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MEASUREMENT & EVALUATION

Dr. Arbab Khan Afridi


Dr. Arshad Ali
Dr. Muhammad Rauf

In Collaboration With

MASTER COACHING ACADEMY (MCA)


(IER) UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR
All rights reserved with the Author

Authors:

Dr. Arbab Khan Afridi


Dr. Arshad Ali
Dr. Muhammad Rauf

Book:

Measurement & Evaluation

1st Edition:

March, 2015

Composer:

M. Nawaz Khan Abbasi


0333-9352585

Printers:

Ijaz Printers, Peshawar

Quantity:

1000

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150/-

Available at MCA Academy and leading book shops


Master_ca2013@yahoo.com
Contact: 091-5843361
Cell: 0300-5930899

TABLE OF CONTENTS
UNIT-1:..................................................................1
INTRODUCTION......................................................1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

EVALUATION, ASSESSMENT, MEASUREMENT AND TEST:........1


THE PURPOSE OF TESTING..........................................30
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT:..........................35
TYPE OF EVALUATION PROCEDURE................................37
NORM- REFERENCED AND CRITERION REFERENCED TEST:...43
EDUCATIONAL:........................................................45

UNIT-2:................................................................50
JUDGING THE QUALITY OF THE TEST.........................50
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

VALIDITY, METHODS OF DETERMINING VALIDITY:............51


FACTORS AFFECTING VALIDITY....................................54
RELIABILITY, AND METHODS OF DETERMINING RELIABILITY:
56
FACTORS AFFECTING RELIABILITY:...............................61
PRACTICALITY:........................................................64

UNIT-3:................................................................66
APPRAISING CLASSROOM TESTS (ITEMS ANALYSIS)......66
3.1
THE VALUE OF ITEM.................................................66
3.2
THE PROCEDURE/ PURPOSE OF ITEM ANALYSIS:................72
3.2
MAKING THE MOST OF EXAMS: PROCEDURES FOR ITEM
ANALYSIS:.......................................................................73
3.3
ITEM DIFFICULTY:....................................................91
3.4
THE INDEX OF DISCRIMINATION...................................93
UNIT-4:................................................................98
INTERPRETING THE TEST SCORES............................98
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

THE PERCENTAGE CORRECT SCORE:..............................98


THE PERCENTILE RANKS:.........................................108
STANDARD SCORES:................................................113
PROFILE:..............................................................115
1

UNIT-5:..............................................................117
EVALUATING PRODUCT, PROCEDURES & PERFORMANCE
........................................................................117
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

EVOLUTION THEMES AND TERMS PAPERS:....................117


EVALUATING GROUP WORK & PERFORMANCE................127
EVALUATING DEMONSTRATION:..................................131
EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL MOVEMENTS AND MOTOR SKILLS:
138
EVALUATING ORAL PERFORMANCE:.............................144

UNIT-6:..............................................................148
PORTFOLIOS......................................................148
6.1
PURPOSE OF PORTFOLIOS:.........................................148
6.3
GUIDELINE AND STUDENTS ROLE IN SELECTION OF PORTFOLIO
ENTRIES AND SELF-EVALUATION:.........................................156
6.4
USING PORTFOLIOS IN INSTRUCTION AND COMMUNICATION:
160
6.5
POTENTIAL STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES OF PORTFOLIOS: 163
6.6
EVALUATION OF PORTFOLIO:......................................169
UNIT-7:..............................................................171
BASIC CONCEPTS OF INFERENTIAL STATISTS.............171
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7

CONCEPT & PURPOSE OF INFERENTIAL STATISTICS:.........171


SAMPLING ERROR:..................................................173
NULL HYPOTHESIS:.................................................175
TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE:..........................................177
LEVELS OF SIGNIFICANCE:........................................180
TYPE-I AND TYPE-II ERRORS: REMAINING:....................182
DEGREES OF FREEDOM:............................................186

UNIT-8:..............................................................191
SELECTED TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE........................191
8.1
8.2
8.3

T-TEST:...............................................................191
CHI-SQUARE (X2):..................................................194
REGRESSION:........................................................199

FOREWORD
Knowledge is the main distinctive characteristic of human, due
to which hece of Allahys seems, by the gra ing a dream in the olden
dawas selected as vice-regent of Allah Almigthy. Man is superior to other
living beings, because he has the capability and potentiality to understand
as well as reason the consequences. Knowledge is obtained through the
continuous process of education. This process is usually a life long
process.
This is also a fact that education is such an activity which is bilateral and participatory. It cannot be accomplished with out the two
partners-teacher and student. This activity requires a transmitter and
areceiver. If any one of them is missing the exercise would remain
incomplete.
To compare however, the two the- teacher appears superior to
his pupils as he is the organiser and director of the teaching learning
process. That is why since times immemoriable, search for significant
teachers has ever been in progress and the same is still going on. No dobt
the countable good teachers are there, but they are not countless. There is
a need of producing a countless number od genuine
educators/prospective educators to contribute in this regard.
This objective in view the people at the helm of the affairs are
trying their best to bring desirable changes in the education system,
teacher education curriculum and teacher training programmes. The best
teacher, being a dream in the old days, is about to become a reality, if the
curse outlines and syllabi are properly dispensed, it is hoped that the
required lot of teachers would be made available. The future
educators/teachers are needed to well equiped in all skills not confining
only to academic learning ignoring ITC, current affairs and contemporary
issues.
These objectives in view, improvements in the system are being
carried out to achiev the goals. The new curricula, on which is based, this
book of mine is the result of long deliberations and brain stormings

undertaken by the senior educators. This is now upto the implementers


and the students to benefit from the same in the best possible capacity.
The book is now in your hands and this is not claimed to be the
final word. There is always place for improvement. The author would be
highly obliged for any comments/recommendations, if conveyed to make
it further better and improved.
Dr. Arbab Khan Afridi
The Author

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
All praises and glory be to Allah Almighty Who bestowed upon
me His blessing to be able to produce my this book, named Teacher
Education in Pakistan. My humble gratitude and thanks are due for Him
with submission and heartiest admiration who guided me to the right
path. This all became possible only due to Allahs significance and
benevolence. The rays of the light of Omni-Present Allah always took me
out of the deep darkness of ignorance to the lightened path of knowledge,
spreading its reflection to the needy.
My thanks and gratitudes are due for my old student and now
my colleague Dr. ______ , who provided certain reference books and
substantive substances that were very much beneficial for the
compilation of my this book. In addition to that, I am extremely thankful
to my Composer Mr. Muhammad Nawaz Khan Abbasi, Peshawar who
provided step by step expertise views regarding printing and book
production process.
My thanks are also due for Dr. Muhammad Rauf, the ______of
the ______of IER University, Peshawar, who always took pains in
searching certain reference books for me. He always showed great
enthusiasm and pleasure in complying to any of my request regarding the
Bibliographies to make them available at the earliest.
Last but not the least, I am thankful to my family members who
cooperated with me and made all sort of requirements available to me
during the process of preparing the primary substance of this book. They
maitained a very calm and conducive environment to me during all this
period of compilation, otherwise this work would not have been possible
to have come to light.

Autho
r

UNIT-1:
INTRODUCTION
1.1

EVALUATION, ASSESSMENT, MEASUREMENT AND


TEST:

1.1.1

Evaluation:

Literally, the term evaluation means appraisal, Judgment or


assessment, calculation, estimation or rating of a thing.
According to the International Dictionary of Education (by G
Terry & JB Thomas) evaluation means value judgment on an
observation, performance test or any data whether directly measured or
inferred. Evaluation is the qualitative assessment of a thing. It answers
the question How good?
A. D. Jones defines evaluation as the process of finding the
value of something. He further says the process of evaluation is the
attempt to find the worth of any enterprise.
The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines the term
Evaluate as to find out or form an idea of the amount or values of
something. When we evaluate something, we mean to determine the
value or worth of that thing. Evaluation is, actually, the process through
which we collect information of something and then make a decision in
the light of that information.
So we can say that evaluation is concerned with making
judgments about things. When we act as evaluators, we attribute value
or worth to behavior, objects and processes. In the wider community,
for example, one may make evaluative comments about a play, clothes,
restaurant, a book or someones behavior. We may enjoy a play, admire
someones clothes, to speak about some restaurant and so on and so forth.
Invariably, these are rather simple, straight forward comments of value or
worth because this judgment is not based on appropriate and relevant
data.

According to William Wiersma and Stephen G. Jurs, The more


effective evaluation requires the judgment which is based on appropriate
and relevant data. For example, to say that a film is good or bad is
not the judgment based on appropriate and relevant data. It is, therefore,
not the exact evaluation of the film. It well-written script, tight direction
mood-enhancing music, suitable characters and so forth; because this
judgment is based on some appropriate and relevant data. These are the
characteristics upon which we can make a judgment about something.
Educational Evaluation:
The Concept of Evaluation in Education:
Educational Evaluation is a specific term which is used for the
judgment of the educational objectives. Educational Evaluation seeks to
determine how the student has achieved the stated objectives of the
learning situation.
Different educationists have defined Educational Evaluation in
different words some of which are discussed below:
1.

Educational Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting,


analyzing and interpreting information to determine the extent
to which pupils are achieving instructional objectives.
Norman E. Gronlund

2.

Educational Evaluation is the systematic process of collecting


and analyzing data in order to determine whether, and to what
degree, objectives have or being achieved.
L.R. Gay

3.

Educational Evaluation is the estimation of the growth and


progress of pupils towards objectives or values in the
curriculum.
Writestone

4.

Educational Evaluation is the defined as the process of


determining the extent to which educational objectives are
achieved by the student.
Remmers

Approaches to Evaluation
Evaluation in our schools is essentially concerned with two
major approaches to making judgments:
1.

Product Evaluation:

It is the evaluation of students performance in a specific


learning context. Such kind of evaluation seeks to determine how well
the student has achieved the stated objectives of the learning situation. In
this sense the students performance is seen as a product of the
educational experience. A school report is an example of Product
Evaluation.
2.

Process Evaluation:

It is that kind of evaluation that seeks to examine the


experiences and activities involved in we learning situation. It makes
judgment about the process by which students acquired learning. In more
simple words, it examines the process of learning experience before it
has concluded. For example, the evaluation of the nature of studentsteacher interaction, instructional methods, school curricula, a specific
programmes etc. are the best examples of Process Evaluation.
1.

Curriculum Evaluation

Curriculum Evaluation, as is clear from the name, is the


evaluation of a certain curriculum i.e. an instructional programme. It is
used to determine the outcome of a programme and to decide whether to
accept or reject a programme. This evaluation helps in the further
development of the curriculum materials for continuous improvement.
For a better learning, it is necessary to assess a new programme in order
to find out whether the desired outcomes are being achieved or not. The
use of evaluation techniques should enable the curriculum workers to

make steady progress in improving the curriculum. Curriculum


evaluation should not only be a means for judging educational
effectiveness, but also should lead to useful decisions that can serve as a
powerful force to improve the educational process. Careful evaluation
should demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses in the curriculum so
that necessary changes can be made in the instructional programme.
2.

Programme Evaluation

Programme Evaluation is used for judging the effectiveness of a


programme or a special project. This evaluation is used to make a
decision about programme installation and modification. It helps to
obtain evidence to support or oppose a programme. Outside education,
programme evaluation' is used as a means of determining the
effectiveness, efficiency and acceptability of any form of programme.
But within education, we can use the term in a similar way as in the case
of evaluating the effectiveness of a new writing, or reading programme in
primary schools. A curriculum evaluation may qualify as a programme
evaluation if the curriculum is focused on change or improvement.
Programme evaluation, however, does not involve appraisal of curricula
(e.g. evaluation of a computerized student record keeping system.)
3.

Personnel Evaluation

The evaluation of personnel is the assessment of the


performance of a working personnel in an organization. That is why it is
also called performance appraisal or staff evaluation. In education,
'personnel evaluation' is very much necessary for adopting appropriate
appraisal, plans and procedures to achieve the goal of education.
According to McNeil, J.D. "Evaluation of the performance of working
personnel can be an effective instrument for helping people in growing
and developing in their roles. It could be used as a mechanism of
continuing education and learning from one another. Through a wellorganized appraisal system every employee (r.3) can create learning
spaces for himself in the system in which he works. A good personnel
evaluation helps the employee to recognize his/ her own strengths and
weaknesses in order to enable him to improve his performance in a given

role. It also helps in identifying people for the purpose of motivating,


training and developing them for new roles or existing roles.
4.

Institutional-Evaluation:

Institutional Evaluation is the evaluation of the total programme


of a school, college, university or other educational institution. The
evaluation of an institution is used to collect information and data on all
aspects of the function of that institution. The basic aim of this evaluation
is to determine the degree to which instructional objectives are being met
and to identify areas of strength and weakness in the total programme.
An institutional evaluation involves more than the administration of tests
to students; it may require any combination of questionnaire, interviews,
and observations with data being collected from all persons in the
institution community, including administrators, teachers, and
counsellors. The major component of institutional evaluation is the
institution testing. The more comprehensive the testing program, the
more valuable are the resulting data. That is why, for achieving the most
valuable resulting data, institutional testing programme should include
measurement of achievement, aptitude, personality and interest. Tests
selected for an institutional evaluation must match the objectives of the
institution and be appropriate for the students to be tested.
Need or Importance of Evaluation
Evaluation plays pivotal role in teaching-learning process. It
helps in providing information about the success or failure of an
educational objective. It shows whether the student has achieved the
required objective or not, and to what degree has the goal been reached?
So evaluation provides relevant information to the decision-makers need
about input, output, operation of a programs, and placement of student in
programs. Levels of understanding can be assessed. and future
educational objectives set, based on student needs. Similarly, appropriate
activities can be planned by the teacher based on the knowledge of the
attributes of the student. Evaluation also makes it easy for the teacher to
form objective, select content, and plan for learning experiences. It also
provides a guideline about all aspects of the teaching- learning process.

Without evaluation we cannot be aware of the effectiveness or


ineffectiveness of an educational program or objective.
Evaluation is as necessary for student as for teacher or decisionmakers. Its importance for the student is great because the whole process
of education is for the benefit of the student. The student is the centre of
interest in the teaching learning process. For the student, evaluation
provides feedback regarding better strengths and weaknesses. It
encourages the student for better study and increases his motivation.
Improvement of the teacher's teaching and the student's learning through
judgment, using available information is the ultimate need of the
evaluation process.
In a nutshell, evaluation plays central role in the teaching
learning process. It serves as a guiding principle for the selection of
supervisory techniques and also as a means for improving schoolcommunity relation.
1.1.2
Assessment:
Concept of Assessment
Literally assessment means the act of judging or assessing a
person or situation or event. It is the classification of someone or
something with respect to its worth. Assessment is a general term that
includes the full range of procedures used to gain information about
student learning (observations, ratings of performances or projects,
paper-and-pencil tests) and the formation of value judgments concerning
learning progress. A test is a particular type of assessment that typically
consists of a set of questions administered during a fixed period of time
under reasonably comparable conditions for all students. (Linn and
Groundlund, 2000)/ Assessment may include both quantitative
descriptions (measurement) and qualitative descriptions (nonmeasurement) of students. In addition, assessment always includes value
judgments concerning
desirability of the results. Assessment may or
may not he base on measurements; when it is, it goes beyond simple
quantitative description.

