Stress, Strain and Youngs Modulus
Stress ()
This is the force applied to a material over a known area. It is found by the equation:

Force F
=
Area A

Strain ()
This is the changes in length (distortion caused by stress) of a material over its
original length. It is found by the equation:

changelength l
=
original length
l

Youngs Modulus (E)

This is a ratio of the tensile stress divided by the tensile strain on a material.

E=

stress
=
strain

Figure 7

Modulus of Rigidity or Shear Modulus (G)


The shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity is a measure of the rigidity of the material
when in shear when it is twisting. It is a ratio of the shear stress and the shear strain
of the material:

G=

Shear Stress F / A
=
=
Shear Stress x /h

Bending of Beams

Second Moment of Area and Stress

The second moment of area for a rectangular cross-section beam is:

I=

bd
12

Figure 8

Bending Moment
For a cantilever beam (supported at one end), the bending moment:
M =F (lx)

Figure 9
Stress
From the Engineers theory of bending, the theoretical stress at any point
along the beam is:

My
I

Strain
The theoretical strain is simply re-arranged equation of Youngs
Modulus:

Torsional Stress and Strain

Polar Moment of Inertia


Second moment of area for circular and solid cross-section beams.
D4
J=
32

The general equation for torque in a beam (bar) is


T G
=
J
l

Torque
The twisting force (torque) at the end of the bar is the moment of force on
torque arm:
T = F x Torque Arm Length (m)

Figure 10

Shear Stress
The theoretical shear stress for the solid circular bar is:

TD
2J

Shear Strain
The theoretical shear strain for the solid circular bar is

r
=
G l
Direct Strain
When a force changes the length of an object, the direct strain () is:

changelength
original length

So, direct strain is a change in length, but shear strain is caused by a stress in
two dimensions (a change in shape).

Figure 11

The figure 11 shows a force that changes the shape of a rectangle. The force
causes strain in two dimensions to change the diagonal length of the
rectangle (all other dimensions remain the same). The shear strain is the
amount that the diagonal has hanged. For small angles, the approximation is
that = .
From Pythagorass theory, the original (unstrained) diagonal length 2 = 12 + 12
So the unstrained diagonal length = 2
The strained diagonal length2 = 12 + (1+) 2
So the strained diagonal length = [12 + (1+) 2]
This multiplies out to:

1+1+2 + 2
For the small strains in this type of application, is small (much less than 1),
so 2 can be ignored and the equation becomes:

2+ 2
1

Which is

2 ( 1+ ) 2

and approximately

2(1+ )
2

So, as direct strain = change in length/original length, then the direct strain in
the diagonal is:


2 1+ 1

2
2

)=

So, for this application of the solid, circular cross-section bar, direct strain is
half the shear strain. Or:
=

Tensile Stress and Strain, and Poissons Ratio


When pulled or pushed by a force, the stress on different specimen is equal to the
force applied for each unit area.
For rectangular specimen:
=

F
xz

Figure 12
The strain in the direction of the force is the stress divided by the Youngs Modulus
for the material:
=

Poissons Ratio ()
This is the ratio of the transverse strain in a material (at right angles to the
applied stress), against longitudinal strain (in the direction of the applied
stress). The French mathematician- Simeon Poisson discovered it when he
noticed that a materials cross-section decreases as you stretch it.
The equation is:
=

x
y

Figure 13

For most metal, strain in the direction of stress is three times and opposite in
polarity to the strain measured at right angles to the applied stress. So
Poissons ratio for metals is usually 0.3.
When the metal is stretched (positive, tensile strain), the transverse strain is
negative (compressive). This also works in reverse, when the metal is
compressed.