The process of collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting


information to aid in decision making is called assessment. For many
people, the, words,, classrooms, assessment evoke images of pupils
taking paper-and-pencil, test, teachers scoring them, and grades being
assigned to the pupils based upon their performance. Assessment, as the
term is used here, includes the full range of information that teacher
gather in their classrooms; information that helps them understand their
pupils, monitor their instruction, and establish a viable classroom culture.
It also includes the variety of ways teachers gather, synthesize, and
interpret that information.' Assessment is a general term that includes all
the ways through which teachers gather information in their classrooms.
Need for Assessment in Education
As long as there is need for the educator to make some
instructional decisions, curricular decision, and selection decision.
Placement or classification decisions based on the present or anticipated
educational status of the child so long will there be need for assessment
in educational enterprise. To the modern educator, the ultimate goal of
assessment is to facilitate learning. This could be done in a number of
ways, in each way a separate type of decision is required. The assessment
decision also determines which of tests is to be used for assessment. Thus
there is a close relationship between the purpose of evaluation, evaluate
decisions and types of tests to be used for them. The purposes of
assessment are as follows:
Selection Decision
Whenever there will be choice, selection decision is to be made.
In our daily life we see that institutions and organization need persons for
their work, they get responses from several people but they cannot take
all of them. They have to make selection out of them. Assessment of
these persons is to be made on the bases of tests given to them. Tests will
provide information, which will help in selection decision. Some persons
will be acceptable while others will not be acceptable. Similarly the
universities have to make section decisions for admitting the students to
various courses. Courses in which hundreds of candidates are applicants,

Selection decision is to make on stronger footing. Naturally some tests


are given to the candidates to help in selection decision such as Aptitude
tests, Intelligence tests. Achievement tests or Prognostic tests are
generally given for the purpose of selection decision. There has been
ruling from the judiciary that the scores on these tests should have a good
relationship with the success in the job or the course for which the tests
has been given. If any selection tests does not fulfill this requirement it
needs to be improved or replaced by a better one I Although perfection of
such tests cannot be guaranteed but any institution or organization which
is interested in the best students or workers will continue to make efforts
in improving the tests being used for the purpose of selection.
Placement Decision
Since school education should be provide to all in a welfare
state the schools must make provision for all, they cannot reject the
candidates for admission as the universities or colleges can do. How
these candidates placed in different programmes of school education is to
be determined on the basis of their assessment. Such school
determinations are called placement .decision. These decisions are
required not only in the case of those who are with some disadvantage
but also with those who are gifted and talented. The schools have to find
one or the other programme for all school age children depending upon
their weakness or strength. Placement tests have to be different and more
useful from selection, tests because they improve the decision to
differentially assign students to teaching programmes. Achievement test
and interview are generally used for placement decision.
Classification Decisions
Assessment is also required to help in making decisions in
regard to assigning a person to one of several different categories, jobs or
programmes. These decisions are called classification decisions because
in one particular job or programme, there may be several levels or
categories. To which level or category a particular person of child be
assigned, depends upon the results of the test. Aptitude tests,
achievement tests, interest inventories value questionnaires attitude scale

and personality measures are used for classification decision. There is a


minor difference in classification placement and selection. Classification
refers to the cases, where categories are essentially unordered, placement
refers to the case where the categories represent level of teaching or
treatment and selection refers to the case where the persons can be
selected or rejected.
Diagnosis and Remedial Decisions
Assessment is required to locate the students who need special
remedial help. For example what instructional strategies the teacher
should use to help a particular students or a group of student so that the
opportunities are maximized to achieve the objective. Aptitude tests,
intelligence tests, diagnostic achievement tests, diagnostic personality
measures etc. may be used to achieve the purpose.
Feed Back
It is not sufficient to assessment student through a test and doing
nothing after that. A good teacher will use tests for the purpose of
providing feedback to students. Feedback may be effective or ineffective
depending upon the circumstances. Feedback will facilitate learning if it
confirms the learner's correct responses or identifies errors and corrects
them. Test results made available to parents may be used for making
feedback evaluation device. It is also to be remembered that feedback are
both for the student and teacher because it provide information to both
and help in knowing how will students have learnt and how well the
teacher has taught.
Motivation and guidance of learning: Assessment is also used to
motivate the students for more study and providing for learning.
However motivation device can be used positively as well as negatively.
Unfortunately most of the schoolteacher use examination or refusing to
grant annual promotion to next class can motivate the student but if they
are motivated with using such evaluation techniques which provide more
confidence to the students in the subject, they will be more effective and
lasting. Aptitude tests, achievement tests, attitude scales, personality

measures, interest inventories, surprise quizzes encourage student for


more study and understanding.
Assigning Makers to Students:
The instructional programme remains incomplete if it is not
followed by assessment. Although no teacher chooses teaching
profession because he is interested in evaluating the students but no
teacher confines his job to teaching only. He regularly evaluates his
students and assigns them makers. Actually most of the teachers are
giving most of their time to this purpose. If teachers do not evaluate their
students, do not assign those marks or grades, how can they check their
effectiveness of teaching and learning outcome of the students?
Role of Assessment in Education Process
The assessment of learning takes place in an instructional
context and. Consequently, that learning environment shapes the reasons
why we evaluate, influences the purpose for evaluating as well how we
evaluate the determines how we should use the outcomes of our
assessment. Assessment is an integral part of instruction; it is not a
separate entity that somehow is loosely attached to the teaching process.
The instruction process and the role of evaluation in it both must be
understood as background to the study of educational measurement. To
that end, the role of assessment in instruction will be described using a
model that explains how the teaching process works.
(A) There are many models that describe the variety of approaches to
teaching found in schools, but the Basic Teaching Model (BTM),
introduced by Glaser (1962) accounts for the fundamental components of
most other specific teaching models, such as the Socratic approach, the
individualized instruction approach, or the computer dominated
instructional approach (Joyce and well, 1980). Few teachers probably
follow the BTM steps explicitly to guide their instructional activities.
And though we do not specifically endorse the use of the BTM or any
other particular model, we do advocate instructional approaches, by

whatever name, the account for the fundamental functions represented in


the BTM as described next.
The main purposes of the BTM are to identify the major
activities of the teacher and to describe the relationship between activities
figure III is a diagram of the mode. Our primary interest is the Performer
Assessment component, but we cannot understand completely the role of
evaluation without understanding how Performance Assessment affects,
and is affected by, other teaching activities. Instructional Objectives, the
first component of the BTM, represents the teacher's starting point in
providing instruction. What should students learn? What skills and
knowledge should be the focus of instruction? What is curriculum and
how is it denned? The second component, Entering Behaviour, indicates
that the teacher must try to assess the students' level of achievement and
readiness to learn prior to beginning. Instruction. What do the students
know already and what are their cognitive skills like? How receptive to
learning are they? Which ones seems self-motivated? This component
indicates a need for evaluation information before instruction actually
begins.
Once the teacher has decided what will be taught and to whom
the teaching is to be directed, the "How?" must be determined. The
Instructional Procedures component deals with the material and methods
of instruction the teacher selects or develops to facilitate student learning.
Does the text need to be supplemented with illustration? Should small
group projects be developed? Is there computer software available to
serve as a refresher for prerequisites? At this point instruction could
begin, and often it does, but unless the teacher makes plans to evaluate
student's performance, the students and teacher will never be sure when
learning is complete. The performance Assessment component helps to
answer the question, "Did we accomplish what we set out to do? Tests,
quizzes, teacher observations, projects, and demonstration are evaluation
tools that help to answer this question. Thus evaluation should be a
significant aspect of the teaching process; teaching does not occur,
according to the model, unless evaluation of learner performance occurs.

Instructional Objectives
Instructional Objectives
Instructional Objectives
Instructional Objectives

Feedback Loop
The model shows a fifth component, the Feedback Loop that
can be used by the teacher as both a management and a diagnostic
procedure. If the results of evaluation indicate that sufficient learning has
occurred, the loop takes the teacher back to the Instructional Objectives
component, and each successive component, so that plans for beginning
the next instructional unit can be developed. (New objectives are needed,
entering behavior is different, and methods will need to be reconsidered,)
But when evaluation results are not so positive, the Feedback Loop is a
mechanism for identifying possible explanations. (Note the arrows that
return to each component.) Were the objectives too vaguely specified?
Did students lack essential prerequisite skills or knowledge? Was the film
or text relatively ineffective? Was there insufficient practice opportunity?
Such questions need to be asked and frequently are. However, questions
need to be asked about the effectiveness of the performance assessment
procedures also, perhaps more frequently than they are. Were the test
questions appropriate? Were enough observations made? Were directions
clear to students? The Feedback Loop returns to the Performance
Assessment component to indicate that we must review and assess the
quality of out evaluation procedures, after the fact to determine the
appropriateness of the procedures and the accuracy of the information.
Unless the tools of evaluation are developed with care, inadequate
learning may go undetected or complete learning may be misinterpreted
as deficient.
In sum, good teaching requires planning for and using good
evaluation tools, Furthermore, evaluation does not take place in vacuum.
The BTM shows that other components of the teaching process provide
cues about what to evaluate, when to evaluate, and how to evaluate. Our

purpose is to identify such cues and to take advantage of them in building


tests and other assessment devices that measures achievement as
precisely as possible.
(B) Assessment decision maker who is concerned about all aspects of the
educational endeavour. The key point to consider and keep in mind is that
evaluation involves appraisal of particular goals or purposes. Useful
information may be obtained for evaluation procedures by both formal
and informal mean and should include information collected during
instruction as well as in the end of the course date. According to Ahmanrt
and Giock (1985) School Administrators, guidance personnel, classroom
teacher, and individual students require information that will allow them
to make informed and appropriate decision regarding their respective
educational activities. Ideally, they should be aware of all the alternatives
open to them, the possible outcomes of each alternative, and the
advantages and disadvantages of the respective outcomes, Educational
and psychological measurement can help individuals with these matters.
(C)

Tyler, 1966: Airasian and Madaus. 1972: Gronlund 1976:

Thorndike and Hagen, 1977: rightly observe that the data


secured through testing procedures may have uses as give below:
First, measurement data may be employed in the placement of
students on one or another instructional programme. Usually pupils take
a pretest to measure whether they have mastered the skills that are
prerequisite to admittance to a particular course or instructional,
sequence. For instance, foreign language and mathematics programmes
are usually arranged in some hierarchical order so that achievement at
each level of learning depends on mastery of the preceding level.
The student is lead from the entering position in the hierarchy to
the terminating phase via intermediate steps, based upon the information
provided by a pretest a student can be placed:
(1)

At the most appropriate point in the instructional sequence.

(2)

In a programme with a particular instructional strategy on

(3)

With an appropriate teacher.

Second, measurement data can be used in formative evaluation.


Tests are administered to students to monitor their success and to provide
them with relevant feedback. The information is employed les to grace a
student than to make instructions responsive to the student's strengths
anorweaknesses as identified by the measurement device, Mastery
learning procedures emphasize the use of formative tests to provide
detailed information about each student's grasp of a unit's objectives.
Third, measurement data has a place in diagnostic evaluation.
Diagnostic testing takes over where formative testing /eaves off When a
student fails to respond to the feedback corrective activities associated
with formative testing a more detailed search for the source of the
learning difficulty is indicated. Remediation is only possible when
teacher understands the basis of a student's problem and then designs
instruction to address the need.
Forth, measurement data may be used for summation purposes.
Such testing is employed to certify or grade students at the completion of
a course or unit of instruction. Often the result is `final' and follows the
student throughout his or her academic career (as in the case or college
and university transcripts). It is this aspect of evaluation that some
educators final particularly objectionable.
Fifth, measurement data are used by employers educational
institutions in making the selection by decisions. Many jobs and slots in
education& programme are limited in number, and there are more
applicants than positions. In order to identify the most promising
candidates standardized tests may be administered to the applicants. The
information provided by the tests presumably increases the accuracy and
objectivity of administrator's decisions. College Board examinations are
used by many universities in admitting students to graduate and
professional schools likewise employ data from standardized testing
programme make their entrance decisions.

Sixth, school officials in making curricular decisions in order to


evaluate existing programme use measurement data and to decide among
instructional alternative. School administrators need to assess their
students' current levels of performance the strengths and weaknesses of
the evidence.
Seventh, measurement data finds a place in personal decisionmaking. Individuals confront a variety of choices at any number of points
in their lives. Should they attend college or pursue some other type of
post-high school training? What kind of Job seems most suited to their
needs? What sort of training programme should they enter? Measures of
interest, temperament, and ability can give individuals insights that can
prove helpful in the decision-making process.
Types of Assessment
Tests/ and other assessment procedures can be classified in
terms of their functional role in classroom instruction. One such
classification system follows the sequencer which assessment procedures
are likely to be used in the classroom. These categories classify the
assessment of student performance in the following manner:
1.

Placement assessment

To determine student performance at the beginning of


instruction.
2.

Formative assessment
To monitor learning progress during instruction-

3.

Diagnostic assessment
To diagnose learning difficulties during instruction.

4.

Summative assessment
To assess achievement at the end of instruction.

Although a single instrument may sometimes be useful for more


than one purpose (e.g., both form formative and summative assessment
purposes), each of these types of classroom assessment typically requires
instruments specifically designed for the intended use.

All these types of assessment are discussed below in detail.


Placement Assessment
This is also called Need Analysis Assessment. Placement
assessment is concerned with the student's entry performance and
typically focuses on questions such-as the following: (1) Does the student
possess the knowledge and skills needecF to begin the planned
instruction? For example, is a student's reading comprehension at a level
that allows him or her to do the expected independent reading for a unit
in history, or does the beginning algebra student have a sufficient
command of essential arithmetic concepts? (2) To what extent has the
students already developed the understanding and skills that are the goals
of the planned instruction? Sufficient levels of comprehension and
proficiencies might indicate-the desirability of skipping certain units or
of being placed in a more advanced course. (3) To what extent do the
student's interests, work habits, and personality characteristics indicate
that one mode of instruction might be better than another (e.g., group
instruction versus independent study)? Answers to questions like these
require the use of a variety of techniques: records of past achievement,
pretests on course objectives, self-report inventories, observational
techniques, and so on. The goal of placement assessment is to determine
for each student the position in the instructional sequence and the mode
of instruction that is most beneficial.
Formative Assessment
According to Gron Lund (1990):
Formative assessment of work is used while it is in process of
being carried out so that the assessment affects the development of the
works.
Formative Assessment is a part of the instructional process.
When incorporated into classroom practice, it provides the information
-needed to adjust teaching and learning while they are happening. In this
sense, formative assessment informs both teachers and students about
student understanding at a point when timely adjustments can be made.