Symbol Notation

Equipment
1) The Strain Gauge Trainer

Figure 14

Figure 15

Technical Details

Table 1

Beams and Optional Specimens

Table 2

Procedure
Part 1: The Bending System
1) Vernier instrument was used to accurately measure the dimensions of the
specimen beam. The measurements then recorded into the result table.
2) The bending system strain gauges connected to the strain display as full
bridge.
3) The knife edge hanger was carefully sledded onto the beam to the 420mm
position.
4) The equipment was leaved to stabilize for approximately one minute. The
zero button was pressed and hold until the display reading becomes 0
(zero).
5) The strain reading was recorded into the table.
6) The small weight hanger then hooked to the knife-edge hanger.
7) 4 x 10g weights was added to the weight hanger to make it to a weight of 50g.
The strain value then recorded into the table.
8) Using a step of 50g, more weight was added to the hanger until a weight of
500g reached. At each step the strain values recorded into the table.
Part 2: The Torsion System
a) To Use Shear and Torque Strain Gauges
1) Blue strain gauge connected to the strain display as a quarter bridge. The
strain Display was adjusted to show the correct gauge factor and the ACT =1.
2) The torque arm then screwed into the threaded hole at the end of the torsion
system.
3) The equipment was leaved to stabilize for 1 minute. Then the zero button
was pressed and hold until the display reading become 0 (zero).
4) A small weight hanger was added to the end of the torque arm.
5) 49 x 10g weights was added to the weight hanger to make it a total weight of
500g. The strain reading and its polarity (+ or -) was recorded into the table.
6) The weights then removed and the experiment was repeated using red,
yellow and green gauges.
b) Compare Strains

1) Vernier instrument was used to accurately measure the dimensions of the


specimen beam. The measurement data then recorded into the table.
2) The torsion system connected tensile twist as opposite using red and green
gauges and the blue and yellow gauges compressive twist as opposite to
complete a full bridge.
3) The equipment was leaved to be stabilize for 1 minute, then the zero button
was pressed and hold until the display become 0 (zero).
4) The strain reading was recorded into the table.
5) A small weight hanger was added to the end on the torque arm.
6) 24 x 10g weights was added to the weight hanger to make it 250g of total
weight. The strain reading then recorded into the table.
7) More weight then added until the weight reaches 500g. The strain reading
then recorded into the table.
8) The weights was removed and the moment arm then unscrewed.

Part 3: The Tension System


a) Tensile Strains Only (Red and Yellow Gauges)
1) The Vernier instrument was used to accurately measure the dimensions of the
specimen. Then the measurements was recorded into the table.
2) The red and yellow gauges was connected to the Tension system to the Strain
Display as half bridge (opposite). The ACT was set to 2.
3) The equipment then leaved to stabilize for 1 minute and the zero button was
pressed until the display reading becomes 0 (zero).
4) The strain readings recorded into the table.
5) A large weight hanger was fitted to the bottom of the Tension System
specimen. The large weight hanger weighs 500g. A weight of 0.5kg added to
the weight hanger to make it a total load of 1kg.
6) The strain value then recorded into the table.
7) More weights were added with a step of 1kg to the mass hanger until the total
mass reaches 9kg. Strain value at each step were recorded into the table.
b) Compressive Strains Only (Blue and Green Gauges)

1) Procedures for Tensile Strains Only (Red and Yellow Gauges), but the blue
and green gauges used instead of red and yellow gauges.

Data, Observation and Results


Part 1: The Bending System
Beam Dimension: 20mm x 5mm

Bridge Connection: Full

Youngs Modulus: 207 x 109 N.m-2

Load Position: 420mm

Second Moment of Area: 208.33 mm4


Load

Force

(g)

(N)

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500

0
0.4905
0.981
1.04715
1.962
2.4525
2.943
3.4335
3.924
4.4145
4.905

Strain

Output

Readin

Voltage

g ()

(V)

0
10
24
38
51
65
78
92
105
119
132

0
28
63
101
135
171
206
243
277
314
349

Bendin
g

Calculated

Calculated

Error

Moment

Stress (N.m2)

Strain ()

(%)

(Nm)
0
0.2060
0.4120
0.6180
0.8240
1.0301
1.2361
1.4421
1.6481
1.8541
2.0601

0
2.04720 x 106
4.9441 x 106
704161 x 106
9.8882 x 106
12.3614 x 106
14.8334 x 106
17.3055 x 106
19.7775 x 106
22.2496 x 106
24.7260 x 106

0
11.9420
23 .8845
35.8266
47.7691
59.7169
71.6589
83.6014
95.5435
107.4860
119.4493

0
16.26
0.48
6.07
6.76
8.85
8.85
10.05
9.90
10.71
10.51

Table 3
Sample Calculation: (for 50g)
1) Second Moment of Area
I=

b d 3 20 mm(5 mm)
=
=208.33mm
12
12

2) Force
F=ma=( 0.05 ) ( 9.81 )=0.4905 N
3) Bending Moment
M =Fx=( 0.4905 ) ( 0.42 )=0.2060 N . m

4) Calculated Stress

My ( 0.2060 ) ( 0.0025 )
=
=2.4720 106 N . m2
10
I
(2.0833 10 )