These adjustments help to ensure students achieve, targeted standardsbased learning goals within a set time frame. Although formative
assessment strategies appear in a variety of formats, there are some
distinct ways to distinguish them from summative assessments.
Formative assessment is used to monitor learning progress
during instruction; its purpose is to provide continuous feedback to both
student and teaching concerning learning successes and failures.
Feedback to students provides reinforcement of successful learning and
identifies the specific learning errors and misconceptions that need
correction. Feedback to the teacher provides information for modifying
instruction and for prescribing group and individual work. Formative
assessment depends heavily on specially prepared tests and assessments
for each segment of instruction (e.g., unit, chapter. Tests and other types
of assessment tasks used for formative assessment are most frequently
teacher made, but customized tests for publishers of textbooks and other
instructional materials also can serve this function. Observational
techniques are, of course, also useful in monitoring student progress and
identifying learning errors. Because formative .assessment is directed
toward improving learning and instruction, the results typically are not
used for assigning course grades.
Diagnostic Assessment
According to Gron Lund (1990):
Diagnostic assessment is concerned with those educational' problems
which remains unsolved even after the corrective prescription of
formative assessment.
Diagnostic assessment is a highly specialized procedure. It is
concerned with the persistent or recurring learning difficulties that are
left unresolved by the standard corrective prescriptions of formative
assessment. If a student continues to experience failure in reading,
mathematics, or other subjects, despite the use of prescribed alternative
methods of instruction, then a more detailed diagnosis is indicated. To
use a medical analogy, formative assessment provides first-aid treatment

for simple learning problems and diagnostic assessment searches for the
underlying causes of problems that do not respond to first-aid treatment.
Thus, diagnostic assessment is much more comprehensive and detailed.
It involves the use of specially prepared diagnostic tests as well as
various, observational techniques. Serious learning disabilities also are
likely to require the services of educational, psychological, and medical
specialists, and given the appropriate diagnosis, the development of an
individualized education plan (IEP) for the student. The aim of diagnostic
assessment is to determine the causes of persistent learning problems and
to formulate a plan for remedial action.
Summative Assessment
The assessment that is carried out at the end of a piece of work is called
summative assessment.
Summative assessment typically comes at the end of a course
(or unit) of instruction. It is designed to determine the extent to which the
instructional goals have been achieved and is used primarily for
assigning course grades or free certifying student mastery of the intended
learning outcomes. The techniques used in summative assessment are
determined by the instructional goals, but they typically include teacher
made achievement tests, ratings on various types of performance (e.g.,
laboratory, oral report), and assessments of products (e.g., themes,
drawing, research reports). These various sources of information about
student achievement may be systematically collects into a portfolio of
work that may be used to summarize or showcase the student's
accomplishments and progress. Although the main purpose of summative
assessment is grading, or the certification of student achievement, it also
provides information for judging the appropriateness of the course
objectives and the effectiveness of the instruction.
1.1.3

Measurement

Meaning &Definition of Measurement


Literally the verb measure means to find or determine the 'size',
`quantity' or 'quality' of anything. According to Chambers Dictionary the

term 'measure' means `to find out the size or amount of something'.
"Measurement" in the International Dictionary of Education (by G Terry
Page & J.B. Thomas) means "the act of finding the dimension of any
object and the quantity found by such an act.
The 'Oxford Advance Learner's Dictionary defines
`measurement' as the 'standard or system used in stating the size, quantity
or degree of something.' It is the way of assessing something
quantitatively. It answers the question "How much?" In other words we
can say that measurement is the quantitative aspect of evaluation. With
the help of measurement we can easily describe students' achievement by
telling their scores. These definitions show that 'measurement' is the
quantitative assessment of something. Now let's see how the term is
defined specifically in education. L. R. Gay, (1985) defines measurement
as "a process of quantifying the degree to which someone or something
possesses a given trait, i.e. quality, characteristics or features."
Educational Measurement
(The concept of measurement in education)
In Education, the term 'measurement' is used in its specific
meanings. It is the quantitative assessment of the performance of a
student, teacher, curriculum or an educational program. We can say that
the quantitative score used for educational evaluation is called
measurement. The term is used for the data collected about student or
teacher performance by using a measuring instrument in a given learning
situation. It shows the exact quantity or degree of the performance, traits
or character of the person or thing to be measured. For example instead
of saying that Hamid is underweight for his age and height, we can say
that Hamid is 18 years old, 5' 8" tall, and weight only 85 pounds.
Similarly, instead of saying that Hamid is a more intelligent than Zahid,
we can say that Hamid has a measured. IQ of 125 and Zahid has a
measured IQ of 88. In each of the above cases, the numerical statement is
more precise, more objective and less open to interpretation than the
corresponding verbal statement.

Steps of measurement
There are two steps used for in the process of measurement. The
first step is to devise a set of operations to isolate the attribute and make
it apparent to us. Just a standard is used for judging the durability of a
thing, in the same way educators and psychologists use various methods
for testing the behaviour or performance of a student. For this purpose
they often use Stanford-Binet Tests or other tests that include operations
for eliciting behaviour that we lake to be indicative of intelligence.
The second step in measurement is to express the results of the
operations established in the first step in numerical or quantitative terms.
This involves an answer to the questions, how many or how much? Just
millimetre is used as a unit for indicating the thickness of a thing, in the
same way educators and psychologists use some numerical units for
gauging intelligence, emotional maturity and other attributes. Thus each
step in measurement rests on human- fashioned definitions. In the first
step, we define the attribute that interests us. In the second step, we
define the set of operations that will allow us to identify the attribute, and
express the result of our operations.
Difference between Evaluation and Measurement
Some people use 'evaluation' and 'measurement' in the same
meaning. Both the terms are used for the process of assessing the
performance of the student and collecting information about an
educational objective. Both tell how effective the school programme has
been and refer to the collection of information, appraisal of students, and
assessment of programme. Some recognize that measurement is one of
the essential components of evaluation. But there is difference between
the two terms. Roughly speaking, `measurement' is the quantitative
assessment whereas 'evaluation' is the quantitative as well as qualitative
assessment of the performance of a student or an educational objective.
Measurement is a limited process used for the assessment of limited and
specific educational objectives. On the other hand, evaluation is much
more comprehensive term used for all kinds of educational objectives.
Moreover, for measurement Evaluation is the continuous inspection of all

available information concerning the student, teacher, educational


programme and the teaching- learning process to ascertain the degree of
change in students and form valid judgements about the students and the
effectiveness of the programme. On the other hand 'measurement' is the
collection of data about the performance of a student, teacher or
curriculum etc.
However, both 'evaluation' and 'measurement' are closed closely
related. We cannot separate one from the other. Both are used for
assessing the effectiveness of a programme of the appraisal of student.
Measurement collects data directly from the objects of concern of the
students. Other information is collected from students by non-testing
procedures. Information provided by testing and non-testing is the best
thought of material to be used in the evaluation process.
The Importance of Measurement in Education
Measurement plays very important role in the teaching-learning
process. Without measurement we cannot assess the effectiveness of an
educational programme, the school or its personnel. For effective
teaching, it is necessary for the teacher to be aware of the strengths and
weaknesses of his teaching method. Similarly, for an effective learning, it
is necessary for the student to be aware of the possible outcomes of all
the alternatives. He should also be informed about the advantages and
disadvantages of the respective outcomes. All this is impossible without
measurement. Without measurement, how can a teacher be aware his
method of teaching or how a student can be informed about the outcomes
of the alternatives. Without measurement, evaluation is impossible and
without evaluation we cannot get knowledge of the effectiveness of an
educational programme. Measurement tells us about the characteristics of
students, their progress in studies and their achievements in various
subjects. It also tells how much or to what extent the instructional
objectives of the school and the individual classroom teacher being
achieved? Measurement serves as a guideline for students to develop
their educational and vocational plans for the future. With the help of
measurement, information is gathered about school programmes,

policies, and objectives. This information is conveyed to parents and


other members of the community. Similarly, measurement data are used
by employers and educational institutions in making the selection by
decision. With the help of standardized tests, the administrators collect
information about every applicant. The information provided by the tests
increases the accuracy and objectivity of administrators & decision
makers. In this way measurement data are employed by school officials
in making curricular decisions.
In short, measurement occupies the central place in the process
of teaching and learning. It is the only mean through which the
educational condition can be improved.
The Function of Measurement and Evaluation
Measurement' and 'evaluation' are interdependent ("N. We
cannot separate one from the other just as we cannot separate the two
sides of a coin. Evaluation is the qualitative aspect of anything, which is
based on the quantitative value (measurement) of that thing. Without
measurement we cannot make an exact evaluation of a thing.
In this respect evaluation and measurement perform the same
functions in the education.
Cron Back, in his book "Essentials of psychological testing" has
discussed the following functions of measurement and evaluation.
(1)

Effectiveness of Educational Programme

In education, the concerned people and personnel must be aware


of the effectiveness of an educational programme. This is possible only
by making an evaluation of that programme. By evaluation a teacher is
able to know as to what extent the method of teaching is effective. He is
also able to know as to what extent the equipment of laboratory is
effective. This will enable him to improve his method of teaching make
learning process effective.
(2)

Prediction

After evaluation it is possible to predict the performance of


students in future. By evaluation we know the aptitude and interest etc.
with the help of which we guide them to take admission in institution
which is according to his aptitude and interest. So, on the basis of
evaluation we can plan for the future.
(3)

Selection

Measurement and evaluation is used during the selection of


suitable persons for different jobs in Govt. as well as semi Govt.
departments.
(4)

Classification

Evaluation is helpful in the classification in all educational


institutions. At the end of every year, some tests are given to students to
check their ability and make classification on the basis of results obtained
from these tests.
Another educational psychologist, Camp, adds that evaluation
plays important function in making maladjusted students, students as
useful members of the society by finding their interests and attitudes.
Students suffering from inferiority complex can also be treated after their
proper evaluation.
In short, evaluation and measurement have important functions
in education. They serve as guidelines for students, teachers, ' counsellors
and administrators.
1.1.4

Test

Measurement and evaluation are the two processes that are used
to collect information about the strengths and weaknesses of an
educational programme or the performance of a student, teacher or other
personnel. But these processes need some instruments for their
operations. Such instruments are called tests. So, the instruments that are
used to measure the sample of students' behaviour under specific
conditions are called tests. In other words we can say that:

"A test is a systematic procedure for measuring a sample of students'


behaviour under specific conditions."
Some other definitions of test are given below:
1.

A procedure for critical evaluation; a means of determining the


presence, quality, or truth of something.

2.

A series of questions, problems, or physical responses designed


to determine knowledge, intelligence, or ability.

3.

The means by which the presence, quality, or genuineness of


anything is determined: (e.g. a test of a new product.)

4.

The trial of the quality of something: (e.g. to put to the test.)

5.

A particular process or method for trying or assessing.

6.
A set of problems, questions, etc., for evaluating abilities or
performance.
A test consists of a number of questions to be answered, a series
of problems to be solved, or a set of tasks to be performed by the
examinees. The questions might ask the examinees to define a word, to
do arithmetic computations, or to give some information. The questions,
problems and tasks are called test items.
Difference between Test, Measurement and Evaluation:
William Wiersma and Stephen G. Jurs (1990) in their book
"Educational Measurement and Testing" remarks that the terms of
Testing, measurement, assessment and evaluation are used with similar
meanings but they are not synonymous though they are related with each
other. They define these terms as follows:Test: "(It) has a narrower meaning than either measurement or
assessment. Test commonly refers to a set of items or questions under
specific conditions. When a test is given, measurement takes place;
however, all measurement is not necessarily testing".
Measurement: "For all practical purposes assessment and measurement
can be considered synonymous. When assessment is taking place,

information or data are being collected and measurement is being


conducted".
Evaluation: "Evaluation is a process that includes measurement and
possibly testing but it also contains the notion of a value judgment. If a
teacher administer a test to a class and computes the percentages of
correct responses, measurement and testing have taken place. The scores
must be interpreted which may mean converting them to values like As
Bs Cs and so on or judging them to be excellent, good, fair or poor. This
process is evaluation because the value judgments are being made".
Another distinction is given by Normane E. Gronlund (1985)
who defines these terms as follows in the book "Measurement and
Evaluation in Teaching".
Test: "An instrument or systematic procedure for measuring a sample of
behaviour. (Answers the question "How well does the individual
perform-either in comparison with others or in comparison with a domain
of performance tasks"?
Measurement: "The process of obtaining numerical description of the
degree to which an individual possesses a particular characteristic.
(Answers the question "How much?").
Evaluation: "The systematic process of collecting, (Classroom)
analyzing and interpreting information to determine the extent to which
pupils are achieving instructional objectives. (Answers the question
"How good").
Similarly Anthony J. Nitko (1983) in his book "Educational
Tests and Measurement" makes the distinction between Test,
Measurement and Evaluation in the following words:
Tests: "Tests are systematic procedures for observing persons and
describing them with either a numerical scale or a category system. Thus
tests may give either qualitative or quantitative information".
Measurement: "Measurement is a procedure for assigning numbers to
specified attributes or characteristics of persons in a manner that

maintains the real world relationships among persons with regard to what
is being measured".
Evaluation: "Evaluation involves judging the value or worth of a pupil
of an instructional method or of an educational program. Such
judgements may or may not be based on information obtained from
tests".
Robert L. Ebel and David A. Frisible (1986) in their book
"Essentials of Educational Measurement" rightly observe.
"All tests are a subset of the quantitative tools or techniques that
are classified as measurements. And all measurement techniques are a
subset of the quantitative and qualitative techniques used in evaluation."
Table showing relationship Between Testing, Measurement and
Evaluation:
Test

Measurement

An instrument or systematic
procedure for measuring a
sample of behavior

The process of obtaining a


numerical description of the
degree to which an individual
possesses
a
particular
characteristic

A systemati
collecting and
order to make

Answers the question How


well does the individual
perform-as compared to others.

Answers
much?

How

It answers the

It is means
information

collecting

It gives Numerical Value to some


trait.

Involves
quantitative
decision-maki

Its objective is to find out the


facts pertaining to some aspect.

Its objective is to present the


information objectively.

Its objective
decisions abo
of educational

Test is only a instrument to


obtain data

Measurement quantifies data and


is essential part of evaluation

Depends up
measurement

Types of Tests

of

the

question

Eva

TESTS
Ability Tests

Achievement Test

Aptitude Test

Essay Tests

Objective Tests

Attitude Tests

Character Tests

Personality Tests

Intelligent Test

Interest Tests Adjustment Tests

As it is shown in the diagram above, tests can be classified into


two broad categories according to the behaviour tested: ability tests and
personality tests. These two types are discussed in detail and are further
classified into sub-types in the following lines.
(A) Ability Tests
These tests are used to test the ability of a student. These tests
measure the maximum performance of a student that a student can do.
Ability tests are further classified into three types; (1) achievement tests,
(2) aptitude tests, (3) intelligence tests. These are discussed in the lines
below.
(1)
Achievement tests: These tests are used to appraise the
outcomes of classroom instruction. They measure the attained ability of a
student i.e. what a student has learnt to do. Achievement tests are further
classified into two types of tests i.e. 'Essay type tests' and 'objective type
tests'. (These two types of tests will be discussed in detail in the next
question).
(2)
Aptitude tests: Aptitude Tests are those tests that are used to
measure the potential ability of a student i.e. what a student can learn to
do. They measure the capacity of a student to learn a given content.

According to Hull, C. L. "An aptitude test is a psychological test


designed to predict an individual's potentialities for success or failure in a
particular occupation, subject for study, etc. this shows that an aptitude
test is a test designed to discover what potentiality a given person has for
learning some particular vocation or acquiring some particular skill.
Achievement tests and aptitude tests seem to be the same. But the
distinction between the two is that they are different in use. If a test is
used to measure the present attainment, it is called achievement test. And
if a test is used to predict the future level of performance, it is called an
aptitude test.
(3)
Intelligence Tests: Intelligence Tests are those tests that are
used to measure the native capacity or the overall mental ability of a
student. These are also called scholastic aptitude tests or tests of mental
ability. There are many kinds of intelligent tests but the most popular one
is the concept of (IQ) introduce by Termen. IQ is computed by dividing
the mental age (MA) of a student by his physical age or chronological
age (PA or CA) i.e. the actual age of the student. Then the result is
multiplied by 100.
I.Q =

MA
CA

100

Where:
I.Q. = Intelligence Quotient
M.A. = Mental Age
C.A. = Chronological Age (Physical Age)
(B)

Personality Tests

Tests used for the assessment of personality of a student are


called personality tests. They measure the typical performance of a
student i.e. what a student will do. They are universally administered
almost all over the world in various fields, vocations, institutions, and for
the selection of recruits. In Pakistan, too, personality tests are used for

job selection and for the selection of army recruits like ISSB
examinations. Personality tests include attitude tests, interest tests,
adjustment and temperament tests, character tests, and tests of other
motivational and interpersonal characteristics.
Uses of Tests
Tests play important role in teaching- learning process. Without
tests we cannot make evaluation or assessment of a student's or neither
teacher's performance nor we can collect information about the
effectiveness of an educational programme. That is why tests are very
important in education. They motivate students for learning. They serve a
number of purposes in a variety of educational activities. The following
are the different uses of tests;
1.

Uses of tests in teaching process

With the help of the result obtained from tests, teachers can
easily collect information about aptitude, intelligence, interests, attitude
and the overall performance of the students. He comes to know the
strengths and weaknesses of his teaching method. It becomes easy for the
teacher to grade students in a subject. Teats' results enable him to know
how the future success of a student in a subject can be predicted.
2.

Uses of tests in learning process

The student is the centre of intere ;t in teaching learning


process. All kinds of educational activiti .;s are performed for th sack of
student. That is why the use and importance of tests in th process of
learning is greater than in any other activity. Tests hel ,students in
knowing their strengths and weaknesses in a subject. The resul,S
obtained from these tests serve as guideline for students. They motivate
students to study.
3.

Uses of Tests in Guidance

Tests show the overall performance of the students. Therefore;


they enable the examiner to know how to guide students educational and
vocational choice. Tests also make parents aware o the aptitude of their

children and can make a plan for their proper guidance. The result of the
tests in itself serves as a guideline for the students.
4.

Uses of Tests in Administration

The results obtained from the tests provide the administrators of


the deportment with useful information In the light of these tests, they
can easily decide how to promote students, how to admit them an&how
to modify (trie.7) school objectives, instructional methods and curricula.
They can then easily decide how to make the teachinglearning processes
effective.
5.

Uses of Tests in Research

The data collected from tests are uses as powerful tools in


research and experimentation in classroom. The research workers use
these data in their genetic or ease study research.
In short, tests are used in almost all educational activities. They
are the real tools with the help of which information about teachers,
students, curricula and etc. are gathered. And in the light of this
information, teaching and learning process is improved.
1.2

THE PURPOSE OF TESTING

Introduction:
The purpose of test is usually included the test is announced or
at the beginning of the semester when the evaluation procedures are
described as a part of the general orientation to the course. Should there
be any doubt whether the purpose of the test is clear to all pupils,
however it culd be explained again at at the time of testing. This is
usually done orally. The only time, a statement of the purpose of the test
needs to be included in the written direction is, when the test is to be
administered to several sections taught by different teachers, then a
written statement of purpose ensures, greater uniformity. There are
various types of test being applied in the educational institutions, because
no a childs ability interests and personality. One test measures only a
specific ability that is why school administers use many different types of

tests even in one single area such as intelligence, move than one test are
needed over a period of years to obtain a reliable estimate of ability each
test serves its own purpose, however, testing and evaluation serve
following purposes.
Types of Testing:
There are four types of testing.
Placement Testing:

Most placement tests constructed by classroom teachers are


pretests designed to measure.
1.
2.

Whether pupils possess the prerequisite skills needed to succeed


in a unit or course or.
To what extent pupils have already achieved the objectives of
the planned instruction.
In the first instance we are concerned with the pupils readiness
to begin the instruction. In the second we are concerned with the
appropriateness of our planned instruction for the group and
with proper placement of each pupil in the instructional
sequence.

Formative Testing:

Formative tests are given periodically during instruction on


monitor pupils learning progress and to provide ongoing feedback to
pupils and teacher, formative testing reinforces successful learning and
reveals learning weaknesses in need of correction. A formative test
typically covers some predefined segment passes a rather limited simple
of learning tasks. The test items may be easy or difficult, depending on
the learning tasks in the segment of instruction being tested, formative
tests are typically criterion referenced mastery test, but norm-referenced
survey tests can also survey this function, ideally, the test will be
constructed in such a way that corrective prescription can be given for
missed test items or sets of lest items. Because the main purpose of the
test is to improve learning the result are seldom used for assigning
grades.

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnosis of persistent learning difficulties involves much more


then diagnostic testing, but such tests are useful in the total process. The
diagnostic test takes up where the formative test leaves off if pupils do
not respond to the feedback corrective prescriptions of formative testing.
A more detailed search for the source of testing we will need to include a
number of a test items in each specific area, with some slight variation
from item to items in diagnosing pupils, difficulties in adding whole
numbers, for example we would want to include addition problems
containing. Various numbers combination with some not requiring
carrying and some requiring carrying, to pinpoint the specific types of
error each pupil is making. Because our focus is on the pupils learning
difficulties, diagnostic test must be constructed in accordance with the
most common sources of error that pupils encounter. Such tests are
typically confined to a limited area of instruction, and the test items tend
to have a relatively low level of difficulty.

Summative Testing:

The summative test ig given at the end of a course or unit of


instruction, and the results are used primarily for assigning grades or
certifying pupil mastery of the instructional objectives. The result can
also be used for evaluating the effectiveness of the instruction. The end
of the course test (final examination) is typically a norm-referenced
survey test that is broad in coverage and includes test items with a wide
range of difficulty. The more restricted end of unit, summative test might
be norm referenced or criterion referenced depending on whether
mastery or developmental outcomes are the focus of instruction.
Purpose of Testing:
1.

To Certify Pupils Achievements / Grading:

Tests are given to the students to ascertain their achievements


tests provide the teacher with students actual achievements instead of an
intuitive generalization based on simple observation. These tests given
the teacher an objective and comprehensive picture of each pupils

progress. This is important because all concerned persons (students


themselves, students parents, teachers, counselors, administrators,
employers, admission officers, and even community) need to know
students performed in school and in particular courses.

To report Students Progress to Parents:

Testing gives the teacher in objective and comprehensive picture


of each pupils progress, so that it could be presented to the present.
These reports from the foundation for most effective cooperation
between parents and teachers, which results improved learning.

To Report to Administrators:

The results of tests indicate the extent to which the schools


objectives are being achieved from the results of evaluation the
administrators become able to identify the weak points and strengths in
the teaching programs of their schools and take necessary action for their
improvement.

To Assess Learners Needs:

To test the pupils knowledge and skills at the beginning of


instruction enables the teacher to answer the questions like: Do the pupils
possess the abilities and skills needed to proceed with the instruction?
What, and to what level have the pupils already mastered the intended
outcomes? This information helps the teacher in planning his
instructional activities.

To Provide Relevant Instruction:

Testing provide a type of continuous feedback, about the


usefulness of the instructional process it helps the teacher in changing
and adapting the instructional activities continuously according to the
students needs.

To Furnish Instruction:

Testing factions as an instructional device it not only increases


the self-knowledge of the students, but also the attainment of specific

objectives. This practice of giving tests is common in our institutions


through these the students become aware of their speed of progress,
errors, and present status on the basis of which they plan their further
efforts.

To Provide Guidance and Counseling:

The results of tests are especially useful for guidance and


counseling of the students. These are useful in assisting the students with
educational and vocational decisions, guiding them in the selection of
curricular and co-curricular activities, and helping them solve personal
and social adjustment problems.

To Know the level of Achievement of Objectives:

The first step in the instructional process is to determine the


extent to which the pupils achieved the instructional objectives. Testing
and evaluation help in this regard tests are useful in determining the
learning outcomes of classroom instruction. The teacher can evaluate the
success or failure of classroom learning in relation to the test results. The
teacher then accordingly adjusts the level and direction of classroom
instruction.

To Analyze the Instruction Objectives:

The information from carefully developed tests and evaluation


is used to assess the appropriateness and attainability of the instructional
objective. The instructional objectives are modified in the light of the
evaluation information.

To Discover Maladjusted Children:

In every school there are some students who present severe


problems of educational or social adjustment. These include the
withdrawn, the unhappy, the mentally retarded, and others who are not
adjusting to the pattern of the school. The standardized tests help the
teachers and counselors to understand and help such students.

To Appraise Educational instrumentalities:

Testing and evaluation is useful, in appraisal for educational


instrumentalities such as teachers, teaching methods, teaching materials
and text books.

To Conduct Research:

Test and evaluation data is important in research programs. The


information obtained from evaluation is used to compare the
effectiveness of different curricula, different teaching methods and
different organizational plans techniques of evaluation, and to find out
the ways to improve to teaching learning process.

To Change the Curricula:

One purpose of the tests and evaluation is to find out the weak
points in the curriculum so that it could be changed in accordance will
the need, of the society.

To measure Behavior in Controlled Situation:

Another purpose of tests is to measure the behavior of the


subject or student under controlled conditions.
1.3

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT:

Assessment is an integrated process for determining the nature


and extent of student learning and development. In order to make this
process effective, the following principles are taken into consideration.
1)

2)

Clearly specify what is to be assessed the priority in the


assessment process. The effectiveness of assessment depends as
much on a careful description of what to assess as it does on the
technical qualities of the assessment procedure used. When
assessing student learning, this means clearly specifying the
intended learning goals before selecting the assessment
procedures to use.
An assessment procedure should be selected because of its
relevance to the characteristics or performance to be measured.
Assessment procedures are frequently selected on the basis of
their objectivity, accuracy or convenience.

3)

4)

5)

Comprehensive assessment requires a variety of procedures. No


single type of instrument or procedure can assess the vast array
of learning and development outcomes emphasized in a school
program. Multiple choice and short answer tests of achievement
are useful for measuring knowledge, understanding, and
application outcomes, but essay tests and other written projects
are needed to assess the ability to organize and express ideas. A
complete picture of student achievement and development
requires the use of many different assessment procedures.
Proper use of assessment procedure requires an awareness of
their limitations. Assessment procedures range from very highly
developed measuring instruments to rather crude assessment
devices. Even the best educational and psychological measuring
instrument yield results that are subject to various types of
measurement error.
Not best or assessment asks all the questions or poses all the
problems that might appropriately be presented in a
comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, skills and
understanding relevant to the content standards or objectives of
a course or instructional sequence. Instead only a sample of the
relevant problems of questions is presented.
Even in a relatively narrow part of a content domain, such as
understanding photosynthesis or the addition and subtraction of
fractions, there are a host of problems that might be presented,
but any given test or assessment samples but a small fraction of
those problems. Limitations of assessment procedures do not
negate the value of tests and other types of assessments. A keen
awareness of the limitations of assessment instruments makes it
possible to use them more effectively. Cruder the instrument, the
greater its limitations and consequently, the more caution
required in its use.
Assessment is a means to an end, not an end in itself. The use of
assessment procedures implies that some useful purpose is being
served and that the user is clearly aware of this purpose. To
blindly gather data about students and then file the information

away is a waste of both time and effort. Assessment is best


viewed as a process of obtaining information on which to base
educational decisions.
1.4

TYPE OF EVALUATION PROCEDURE

The evaluation process can basically be carried out at two main


levels; programme and student. Student evaluation can be further be
subdivided into formative and summative evaluation.
Evaluation Procedure
Student
Evaluation
Programme
Evaluation

Formative Evaluation

Summative Evaluation Diagnostic Evaluation

Proagramme Evaluation: program evaluation is systematic method for


collecting, analyzing, and using information to answer questions about
projects, policies and programs, particularly about their effectiveness and
efficiency.
When our concern is judging the compatibility between the aims and the
learning out comes of a programme, the emphasis is on the efficacy of
that programme. On the other hand a good programme may be badly
implemented. The task of quality and control is to maintain and
maximize the efficiency of a programme.
The quality content of a programme is to determined, among other
factors, by
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Its conceptual quality.


Logical relevance to the need of the student.
Simplicity and comprehensibility in terms of readability and
literacy level of the content.
Relative stability and survival value in the literature.
Applicability to familiar and novel situation.