5) Calculated Strain
2.4720 10 6
= =
=11.9420 106
9
E
207 10

6) % Error
|TheoryExperiment|
11.942010
=
100 =
100 =16.26
Theory
11.9420

Theoretical Stress Vs Experimental Strain


30000000

25000000

f(x) = 188646012344.19x

20000000

Theoretical Stress (N/m^2)

15000000

10000000

5000000

0
0

Experimental Strain,

Graph 1

Part 2: The Torsion System


Gauge factor: 2.05
Strain Reading

Strain Gauge

()
-23
21
-23
22

Blue
Red
Yellow
Green

Polarity (+/-)

Type of Strain

Negative
Positive
Negative
Positive

Compressive
Tensile
Compressive
Tensile

Table 4

Shear Modulus for the Beam: 79.6 x 109 N.m-2

Gauge Factor: 2.05


Beam Diameter: 10mm
Beam Radius: 5mm

Bridge Connection: Full


Torque Arm Length: 0.15m
Polar Moment of Inertia: 981.75mm4

Load

Force

Torque

(kg)

(N)

(Nm)

0
0.25
0.5

0
2.4525
4.905

0
0.3679
0.7358

Output

Strain

Voltage

reading

(V)
0
-122
-242

()
0
-47
-94
Table 5

Sample Calculation: (Table 5, for load 0.5kg)


1) Polar Moment of Inertia:
4
D 4 ( 0.01 )
J=
=
=981.75 1012 m4
32
32

2) Force:
F=ma=0.5 9.81=4.905 N
3) Torque :
T =F armlength=4.905 0.15=0.7358 N . m

4) Calculated Shear Stress:

Calculated

Calculated

Shear Stress Direct Strain


(N.m-2)
0
1.8737x106
3.7474x106

()
0
11.7695
23.5389

( 0.7358 ) ( 0.01 )
TD
=
=3.7474 106 N . m2
2 J 2(981.75 1012 )

5) Calculated Direct Strain:


6

3.7474 10
9
G
79.6 10
6
= = =
=23.5389 10
2 2
2

Part 3: The Tension System


Red and Yellow Gauges
Gauge Factor: 2.15
Specimen dimension: 10mm x 2mm
Specimen cross-section: 20mm2
Youngs Modulus: 105x109 N.m-2
Displayed
Load
Force (N)
Tensile
(kg)
Strain ()
0
0
0
1
9.81
5
2
19.61
10
3
29.42
16
4
39.23
21
5
49.03
26
6
58.84
31
7
68.65
36
8
78.45
41
9
88.26
47

Calculated

Calculated

Tensile Stress

Tensile

% Error

(N.m-2)
0 x 106
0.49 x 106
0.98 x 106
1.47 x 106
1.96 x 106
2.45 x 106
2.94 x 106
3.43 x 106
3.92 x 106
4.41 x 106

Strain ()
0
4.7
9.3
14.0
18.7
23.3
28.0
32.7
37.3
42.0

0
6.38
7.53
14.29
12.30
11.59
10.71
10.09
9.92
11.90

Table 6

Blue and Green Gauges


Load (kg)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Force (N)
0
9.81
19.62
29.42
39.23
49.03
58.84
68.65
78.45
88.26

Displayed Strain ()
0
-1
-3
-4
-6
-8
-9
-10
-12
-14

Table 7

Full Bridge
Load (kg)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Force (N)
0
9.81
19.62
29.42
39.23
49.03
58.84
68.65
78.45
88.26
Table 8

Displayed Strain ()
0
-5
-10
-15
-21
-26
-31
-36
-42
-47

Sample Calculation: (For Load 4kg)


1) Specimen cross-section area:
A=w t=( 10 ) ( 2 )=20 m m 2
2) Force:
F=ma=( 4 ) ( 9.81 )=39.23 N
3) Calculated Tensile Stress:
F
39.23
6
2
= =
=1.96 10 N . m
A 20 106
4) Calculated Tensile Strain:
1.96 10 6
6
= =
=18.7 10
9
E 105 10
5) % Error

( 18.7 10621 106 )


TheoryExperiment
=
100 =
100
6
Theory
18.7 10

12.30

Compressive Strain Vs Tensile Strain


0
0 f(x)5= -10
15
0.29x
-2

20

25

30

-4
-6

Compressive Strain

-8
-10
-12
-14
-16

Tensile Strain

Graph 2

Discussion

35

40

45

50

Part 1: The Bending System


1) Based on the result we obtain, we get a similar experimental strain compared
to the theoretical strain calculated. The maximum percentage error is 16.26%.
2) Based on the graph that plotted, we obtain a youngs modulus of the beam
which is 200x109 N.m-2. This value is almost similar to the original Youngs
Modulus of the beam which is 207x109 N.m-2.
3) There is some errors that occurs during the experiment which makes the
theoretical value and the experimental value to be different. Those are:a) There is external air flow which causes the beam to not in stationary
position during the reading was taken.
b) The load not placed exactly at 420mm on the beam due to parallax error.
c) The small weight on the hanger may be not evenly distributed due to nonlinear arrangement of the weight.
4) Some precaution can be taken to prevent errors from occurring:a) Make sure there is no air flow around the experiment area so that the
reading will be accurate.
b) Try to avoid parallax error during placing the weight hanger at the 420mm
on the beam.