To matter how good a programme may be; the maintenance


system must be well facilitated. The school administrators head of
subjects unit, supervisors. The teacher and the pupils must be activity
involved if successful implementation of the programme is to be realized,
the teacher being the main executor of the programme must be will
trained not just to be able to teach facts but so select facts that relate to
other facts and principles. The teacher education programmes in the
advanced teacher colleges and the universities must prepare teachers to
be able to teach their subjects effectively.
In order to be implemented a programme should be designed in
such a way that under favourable conditions certain intended learning
outcomes will emerge. The school teacher, the headmaster and supervisor
must gather information from time to time in order determine the success
or seakness of the programme. If desirable outcomes are observed, the
focus of all concerned with instruction should be to improve the
programme through an effective maintenance system. If the product
(students) produced are of poor quality, corrective measures are selected
and applied in order to achieve the desired results. If after all these
efforts, the products are still found to be poor the programme is usually
abandoned.
Several process are involved in the input out put process. The
teacher is the most important component of the maintenance process of
the programme.t he interacts with the students with the staff, experts and
administrators and forms a bridge between hem and learning materials.
Often he acts as the input analyzer and an identifier as well as the
teaching agent of the programme.t he external sensor examines the
learning environment to identify changes perhaps economic, political and
psychological or social within the environment that can destabilize the
system.
The input analyzer processes all the information supplied by the
external sensor and transmits it to the school administrator for
appropriate action. He analyze and organize information obtained form
the input variable into a comprehensible structure to be used in planning

activities. The identifier (usually the teacher or his head of department)


examines the out put and the internal working conditions of the
maintance system. It is he who provide the decision rules (head master)
with a realibel picture of the internal condition of the system. The input
output information provided by the analyzer and the identifier becomes
the input of decision rule and it is utilized by the headmaster to produce a
decision policy or instruction to the teacher.
Any given programme introduced into school setting is not left
in its naked form but assumes a different from for that setting. It contents
are emphasized as teacher, administrators and students.
Programme education can be carried out through the use of
surveys, interview, experimental students and so on.
Student Evaluation:
As pointed out earlier, testing forms an integral part of student
evaluation. The purpose of this type of evaluation is to determine how
well a students is performing in a programme. Through a series of oral
questions, paper-pencil tests, manipulative still tests. Tutorials
discussions, tutorials, individualized instruction, assignments, projects
and so on the student is gradually guided towards a desired goal.
Basically there are two types of student evaluation.
i.
i.

Forative and

ii. Summative

Formative Evaluation:

Formative evaluation aims at ensuring a healthy acquisition and


development of knowledge and skills by students. Formative evaluation
is also used to identify students in order to guide them towards desiable
goals. As student needs and difficulties are identified, appropriate
remedial measures are taken to solve such problems. The purpose is to
find out whether after learning experience students are able to do what
they were previously unable to do. A short term objectives of formative
evaluation may be to help student perform well at the end of the
programme. It is a process of channeling input variables through a
process that will yield expected outputs. The classroom is variables

through a process that will yield expected outputs. The classroom teacher
is the best formative evaluator. Formative evaluation attempts.
1.
2.

3.

To identify the content (knowledge or skills).


To appreciate the level of cognitive abilities such as
memorization, classification, comparison, analysis, explanation,
quantification, application and so on.
To specify the relationship between content and levels of
cognitive abilities.

In other words, formative e evaluation provides the evaluator


with useful information about the strength or weakness of the student
within an instruction context.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Formative evaluation is alone during an instructional


programme.
The instructional programme should aim at the attainment of
certain objectives during the implementation of the programme.
Formative evaluation is done to monitor learning and modifying
the programme if needed before its common completion.
Formative evaluation is for current students.

Characteristics of Formative Evaluation


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

ii.

It relatively focuses on molecular analysis.


It is because seeking.
It is interested in the broader experience of the programme
users.
It is designing exploratory and flexible.
It seeks to identify influential variables.
It requires analysis of instructional material for mapping the
hierarchical structure of the learning tasks and actual teaching of
the course for a certain period.
Summative Evaluation

Summative evaluation is primary concerned with purposes


progress and outcomes of the teaching learning process attempts as far as
possible to determine to what extent the broad objective of a programme
have been achieved. It is based on the following assumptions.

1.
2.
3.
4.

That the programmers objectives are achieved.


That the teaching learning process has been conducted effiently.
That the teacher student material interaction have been
conductive to learning.
That there is uniformity in classroom conditions for all learners.

Unlike formative evaluation, which is guidance oriented


summative evaluation is judgmental in nature. Promotion examination,
the first school leaving certificate examination, the public examination
belongs to this form of evaluation. Summative evaluation carries threat
with it in that the student may have no knowledge of the evaluator.
According to A.F Nikto (1983) summativn already completed
programme, procedure or product. Summative evaluation is done at the
conclusion instruction and measures the extent to which student have
attained the desired out comes.
Chief Characteristics of Summative Evaluation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

It lends to the use of well-defined evaluation design.


It Focus on analysis.
It provides descriptive analysis.
It trends to stress local effects.
It is unobtrustive and non-reactive as far as possible.
It is concerned with broad range of issues.
Its instruments are reliable and valid.

Difference between the Summative and Formative Evaluation


In the beginning these terms applied for the evaluation of
curricular work only. M. Seriven explains the difference between these
terms as follows in his book Evaluation the asurus (1980).
Formative evaluation is conducted during the development or
improvement of a programme or product (or person) it is an evaluation
conducted for in-house but is may be done by an internal or external
evaluator (preferably) a combination. Summative evaluation, on the other
hand, is conducted after completion of a programme. (or a course of
study) and for the benefit of some external audience or decision malker.

(e.g funding agency or future possible users) though it may be done by an


internal or an external evaluator or by a combination.
Gloria, Hitchok and other (1986) state the difference between
the summative and formative avaluation in these words. It is fairly
straight forward to produce an ideal type of either a summative or a
formative profiles. It is far more difficult to combine the two into one
unified system. The undervaluing philosophies of the two appear difficult
to reconcile.
Following are the main differences between these types of
evaluation:
1.
2.

3.
4.

They differ in purpose, nature and timing.


Summative evaluation is the terminal assessment of
performance at the end of instruction but formative evaluation is
the assessment made during the instructional phase to inform the
teacher about progress learning and what more is to be done.
The summative evolution limits the use of profile and record of
achievement but they are regulary use in formative evaluation.
In summative evaluation, the assessment is done to test learning
outcomes against a set of objectives criteria with out revealing
the details of the route to the teacher, which the student followed
in reaching that point. Formative evaluation takes the form of a
dialogue between the student and teacher in which both
determine the task.

Broad Differences Formative and Summative


Characteristic

Formative

Su

Purpose

To monitor progress of student


getting feedback

To check final

Content focus

Detailed narrow scop

Gernal Board

Methods

Daily assignments

Projects

Observations

Projects

Daily

Weekly, quarte

Frequency

1.5

NORM- REFERENCED AND CRITERION


REFERENCED TEST:

Test designed to provide, a measure of performance that is


interpretable in terms of an individuals relative standing in some known
group is called norm-referenced test. A norm group may be made up of a
students at the local level, district level, provincial level or national level.
Types of Norms: There are two type of norms which are following.
a)

b)

National Norms: Most standardized achievement and aptitude


test require national norms because the tests are intended for
used across the country. The norm group should represent the
population of student in the country.
Local Norms: There are many communities where local norms
are more useful than the national for example there may be
some cities where the citizen who are above national averages in
educational and socioeconomic level.

Characteristics of Norm-Referenced Test


1.

Its basic purpose in to measure students achievement to


curriculum based skill. Therefore it covers majority of the
course.

2.

It is prepared for a particular grade level. As the test is


curriculum based therefore. It can only be applied to a particular
class for which it is prepared.

3.

It classifies achievement as above average, average or below


average for a given grade.

4.

It is generally reported in the form or percentile rank, linear


standard score, normalized standard score and grade equivalent
score.

5.

Norm-referenced test is likely to have times that are very


difficult for the grade level so student can be ranked.

Drawbacks of NormReferenced Test


1.

Test item that are answered correctly by most of the pupils are
not included in these test because of their inadequate
contribution to response variance. They will be the items that
deals with the important concepts of course content.

2.

Norm-Referenced test compare an individual performance to the


performance of a group called norm group an entirely different
conclusion will be reached if the norm group is a collection of
university seniors majoring in physics.

a)

Criterion Referenced Test:

1.

According to Gronlund (1985) a test designed to provide a


measure of performance that is interpretable in terms of a
clearly defined and delimited domain of learning talks is called
criterion-referenced test.

2.

According to wiersna and Stephen (1990) criterion referenced


test describe. The performance of the student in the herm of
actual skills or task that are included in the test.

b)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
c)

Haracteristics of Criterion-Referenced Test:


It measures students achievement of curriculum based skills.
It is prepared for a particular grade or course level.
It has balanced representation of goals and objectives.
It can be administered before and after instruction.
It is used to evaluate the curriculum plan, instructional progress
and group students interaction.
Limitation of CRTS:

CRTs tell only whether a learner has reached proficient in a task


area but does not show how good or poor in the learners level
of ability.

Task included in CRTs may be highly influenced by a given


teacher interests or biases, leading to general validity problem.

Only some area readily land themselves for listing specific test
can be built and this may be a constructing element for teacher.

1.6

EDUCATIONAL:

Educational assessment can be defined as the process of


documenting knowledge skills, attitude and beliefs.
Or
The process of collecting synthesizing and interpreting
information to assessment.
General Principles of Assessment:
Following are the main principles of assessment.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Clearly specify what is to be assessed has priority in the


assessment process.
An assessment procedure should be selected because of its
relevance to the characteristics or performance to be measured.
Comprehensive assessment requires a variety of procedures.
Proper use of assessment procedures requires an awareness of
their limitations.
Assessment is a means to an and not an end in itself.

Clearly specify what is to be assessed:


General statements from, content standard or from course
objectives can be a helpful starting point but in most cases teachers needs
to be more specific for assessment process to be effective. Thus
specification of the characteristic to be measured should precede the
selection or development of assessment procedures. Specify the intended
learning goals before selecting the assessment procedure to use.
Example:
Content standard in the field of physics night specify that
students. Should understand idea documents in field of physics.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Assessment may be in the form of multiple choice.


Short answer
Essay questions
Numerical questions

To establish assessment priorities for such a standard teacher


needs to answer the questions such as the following.

Q1.

What idea?

Q2.

What document?

Q3.

What concepts of physics?

The general statement in standard does not answer such


questions, but they must be either explicitly or implicitly, to develop
assessments.
Assessment must be relevant to the performance to be measured:
Assessments procedures are frequently selected on the basics of
their objectivity, accuracy or convenience although there criteria are
important they are secondary to main criterion.
Examples:
If teachers goal is that students should learn written skills or
creative writing, composition, sentence structure so the if multiple choice
will be option for assessment then it will be poor one, teacher must
include story writing, easy, summaries or such type of things for
improving writing stills of a child.
Close match between the intended learning goals and type of
assessment is must.
Comprehensive assessment requires a variety of procedure:
A lot of procedures are required to assess the knowledge of a
person about anything. Things which are to be assessed also play a vital
role in connectivity with the procedure some of the procedures are given
below.

Multiple choice
Short answer
Essay test
Written projects
Observational technique

Multiple-Choice and short answer test of achievement are useful


for measuring knowledge, understanding, and application outcomes, but

essay tests and other written project are needed to assess the ability to
organize and express ideas. Projects that require students to formulate
problems, accumulate to formulate problems, accumulate information
through library research or collect data (e.g through experimental
observations or interviews) are needed to measure certain skills in
formulating and sawing problems observational techniques are needed to
assess performance skills and various aspects of students behavior and
self-report techniques are use full for assessing interests and attitudes. A
complete picture of students achievement and development requires the
use of many different assessment procedure.
Proper use of Assessment Procedure Requires an Awareness of their
Limitations
Not a single test can assess whatever the teacher want every
procedures has its plus points and negative pointes or we can say it is not
suitable for the things to be assessed. So one must how about it and takes
care of it so that we can get correct assessment results.
Some of the major problems are
1.
2.
3.

Sampling error
Chance factor
Incorrect interpretations

Sampling Error:
An achievement test may not adequately sample a particular
domain of instructional content. An observational instrument design to
assess a students social adjustment may not sample enough behavior for
a dependable index of this trait.
Sampling can be controlled though careful application of
established measurement procedures.
Chance Factor:
A second source of error is caused by chance factors influencing
assessment results, such as guessing on objective Tess, subjective scoring
on essay test, errors in judgment on observation devices and in consistent
responding on self report instrument.

Through the careful use of assessment procedure we are able to


keep these error of assessment to a minimum.
Incorrect Interpretation:
The incorrect interpretation of measurement results constitutes
another major source of error. We usually, more precise the result than
the requirement thats why this problem waists Result must be precise
accurately.
Assessment is a mean to an end, not an end in itself:
The use of assessment procedure implies that some useful
purpose implies that some useful purpose is being served and that the
user is clearly aware of his purpose. The blindly gather data about
students and then file the information away is a waste of time and effort.
Assessment is best viewed as a process of obtaining information on
which to base educational decisions.
Conclusion:
All the principles are very important because they are directly
linked with the inter predation of information if the requirement is not
fulfilled than assessment will be wrong.

UNIT-2:
JUDGING THE QUALITY OF THE TEST
Definition: Test percentile scores are just one type of test scores you will
find on your child's testing reports. Many test reports include several
types of scores. Percentile scores are almostalways reported on major
achievement that are taken by your child's entire class. Percentile scores
will also be found on individual diagnostic test reports. Understanding
test percentile scores is important for you to make decisions about your
child's special education program.
Test percentile scores commonly reported on most standardized
assessments a child takes in school. Percentile literally means
perhundred. Percentile scores on teacher-made tests and homework
assignments are developed by dividing the student's raw score on her
work by the total number of points possible. Converting decimal scores
to percentiles is easy. The number is converted by moving the decimal
point two places to the right and adding a percent sign. A score of .98
would equal 98%.
Test percentiles on a commercially produced, norm-referenced or
standardized test, are calculated in much the same way, although
thecalculations are typically included in test manuals or calculated with
scoring software.
If a student scores at the 75th percentile on a norm-referenced test, it
canbe said that she has scored at least as well, or better than, 75 percent
of students her age from the normative sample of the test. Several
othertypes of standard scores may also appear on test reports.
Percentile rank
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The percentile rank of a score is the percentage of scores in its frequency
distribution that are the same or lower than it. For example, a test score

that is greater than or equal to 75% of the scores of people taking the test
is said to be at the 75th percentile rank.
Percentile ranks are commonly used to clarify the interpretation of scores
on standardized tests. For the test theory, the percentile rank of a raw
score is interpreted as the percentages of examinees in the norm group
who scored at or below the score of interest.mm
Percentile ranks (PRs) are often normally distributed (bell-shaped) while
normal curve equivalents (NLEs) are uniform and rectangular in shape.
Percentile ranks are not on an equal-interval scale; that is, the difference
between any two scores is not the same between any other two scores
whose difference in percentile ranks is the same. For example, 50 _ 25 =
25 is not the same distance as 60 _ 35 = 25 because of the bell-curve
shape of the distribution. Some percentile ranks are closer to some than
others. Percentile rank 30 is closer on the bell curve to 40 than it is to 20.
The mathematical formula is

ce+0.5 fi
X 100%
N
where c is the count of all scores less than the score of interest, f is the
frequency of the score of interest, and Nis the number of examinees in
the sample. If the distribution is normally distributed, the percentile rank
can be inferred from the standard score.
2.1

VALIDITY, METHODS OF DETERMINING VALIDITY:

Introduction:
Tests play a central role in the evaluation of pupil learning. They
provide relevant measures of many important learning outcomes. Tests
and other evaluation instruments serve a variety of uses in the school, for
example test of achievement might be used for selection, placement,
diagnosis or certification of mastery.

When constructing or selecting tests and other evaluation


instruments, the most important question is to what extent will be the
interpretation of the scores be appropriate, meaningful and useful for the
intended application of the results?So validity is always concerned with
the specific use of results.
Factors Influencing Validity:
A careful examination of test items will indicate wether the test
appears to measure the subject matter content and the mental function
that the teacher is interested in testing. Following are the factors that
prevent the test items from functioning as intended and there by lower
the validity of the interpretation.
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Unclear Direction:
Directions that do not clearly indicate to the pupil how to
respond to the items will reduce validity.
Reading Vocabulary and Sentence Structure too Difficult:
Vocabulary and sentence structure that is too complicated for the
pupils will distort the meaning of the test results.
Inappropriate level of difficulty:
Items that are too easy or too difficult also lower validity.
Poorly constructed items:
Test items that provide clues to the answers will measure the
pupils alertness in detecting clues as well as those aspects of
pupil performance that the test is intended to measure.
Ambiguity:
Ambiguous statements confuse the pupil and so causes to
discriminate in a negative direction.
Inadequate time limits:
Time limits that do not provide pupil with enough time to
consider the items reduce the validity.
Test too short:
If the test is too short to provide a representative sample of the
performance we are interested in, its validity will suffer
accordingly.
Improper arrangement:

9.

Test items are arranged in order of difficulty, with the easiest


items first. Placing difficult items early may cause pupils to
spend too much time.
Identifiable pattern of answers:
Placing correct answers in some systematic patern will enable
pupils to guess the answers more easily.

Methods of Determining Validity:


There are several methods of determining the validity of
measuring instruments which we may call.
1.

2.

3.

4.

Content Validity:
Content validity is evaluated by showing how well the content
of the test samples the class of situations. It is especially
important in the case of achievement and proficiency measures.
It is also known as face validity.
Concurrent Validity:
It is evaluated by showing how well test scores correspond to
already accept measures of performance or status made at the
same time. For example, we may give a social studies class a
test on knowledge of basic concepts in social studies and at the
same time obtain from its teacher report on these abilities as far
as pupils in the class are concerned. If the relationship between
the test scores and the teachers report of abilities is high. The
test will have high concurrent validity.
Predictive Validity:
It is evaluated by showing how well prediction made from the
tests are confirmed by evidence gathered at some subsequent
time. When the tester wants to estimate how well a student may
be able to do in college courses on the basis of how well he has
done on test he took in secondary schools.
Construct Validity:
It is evaluated by investigating what psychological qualities a
test measures. It is ordinarily used when the tester has no
definitive criterion measure of what he is concerned with and
hence must use indirect measures. This type of validity is

usually involved in such tests as those of study habits,


appreciations, understanding and interpretation of data.
Conclusion:
In short we can say that validity is specific to the purpose and
situation for which a test is used. A test can be reliable without being
valid but the converse is not true in other words. It is conceivable that a
test can measure some quality with a high degree of consistency without
measuring at all the quality it was actually intended to measure.
2.2

FACTORS AFFECTING VALIDITY

Test experts generally agree that the most important quality of


test is its validity. The word Validity means effectiveness or
Soundness. It refers to the accuracy with which a thing is measured.
Types of Validity:
Validity is classified into three categories. 1) Content Validity. 2)
Criterion related validity. 3) Construct Validity.
A good measuring instrument is that which is valid with respect
to all these three categories. These are discussed below.
i.

Content Validity:
Content validity is the degree to which a test measures an
intended content area. In other words the content validity of a
test refers to the extent to which the test content represents a
specified universe of content.
For Example: for example if a teacher taught a course of
biology and would like to give a test at the end of the course.

ii.

Construct Validity:
Construct validity is the degree to which a test measures an
intended hypothetical construct. In other words construct
validity refers to the extent to which the test throughout the
major. There will be a correlation between the new measuring

iii.

iv.

v.

approach / tool with standardized measure of ability in this very


discipline (like GRE subject test).
Concurrent Validity:
Concurrent validity is the degree to which the scores on a test
are related to the scores on another, already established, test
administered at the same time or to some other valid criterion
available at the same time.
For Example:We may give a social studies class a test based on
knowledge of basic concepts in social studies and at the same
time obtain from its teacher a report on these abilities. As far as
pupils in the class are concerned measures to construct that it
claims to measure.
For Example: Examples of the construct are intelligence,
creativity ability to apply principles and ability to reason. For
example if a teacher wants to measure the ability to reason, and
give two reasoning tests to his class.
Criterion related Validity:
This type of validity is used to predict about the upcoming or
futures or current performance and it correlated the test results
with another criterion of interest. (Coz by, Zool).
For Example: If for an educational program, measures are
developed to assess the cumulative student learning.
Predictive Validity:
Predictive validity is the degree to which a test can predict how
well an individual will do in future situation. In other words,
predictive validity means the validity of a test or examination
which is based upon its correlation with some future variable.
For Example: For example one speaks of the predictive validity
of school examination for future success in higher education.
Similarly, if a small test gives the same standing to an individual
in a test which was achieved by him in a much longer test, it
will be culled concurrently validity.

Methods of Determining Validity:


The methods of deterning validity is also termed as, forms of
Expressing validity. There forms, generally used for expressing validity
index of the test.
1.

2.

3.

a.
b.
2.3

Correlation Coefficient:
Test scores are correlated with that of criterion scores. The
obtained coefficient of correlation is the extent of validity index
of the test.
Expectancy Table:
Test scores are evaluated or correlated with the rating of the
supervisors. It provides empirical probabilities of the validity
index.
Cross Validation:
It means to have another look for correlation coefficient with
another criterion or expect any tables with other criterion. It is
of two types.
Empirical validation
Logical or rationale validation
RELIABILITY, AND METHODS OF DETERMINING
RELIABILITY:

Meaning and Definition:


Reliability means consistency of measurement in the words of
Ebel and frisbie, The ability of a test to measure the same quantity when
it is administred to an individual on two different occasions by two
different teser is called reliability. The reliability indicates the degree to
which measurement can be relied upon, to measure the same thing each
time is used.
In simple words we can say that a good measuring instrument
(test) should be reliable in reporting the results if it is done by the same
group of student under the same conditions.
Reliability is also called dependability or trustworthiness
reliability is the degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it

measures. The more reliable a test is, the more confidence we can have
that the scores obtained from the administration of the test are essentially
the same scores that would be obtained if the test where re-administered.
An unreliable test is essentially useless. For example, if an intelligence
test was unreliable then a student soring an IQ of 120 today might score
an IQ of 140 tomorrow and a 95 the day after tomorrow. On the other
hand if the test is reliable then the IQ of a student will remain nearly the
same each time the test is administered. The reliability of a test depends
upon the number of questions consisted by it. A test will be more reliable
if it possesses more questions. In this respect, objective type tests are
more reliable because its sampling is more extensive.
We can take another expert opinion to understand the meaning
of reliability. If a clinical thermo meter on three successive
determinations, for example yielded reading of 97 o, 103o and 99.6ofor the
same patient, it would not be considered very reliable.
Reliability, of course is a necessary but not a sufficient condition
for using a test. A highly reliable test may be totally invalid or may not
measure anything that is psychologically of educationally significant.
The reliability of a single of a single test score is expressed
quantitatively in terms of the instruments standard error of measurement.
If the standard error of measurement, for example, is 2.5, we can say that
there are approximately two chances in three (more precisely 68 in 100)
that the true score falls between 72.5 and 77.5 when the obtained score is
75. By definition, an unreliable test cannot possible be valid. The
necessary degree of reliability however depends on the use that is made
of test scores.
Methods of Determining Reliability:
For determining reliability, it is necessary that the test should be
valid and it should measure what it is designed to measure. It should be
administered to an appropriate person or group of parsons for whom the
test has been developed. Reliability is a statistical measure and therefore

it can be computed by using different statistical methods. Which have


been stated in detail on next page.
1.

Test-retest method:
When the reliability of the results are two measured, then at that
very situation the test retest method is used in this method the
tests are subjected to the group of students at different perrods
of time. The scores obtained from first and second time can be
correlated in order to check the stability and persistency of test.
In test re-test reliability the time factor counts a lot in very close
retesting the results are approximately the same, yielding high
correlation. But when the retest is administered after an year or
two, as the result of changes in the characteristics of students,
there are expected to be large variation in the outcome and
therefore stability will be low.\
Limitation:

i.

The co-efficient of reliability established through test-retest


method is erroneous.

ii.

The reliability determined through test-retest method has


memory of carry over effect.

iii.

The test retest method is not an objective method ascertaining


reliability of the test.

2.

Equivalent forms method:


The second method of ascertaining reliability is alternate form
method or method of equivalence. Through this method one has
to use two alternate or equivalent tests in order to establish the
reliability. This method is used to see the reliability of test for
measuring certain content area. It is applied to standardized tests
only as they have two or more forms of the same test available.
Equivalent forms are used in the same group and in close
succession. The result of both the tests are correlated. The
correlation shows the degree to which both tests are measurining
the same content area. Sometimes the equivalent forms are used

with time interval. Results obtained by this method provide both


stability and reliability of test. This method is generally
considered to be the best method.
Limitation:
i.

Finding the reliability through this method is cumbersome


because it is difficult to judge the quality of a test which is
equivalent in each and every respect.

ii.

This process is more time consuming and also it is not free from
carry over effect.

iii.

More over establishment of reliability through this method is not


feasible for each and every type of test.

3.

Split half method:


As the name indicates in Split-Half- method the approach is to
split the test into two reasonable equivalent halves. Such
independent sub-test are then used as a source of the two
independent scores needed for reliability estimation.
In this method a test is administered to a group of students.
Before scoring, the test is split into two equal halves. Generally
odds and evens are separated. By marking each part separately
each student gets two different scores which are correlated. The
correlation gives a measure of internal consistency, of the test.
Reliability of the test is estimated by applying spearman Brown
formula:

1
2 x Reliabi lity on test
2
1
1+ Reliability on test
2

Like equivalent forms method the split-half method helps in


determining the reliability of test items are representative
sample of the content.
Limitation:

i.

The general criticism of split-half method is concerned with


splitting on the test. As there is no rule, one may go for applying
this own conscience in splitting the test into two halves. The
way of splitting varies from person to person which affects the
reliability coefficient.

ii.

The second criticism is concerned with the items difficulty.


Generally the items of a test are arranged in ordered of difficulty
but this fact is not true for each and every type of test. Say for
example, without knowing the difficulty level of items if one
goes for splitting all the difficulty items in one half and the
simple item in another half, it will affect the reliability
coefficient adversely.

4.

Kuder Richardson method:


Richardson developed several formulas for measuring internal
consistency of a test. Kudder Richard son formula zo and z1 and
generally applied. But due to simplicity of the operation formula
z1 is always preffered.
Reliability (K R Z1) =

M ( K M )
K
1
K 1
K S2

K= the number of items in the test.


M= mean of the test scores;
S= standard deviation of the test scores.
Summary: The following methods are used for determining reliability of
a test.
A

Test Retest method

i. Immediate (without interval)

Equivalent form method

ii. With time interval

Split half method

iii. Immediate

Kuder Richardson formula

iv. With interval

5.

Parallel form Reliability:


When the different sets or different parts of a test (suppose
questionnaire a and questionnaire B) are developed but they
must have a linkage (in a sense of knowledge, skills and

6.

2.4

behaviors) and then these assessments instruments are subjected


on the same group. The result obtained from these groups are
then correlated which can show the reliability of the test in
regards of the alternate sets of instruments.
Inter - rater method of Reliability:
The Measures of the reliability about the different judges agree
upon the decisions about the assessment is called inter rater
method of rebility. The answers cannot effectively interpret by
human observes and for that very purpose the inter-rater
reliability is of utmost importance.
FACTORS AFFECTING RELIABILITY:

Reliability:
The degree or the extent of the similarities among the results
obtained on several occasion or in other words it can be defined as the
degree to which an assessment instruments elicit stable and consistent
plethora results.
Reliability means consistency of measurement. The words of
Ebel & Frisbie The ability of a test to measure the same quantity when it
is administered, to an individual on two different occasions by two
different testers is called reliability.
Reliability also called dependability or trust worthiness.
Reliability is the degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it
measure.
Factors which affects the reliability:
The factors which badly affects the reliability are as under:

The examinee:
Fatigue burden, lack of motivation, carelessness.
Trait of Test:

Ambiguous items, poorly worded direction tricky questions in


familiar format.
Conditions of test- taking and marking:
Poor examination condition, excessive heat or cold carelessness
in marling, disregards or lack of clear standards for scoring,
computational errors.
There are also some factors which affects on reliability, which
are as under:
1.

A very important factor influencing test reliability is the number


of test items. That is the greater number of items in a test, the
more reliable the test.

2.

Other things being equal the narrower the rang of difficulty of


the items of a test the granter the reliability.

3.

Evenness in scaling is factor influencing the reliability of a test


other things being equal a test every scaled is more reliable than
a test that has gaps in the scale of difficulty of its items.

4.

Other things being equal, inter-dependent items tend to decrease


the reliability of a test.

5.

The more objective the scoring of a test the more reliable is the
test.

6.

Chance in getting the correct answer to an items is a factor


which lowers the test reliability.

7.

Other things being equal, the more homogenous the material of


a test the greater its reliability.

8.

Other thing being equal, the more common the experiences


called for in a test are the members of the group taking the test
more reliable the test.

9.

Other things being equal the same test given late in the school
year (i.e. after covering the unit in the class) is more reliable that
when given Carly in the year (i.e. without teaching the unit).

10.

Other things being equal, each, question in a test lower the


reliability of test. A test answered by the systematic relall or
recognition of orderly facts or experience is more reliable than a
test answered by sudden insight because of novelty.

11.

Lengthy items lower the reliability because certain factors in the


item will be over or under estimated.

12.

Inadequate or faulty directions, failure to provide suitable


illustrations of the task lower the reliability.

13.

Strange or unusual words of items lower the reliability.

14.