Part 2: The Torsion System


1) Strain readings for gauges are same value just have different polarity/ gauges
blue and yellow have the same strain reading with negative polarity, while red
and green have the same strain reading with positive polarity. Positive polarity
indicates tensile strain while negative strain indicates compressive strain.
2) Comparing the displayed and theoretical direct strain value shows us that the
displayed strain readings is 4 times more than the calculated theoretical
value.

The percentage difference calculated below:


Load (kg)

Displayed Strain

Theoretical Direct

()
0
-47
-94

Strain ()
0
11.7695
23.5389

0
0.25
0.5

% Error
0
499.34
499.34

Table 9
3) Errors and precautions from this experiment:
a) Errors
- The reading of the strain may be not accurate due to high sensitivity of the
-

sensor that records even a slight change.


The hook of the load is not stable during the reading was taken because of air

flow in the surrounding.


b) Precautions
Make sure the hook of the load does not swing during the reading is taken.
Balance the load properly so that the load is properly distributed along the
hook.

Part 3: The Tension System


1) The theoretical strain is different with the displayed reading that obtained from
the experiment. This difference is with a small margin only with the highest
percentage error of 14.29%.
2) Based on the graph that plotted, we can see that the compressive strain
decreases as the tensile strain increases. From the graph the obtained
gradient is -0.2906.
3) To get more accurate graph, use small intervals of load for each reading. For
example instead of adding 1kg of load, add less load such as 500g or less. By
doing his the graph will be more reliable and we can determine the property of
the test specimen more accurately.

4) The strain formula is


Vo
=4
GF Vi N
Where
= Strain
Vo = Voltage measured across the bridge (V)
GF = Gauge Factor
Vi = Fixed Input Voltage applied to the bridge (V)
N = number of active arms (gauges connected)
From the equation we can found that that when the number of gauge is
inversely proportional to the strain value.
1

N
This means when the number of gauges is maximum (full bridge) N=4, this
will give the exact value of strain reading.

Conclusion
Part 1: The Bending System
The experiment was conducted to measure strains in an object that bends
and to compare the results with theory values.
Based on the experiment it found that the experimental values is quite similar
to the theoretical values. Based on the graph plotted, it been found that the Youngs
Modulus of the beam is 200x109 N.m-2 which is slightly different than the actual
Youngs Modulus of the beam which is 207x109 N.m-2.
There is some errors in the experiment that can be eliminated by taking some
precaution measures into account. Overall the objective of this experiment was
achieved.
Part 2: The Torsion System
The experiment was conducted to show how to connect and use shear and
torque (torsional) strain gauges to measure strains in an object that twist and to
show how to compare displayed strains with theory for a torsion beam.
From the experiment it been able to identify which gauges reads the same
strain value and which gauges reads compressive or tensile strain. Blue and yellow
gauges measures compressive strain while red and green gauges reads tensile
strain.
It been also identify that how to compare the displayed strain value that
obtained from the experiment with the calculated direct strain value which is 4 times
less than the displayed strain value.
Thus, the objective of this experiment was achieved.

Part 3: The Tension System


The experiment was conducted to show how to connect and use strain
gauges to measure strains in two dimensional and to show how to compare the
displayed tensile strains in two dimensions with theory and prove Poissons ratio.
From the experiment in been found that the compressive strain value can be
obtained when the blue and green gauges are connected as half bridge and the
tensile strain can be obtained when the red and yellow gauges connected as half
bridge.
Plotting a graph of compressive strain vs tensile strain able to identify the
relationship between these two different strains. A Poissons ratio of 0.2906 was
obtained from the gradient of the graph plotted. This value is almost near to the
usual value of Poissons ratio in metals which is 0.30.
Its also been found that connecting the gauges in full bridge setup enables
more accurate result to be obtained based on the strain equation which is
=4

Vo
GF Vi N

Thus, the objective of this experiment was achieved.