The accuracy with which a test is timed is an important factor in


test reliability.

15.

Difference in incentive and effort tend to make tests unreliable.


The appeal of a test is stronger with some individuals than with
others, and is stronger with an individual at one time than at
another.

16.

Accidents occurring during the examination such as breaking a


pencil, running out of link, or defective test booklets influence
the reliability of the test. Outside disturbances also lower the
reliability.

17.

The interval between the test and retest is important for


reliability estimate.

18.

Cheating in the examination is another factor which lowers the


reliability because the score of the individual may increase or
decrease unduly.

19.

Illness, worry, excitement though less important still they


influence the reliability of the test.

References
Murad Ali Katozai 1st Edition, June, 2013 Measurement and
Evaluation.

Dr. Mohammad Nooman & Obaid Ullah 1st Edition June 27th
2013 A Manual of Educational & Social Science and Research
Methodologies.
2.5

PRACTICALITY:

Meaning:
The word Practicality means feasibility or us ability.
A test will be practicable if it is easy to administrated, easy to
interpret and economical in operation. A good test is that which have
sufficiently simple instructions so that it can be administered even by a
person of low level intelligence. Tests having difficult instructions and
requiring high level training for administering them and expensive for
wide use in schools are social to have low usability or practicability.
Practicality refers to the economy of time effort and money in testing. In
other words a test should be.

Easy to design
Easy to administer
Easy to interpret

Test of Practicality of a Measuring Instrument:


The practicality attribute of a meaning instrument can be
estimated regarding its economy convenience and interpretability.
Economy consideration suggests that some mutual benefits is required
between the ideal research project and that which the budget can afford.
The length of measuring in strument is an important area where
economic pressures are swiftly left.
Convince test suggest that the measuring instrument should be
easily manageable. For this purpose one should pay proper attention to
the layout of the measuring instrument. For example 9, questionnaire
with clear instructions and instrument, is examples of this questionnaire
that lack these features.

Characteristics of Practicality:
There are many characteristics of practicality they are.
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The test should be free from drawbacks and limitations of both


essay type and objective type tests. They should have they
merits and good point to both these type of test. For this purpose
a test should have both essay and objective type of test and
questions so that it may cover at the time, the whole course as
well as improve the writing skill f the students.
It should not require long answer for essay type questions.
It should have large number of short essay type questions so that
it may cover the slow course in 9, short time.
It should not be prepared for evaluation the knowledge and
information of the students.
It should be arranged in the social and economical conditions of
the country.
There should be no choice in the given questions. Students
should have to answer all the questions. This will discourage
selective study.

UNIT-3:
APPRAISING CLASSROOM TESTS (ITEMS
ANALYSIS)
3.1

THE VALUE OF ITEM

3.1.1

Item Analysis

Item is a statistical technique which is used for selecting and


rejecting the items of a test on the basis of their difficulty value and
discriminative power. Item analysis is a general term that refers to the
specific methods used in education to evaluate test items, typically for
the purpose of test construction and revision. Regarded as one of the
most important aspects of test construction and increasingly receiving
duration, it k an approach incorporated into item response theory (ERT),
high serves as an alternative to classical measurement theory (GMT) or
classical test theory (CIT). Classical measurement theory considers a
score to Ile the direct result of a person's true score plus error. It is this
error that is of interest as previous measurement theories have been
unable to specify its source. However, item response theory uses item
analysis to differentiate between types of error in order to gain a
clearer(1) The main objective of item analysis is to select the appropriate
understanding of any existing deficiencies. Particular attention is given to
individual test items, item characteristics, probability of answering items
correctly, overall ability of the test taker, and degrees or levels of
knowledge being assessed.
Item analysis is concerned basically with the two characteristics
of an item--difficulty value and discriminative power.
Need of Item Analysis
Item analysis is a technique by which the test items are selected
and rejected. The selection of items may serve the purpose of the
designer or test constructor, because the items have the such
characteristics. The following are the main purpose of the test:

(a)

Classification of students or candidates.

(b)

Selection of the candidates for the job.

(c)

Gradation is an academic purpose to assign grades or divisions


to the students.

(d)

Prognosis and promotion of the candidates or students.

(e)

Establishing individual differences, and

(f)

Research for the verification of hypotheses.

The different purposes require different types of test having the


items of different characteristics. The selection or entrance test includes
the items of high difficulty value as well as high power of discrimination.
The promotion or prognostic test has the items of moderate difficulty
value. There are various techniques of item analysis which are used these
days.
The Objectives of Item Analysis
(1)

The following are the main objectives of item analysis


technique: items for the final drift and reject the poor items
which do not contribute in the functioning of the test. Some
items are to be modified.

(2)

Item analysis obtains the difficulty values of all the items of


preliminary draft of the test. The items are classifieddifficulties, moderate and easy items.

(3)

It provides the discriminative power (item reliability; validity)


to differentiate between capable and less capable examines of all
the items preliminary draft of the test. The items are classified
on the basis of the indexes-positive, negative and no
discrimination. The negative and no discrimination power items
are rejected out rightly.

(4)

It also indicates the functioning of the distructors in the


multiple-choice items. The powerful and poor distructors are

changed. It provides the basis for the modification to be made in


some of the items of preliminary draft.
(5)

T3he reliability and validity of test depends on these


characteristics of a test. The functioning of a test is increased by
this technique. Both these indexes and considered
simultaneously in selecting and rejecting the items of a test.

(6)

It provides the basis for preparing the final draft a test. In the
final draft items are arranged in difficulty order. The most easy
items are given in the beginning and most difficult items are
provided at the end.

(7)

Item analysis is a cyclic technique. The modified items are tried


out and their item analysis is done again to obtain these indexes
(difficulty and discrimination). The empirical evidences are
obtained for selecting the modified items for the final draft.

Functions of Item Analysis


The main function of item analysis is to obtain the indexes of
the items which indicate its basic characteristics. There are three
characteristics
(1)

Item difficulty value (D. V.) is the proportion of subjects


answering each item correctly.

(2)

Discriminative power (D.P.) of item, this characteristic is of two


type
(a) Item reliability It is taken as the point-biserial correlation
between an item and the total test score, multiplied by the item
standard deviation.
(b) Item validity It is taken as the point biserial correlation
between an item and a criterion score multiplied by the item
standard deviation.

The test as a whole should fulfil its purpose successfully; each


of its items must be able to discriminate between high and poor students
on the test. In other words, a test fulfils its purpose with maximum

success when each .items serves as good predictor. Therefore it is


essential that each item of the test should be analysed in terms of its
difficulty value and discriminative power for the justification. Item
analysis serves the following purpose
(1)

To improve and modify a test for immediate use on a parallel


group of subjects.

(2)

To select the best items for a test with regard to its purpose after
a proper try out on the group of subjects selected from the target
population.

(3)

To provide the statistical check-up for the characteristics of the


test items for the judgment of test designer.

(4)

To set up parallel forms of a test. Parallel form of test should not


require only to have Similar items content or type of items but
they should also have the sky& difficulty value and
discriminative power. Item analysis' technique that exactly
parallel test can be developed, provides 'the empirical basis.

(5)

To modify and reject OF poor items of the test. The poor items
may not serve the purpose of the test. The powerful distractor of
items are changed an'tkpoor distracters are also changed.

(6)

Item analysis is usually done of a power test rather than speed


test. It speed test all the items are of the same difficulty value.
The purpose of speed test is to measure the speed and accuracy
while speed is acquired through practice. There is no power test,
because the time limit is imposed, therefore these are the
speeded test. The speediness of the test depends on the difficulty
values of the items of the test. Most of the students should reach
to last items, in the allotted time for the test. Item analysis is the
study of the statistical properties of test items. The qualities
usually of interest are the difficulty of the item and its ability or
power to differentiate between more capable and less capable
examinees. Difficulty is usually expressed as the percent or
proportion getting the item right, and discrimination as some

index comparing success by the more capable and the less


capable students.
Meaning of definition of Difficulty Value (D.V.)
The term difficulty value of an item can be explained with the help
of simple example of extreme ends. If an item of test is answered
correctly by every examinee, it means the item is very easy the difficulty
value is 100 percent or proportion is one. This item will not serve any
purpose and there is no use to include such items in a test. Such items are
generally rejected.
If an item is not answered correctly by any of the examinees.
None could answer correctly, it means the item is most difficult, the
difficulty value is zero percent or proportion is also zero. This item will
not serve any purpose and there is no use to include such items in a test.
Such items are usually rejected.
"The difficulty value of an item is defined as the proportion or
percentage of the examinees who have answered the item
correctly."
1.1). Guilford
"The difficulty value of an item may be defined as the
proportion of certain sample of subjects who actually know the
answer of item."
Frank S. Freeman
In the definition of difficulty value, it has been stated that it is
the percentage and proportion of examinee's who answer the item
correctly, but in the second definition, the difficulty value is defined as
the proportion of certain sample of subjects who actually know the
answer of an item. This statement seems to be most functional and
dependable, because an item can be answered correctly by guessing but
the examinee does not know the answer of the item. The difficulty value
depends on actually knowing the correct answer of an item rather than
answering an item correctly.

In the procedure of item-analysis "correction for guessing


formula is used for the scores rather than right answers. The difficulty
value is also obtained in terms of standard scores or z-scores.
Methods or Techniques of item Analysis
A recent review of the literature on item analysis indicates that
there are at least twenty three different techniques of item analysis. As it
has been discussed that item analysis technique obtain the indexes for the
characteristics of an item. The following two methods of item analysis
are most popular and are widely used.
1)

Davis method of item analysisIt is the basic method of item


analysis. It is used for the prognostic test for selecting and
rejecting the items on the basis of difficulty value and
discriminative power. The right responses are considered in
obtaining the indexes for the characteristics of an item. The
proportion of right responses on the items are considered for this
purpose.

2)

Stanley method of item analysis. It is used for the diagnostic


test items. The wrong responses are considered in obtaining the
difficulty value and discriminative power. The wrong responses
provide the cause of weakness of the students. The proportion of
wrong responses on an item is considered for this purpose.

There are separate techniques for obtaining difficulty value and


discriminative power of the items.
(a)

Techniques of Difficulty Value.

There are two main approaches for obtaining difficult value.


a1 Proportion of right responses on an item technique. Davis and Haper
have also used this technique.
a2 Standard scores or z-scores or normal probability curve.
Technique of Discriminative Power.

b1 Proportion of right responses on an item technique. Davis and Haper


have used this technique.
3.2

THE PROCEDURE/ PURPOSE OF ITEM ANALYSIS:

The review of literature on item analysis indicates that there are


two dozen techniques of item analysis have been devices to obtain the
difficulty value and discriminative index of an item of a test. It is not
possible to describe all the techniques of item analysis in this chapter.
Therefore, most popular and widely used techniques have been
discussed.
Fredrick B. Davis method of Item Analysis of Prognostic test, and
Stanley method of Item Analysis of Diagnostic test.
"The item difficulty value may be defined as the proportion or
percentage of certain sample subjects that actually know the
answer of an item.
--Frank S. Freeman
The difficulty value depends on actually knowing the answer rather
than answering correctly i.e. right responses. In objective type test, the
items are answered correctly by guessing rather than actually knowing
the answer. It means that an item may be answered without knowing its
answer. Thus, correction for guessing is to be used for obtaining the
scores which may be actual correct responses.
It is important to note that in the procedure of item analysis item
wise scoring is done, while subject wise scoring is done in general. There
are several formulas have been developed by psychomatricians for
'guessing correction'. Some of the important formula-correction for
guessing has been discussed.
Formula-Correction for Guessing
The following two formula-corrections for guessing have been explained.
(a)

Guilford's formula-correction for guessing and

(b)

Horst's formula-correction for guessing.

(a) Guilford's formuia-correction for Guessing. J. P. Guilford has


developed the following formula-correction for guessing which used for
estimating the actual scores or actually know the answer.
S=R,
where

(1) (n 1)

R = right responses on the item


W = wrong responses on the item
n = number of alternatives in the item
S = Actual correct responses on the item.

Example. An item is administered on a group of 50 subjects. The


following responses are obtained on different alternatives of the item.
(a)

The functions of item analysis

(b)

Selection of good items-8

(c)

Rejection of poor items--7

3.2

MAKING THE MOST OF EXAMS: PROCEDURES FOR


ITEM ANALYSIS:

One of the most important (if least appealing) tasks confronting


faculty members is the evaluation of student performance. This task
requires considerable skill, in part because it presents so many choices.
Decisions must be made concerning the method, format, timing, and
duration of the evaluative procedures. Once designed, the evaluative
procedure must be administered and then scored, interpreted, and graded.
Afterwards, feedback must be presented to students. Accomplishing these
tasks demands a broad range of cognitive, technical, and interpersonal
resources on the part of faculty. But an even more critical task remains,
one that perhaps too few faculty undertake with sufficient skill and
tenacity: investigating the quality of the evaluative procedure.
Even after an exam, how do we know whether that exam was a
good one? It is obvious that any exam can only be as good as the items it

comprises, but then what constitutes a good exam item? Our students
seem to know, or at least believe they know. But are they correct when
they claim that an item was too difficult, too tricky, or too unfair?
Lewis Aiken (1997), the author of a leading textbook on the
subject of psychological and educational assessment, contends that a
"postmortem" evaluation is just as necessary in classroom testing as it is
in medicine. Indeed, just such a postmortem procedure for exams exists-item analysis, a group of procedures for assessing the quality of exam
items. The purpose of an item analysis is to improve the quality of an
exam by identifying items that are candidates for retention, revision, or
removal. More specifically, not only can the item analysis identify both
good and deficient items, it can also clarify what concepts the examinees
have and have not mastered.
So, what procedures are involved in an item analysis? The
specific procedures involved vary, but generally, they fall into one of two
broad categories: qualitative and quantitative.
Qualitative Item Analysis
Qualitative item analysis procedures include careful
proofreading of the exam prior to its administration for typographical
errors, for grammatical cues that might inadvertently tip off examinees to
the correct answer, and for the appropriateness of the reading level of the
material. Such procedures can also include small group discussions of the
quality of the exam and its items with examinees who have already taken
the test, or with depaitinental student assistants, or even experts in the
field. Some faculty use a "think-aloud test administration" (cf. Cohen,
Swerdlik, & Smith, 1992) in which examinees are asked to express
verbally what they are thinking as they respond to each of the items on an
exam. This procedure can assist the instructor in determining whether
certain students (such as those who performed well or those who
performed poorly on a previous exam) misinterpreted particular items,
and it can help in determining why students may have misinterpreted a
particular item.

Quantitative Item Analysis


In addition to these and other qualitative procedures, a thorough
item analysis also includes a number of quantitative procedures.
Specifically, three numerical indicators are often derived during an item
analysis: Item difficulty, item discrimination, and distractor power
statistics.
Item Difficulty Index (p)
The item difficulty statistic is an appropriate choice for
achievement or aptitude tests when the items are scored dichotomously
(i.e., correct vs. incorrect). Thus, it can be derived for true-false,
multiple-choice, and matching items, and even for essay items, where the
instructor can convert the range of possible point values into the
categories "passing" and "failing."
The item difficulty index, symbolized p, can be computed
simply by dividing the number of test takers who answered the item
correctly by the total number of students who answered the item. As a
proportion, p can range between 0.00, obtained when no examinees
answered the item correctly, and 1.00, obtained when all examinees
answered the item correctly. Notice that no test item need have only one
p value. Not only may the p value vary with each class group that takes
the test, an instructor may gain insight by computing the item difficulty
level for a number of different subgroups within a class, such as those
who did well on the exam overall and those who performed more poorly.
Although the computation of the item difficulty indexp is quite
straightforward, the interpretation of this statistic is not. To illustrate,
consider an item with a difficulty level of 0.20. We do know that 20% of
the examinees answered the item correctly, but we cannot be certain why
they did so. Does this item difficulty level mean that the item was
challenging for all but the best prepared of the examinees? Does it mean
that the instructor failed in his or her attempt to teach the concept
assessed by the item? Does it mean that the students failed to learn the
material? Does it mean that the item was poorly written? To answer these

questions, we must rely on other item analysis procedures, both


qualitative and quantitative ones.
Item Discrimination Index (D)
Item discrimination analysis deals with the fact that often
different test takers will answer a test item in different ways. As such, it
addresses questions of considerable interest to most faculty, such as,
"does the test item differentiate those who did well on the exam overall
from those who did not?" or "does the test item differentiate those who
know the material from those who do not?" In a more technical sense
then, item discrimination analysis addresses the validity of the items on a
test, that is, the extent to which the items tap the attributes they were
intended to assess. As with item difficulty, item discrimination analysis
involves a family of techniques. Which one to use depends on the type of
testing situation and the nature of the items. I'm going to look at only one
of those, the item discrimination index, symbolized D. The index
parallels the difficulty index in that it can be used whenever items can be
scored dichotomously, as correct or incorrect, and hence it is most
appropriate for true-false, multiple-choice, and matching items, and for
those essay items which the instructor can score as "pass" or "fall."
We test because we want to find out if students know the
material, but all we learn for certain is how they did on the exam we gave
them. The item discrimination index tests the test in the hope of keeping
the correlation between knowledge and exam performance as close as it
can be in an admittedly imperfect system.
The item discrimination index is calculated in the following
way:
1.

Divide the group of test takers into two groups, high scoring and
low scoring. Ordinarily, this is done by dividing the examinees
into those scoring above and those scoring below the median.
(Alternatively, one could create groups made up of the top and
bottom quintiles or quartiles or even deciles.)

2.
3.

Compute the item difficulty levels separately for the upper


(Pupper) and lower (Plower) scoring groups.
Subtract the two difficulty levels such that D = P upper - Plower

How is the item discrimination index interpreted? Unlike the


item difficulty levelp, the item discrimination index can take on negative
values and can range between -1.00 and 1.00. Consider the following
situation: suppose that overall, half of the examinees answered a
particular item correctly, and that all of the examinees who scored above
the median on the exam answered the item correctly and all of the
examinees who scored below the median answered incorrectly. In such a
situation P, upper, = 1.00 and P lower = 0.00. As such, thevalue of the item
discrimination index D is 1.00 and the item is said to be a perfect positive
discriminator. Many would regard this outcome as ideal. It suggests that
those who knew the material and were well-prepared passed the item
while all others failed it.
Though it's not as unlikely as winning a million-dollar lottery,
finding a perfect positive discriminator on an exam is relatively rare.
Most psychometricians would say that items yielding positive
discrimination index values of 0.30 and above are quite good
discriminators and worthy of retention for future exams.
Finally, notice that the difficulty and discrimination are not
independent. If all the students in both the upper and lower levels either
pass or fail an item, there's nothing in the data to indicate whether the
item itself was good or not. Indeed, the value of the item discrimination
index will be maximized when only half of the test takers overall answer
an item correctly; that is, whenp = 0.50. Once again, the ideal situation is
one in which the half who passed the item were students who all did well
on the exam overall.
Does this mean that it is never appropriate to retain items on an
exam that are passed by all examinees, or by none of the examinees? Not
at all. There are many reasons to include at least some such items. Very
easy items can reflect the fact that some relatively straightforward
concepts were taught well and mastered by all students. Similarly, an

instructor may choose to include some very difficult items on an exam to


challenge even the best-prepared students. The instructor should simply
be aware that neither of these types of items functions well to make
discriminations among those taking the test.
[material omitted...]
Conclusion
To those concerned about the prospect of extra work involved in
item analysis, take heart: item difficulty and discrimination analysis
programs are often included in the software used in processing exams
answered on Scantron or other optically scannable forms. As such, these
analyses can often be performed for you by personnel in your computer
services office. You might consider enlisting the aid of your departmental
student assistants to help with item distractor analysis, thus providing
them with an excellent learning experience. In any case, an item analysis
can certainly help determine whether or not the items on your exams
were good, ones and to determine which items to retain, revise, or
replace.
Understanding Item Analysis Reports
Item analysis is a process which examines student responses to
individual test items (questions) in order to assess the quality of those
items and of the test as a whole. Item analysis is especially valuable in
improving items which will be used again in later tests, but it can also be
used to eliminate ambiguous or misleading items in a single test
administration. In addition, item analysis is valuable for increasing
instructors' skills in test construction, and identifying specific areas of
course content which need greater emphasis or clarity. Separate item
analyses can berequested for each raw score' created during a given
ScorePak run. Sample
Sample item analysis (30K PDF*)
A basic assumption made by ScorePak is that the test under
analysis is composed of items measuring a single subject area or
underlying ability. The quality of the test as a whole is assessed by

estimating its "internal consistency." The quality of individual items is


assessed by comparing students' item responses to their total test scores.
Following is a description of the various statistics provided on a
ScorePak item analysis report. This report has two parts. The first part
assesses the items which made up the exam. The second part shows
statistics summarizing the performance of the test as a whole.
Item Statistics
Item statistics are used to assess the performance of individual
test items on the assumption that the overall quality of a test derives from
the quality of its items. The ScorePak item analysis report provides the
following item information:

Item Number

This is the question number taken from the student answer


sheet, and the ScorePak Key Sheet. Up to 150 items can be scored on
the Standard Answer Sheet.

Mean and Standard Deviation

The mean is the "average" student response to an item. It is


computed by adding up the number of points earned by all students on
the item, and dividing that total by the number of students.
The standard deviation, or S.D., is a measure of the dispersion
of student scores on that item. That is, it indicates how "spread out" the
responses were. The item standard deviation is most meaningful when
comparing items which have more than one correct alternative and when
scale scoring is used. For this reason it is not typically used to evaluate
classroom tests.

Item Difficulty

For items with one correct alternative worth a single point, the
item difficulty is simply the percentage of students who answer an item
correctly. In this case, it is also equal to the item mean. The item
difficulty index ranges from 0 to 100; the higher the value, the easier the
question. When an alternative is worth other than a single point, or when

there is more than one correct alternative per question, the item difficulty
is the average score on that item divided by the highest number of points
for any one alternative. Item difficulty is relevant for determining
whether students have learned the concept being tested. It also plays an
important role in the ability of an item to discriminate between students
who know the tested material and those who do not. The item will have
low discrimination if it is so difficult that almost everyone gets it wrong
or guesses, or so easy that almost everyone gets it right.
To maximize item discrimination, desirable difficulty levels are
slightly higher than midway between chance and perfect scores for the
item. (The chance score for five-option questions, for example, is 20
because one-fifth of the students responding to the question could be
expected to choose the correct option by guessing.) Ideal difficulty levels
for multiple-choice items in terms of discrimination potential are:
Format

Ideal Difficulty

Five-response multiple-choice

70

Four-response multiple-choice

74

Three-response multiple-choice

77

True-false (two-response multiple-choice)

85

(from Lord, F.M. "The Relationship of the Reliability of Multiple-Choice


Test to the Distribution of Item Difficulties," Psychometrika, 1952, 18,
181-194.)
ScorePak arbitrarily classifies item difficulty as "easy" if the
index is 85% or above; "moderate" if it is between 51 and 84%; and
"hard" if it is 50% or below.

Item Discrimination

Item discrimination refers to the ability of an item to


differentiate among students on the basis of how well they know the
material being tested. Various hand calculation procedures have
traditionally been used to compare item responses to total test scores
using high and low scoring groups of students. Computerized analyses

provide more accurate assessment of the discrimination power of items


because they take into account responses of all students rather than just
high and low scoring groups.
The item discrimination index provided by ScorePak is a
Pearson Product Moment correlation2 between student responses to a
particular item and total scores on all other items on the test. This index
is the equivalent of a point-biserial coefficient in this application. It
provides an estimate of the degree to which an individual item is
measuring the same thing as the rest of the items.
Because the discrimination index reflects the degree to which an
item and the test as a whole are measuring a unitary ability or attribute,
values of the coefficient will tend to be lower for tests measuring a wide
range of content areas than for more homogeneous tests. Item
discrimination indices must always be interpreted in the context of the
type of test which is being analyzed. Items with low discrimination
indices are often ambiguously worded and should be examined. Items
with negative indices should be examined to determine why a negative
value was obtained. For example, a negative value may indicate that the
item was mis-keyed, so that students who knew the material tended to
choose an unkeyed, but correct, response option.
Tests with high internal consistency consist of items with mostly
positive relationships with total test score. In practice, values of the
discrimination index will seldom exceed .50 because of the differing
shapes of item and total score distributions. ScorePak classifies item
discrimination as "good" if the index is above .30; "fair" if it is between .
10 and.30; and "poor" if it is below .10.

Alternate Weight

This column shows the number of points given for each


response alternative. For most tests, there will be one correct answer
which will be given one point, but ScorePak allows multiple correct
alternatives, each of which may be assigned a different weight.

Means

The mean total test score (minus that item) is shown for students
who selected each of the possibleresponse alternatives. This information
should be looked at in conjunction with the discrimination index; higher
total test scores should be obtained by students choosing the correct, or
most highly weighted alternative. Incorrect alternatives with relatively
high means should be examined to determine why "better" students chose
that particular alternative.

Frequencies and Distribution

The number and percentage of students who choose each


alternative are reported. The bar graph on the right shows the percentage
choosing each response; each "#" represents approximately 2.5%.
Frequently chosen wrong alternatives may indicate common
misconception among the students.
Difficulty and discrimination Distributions
At the end of the Item Analysis report, test items are listed
according their degrees of difficulty (easy, medium, hard) and
discrimination (good, fair, poor). These distributions provide a quick
overview of the test, and can be used to identify items which are not
performing well and which can perhaps be improved or discarded.
Test Statistics
Two statistics are provided to evaluate the performance of the
test as a whole.
Reliability Coefficient
The reliability of a test refers to the extent to which the test is
likely to produce consistent scores. The particular reliability coefficient
computed by ScorePak reflects three characteristics of the test:

The intercorrelations among the items -- the greater the relative


number of positive relationships, and the stronger those
relationships are, the greater the reliability. Item discrimination
indices and the test's reliability coefficient are related in this
regard.

The length of the test -- a test with more items will have a

higher reliability, all other things being equal.


The content of the test -- generally, the more diverse the subject
matter tested and the testing techniques used, the lower the
reliability.

Reliability coefficients theoretically range in value from zero


(no reliability) to 1.00 (perfect reliability). In practice, their approximate
range is from .50 to .90 for about 95% of the classroom tests scored by
ScorePak.
High reliability means that the questions of a test tended to "pull
together." Students who answered a given question correctly were more
likely to answer other questions correctly. If a parallel test were
developed by using similar items, the relative scores of students would
show little change.
Low reliability means that the questions tended to be unrelated
to each other in terms of who answered them correctly. The resulting test
scores reflect peculiarities of the items or the testing situation more than
students' knowledge of the subject matter.
As with many statistics, it is dangerous to interpret the
magnitude of a reliability coefficient out of context. High reliability
should be demanded in situations in which a single test score is used to
make major decisions, such as professional licensure examinations.
Because classroom examinations are typically combined with other
scores to determine grades, the standards for a single test need not be as
stringent. The following general guidelines can be used to interpret
reliability coefficients for classroom exams:
Reliability

Interpretation

.90 and above

Excellent reliability; at the level of the best


standardized tests

.80- .90

Very good for a classroom test

.70 - .80

Good for a classroom test; in the range of most. There


are probably a few items which could be improved.

.60 - .70

Somewhat low. This test needs to be supplemented by


other measures (e.g., more tests) to determine grades.
There are probably some items which could be
improved.

.50 - .60

Suggests need for revision of test, unless it is quite


short (ten or fewer items). The test definitely needs to
be supplemented by other measures (e.g., more tests)
for grading.

.50 or below

Questionable reliability. This test should not contribute


heavily to the course grade, and it needs revision.

The measure of reliability used by ScorePak is Cronbach's


Alpha. This is the general form of the more commonly reported KR-20
and can be applied to tests composed of items with different numbers of
points given for different response alternatives. When coefficient alpha is
applied to tests in which each item has only one correct answer and all
correct answers are worth the same number of points, the resulting
coefficient is identical to KR-20.
(Further discussion of test reliability can be found in J. C.
Nunnally, Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967, pp.
172-235, see especially formulas 6-26, p. 196.)
Standard Error of Measurement
The standard error of measurement is directly related to the
reliability of the test. It is an index of the amount of variability in an
individual student's performance due to random measurement error. If it
were possible to administer an infinite number of parallel tests, a
student's score would be expected to change from one administration to
the next due to a number of factors. For each student, the scores would
form a "normal" (bell-shaped) distribution. The mean of the distribution
is assumed to be the student's "true score," and reflects what he or she

"really" knows about the subject. The standard deviation of the


distribution is called the standard error of measurement and reflects the
amount of change in the student's score which could be expected from
one test administration to another.
Whereas the reliability of a test always varies between 0.00 and
1.00, the standard error of measurement is expressed in the same scale as
the test scores. For example, multiplying all test scores by a constant will
multiply the standard error of measurement by that same constant, but
will leave the reliability coefficient unchanged.
A general rule of thumb to predict the amount of change which
can be expected in individual test scores is to multiply the standard error
of measurement by 1.5. Only rarely would one expect a student's score to
increase or decrease by more than that amount between two such similar
tests. The smaller the standard error of measurement, the more accurate
the measurement provided by the test.
(Further discussion of the standard error of measurement can be
found in J. C. Nunnally, Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill,
1967, pp.172-235, see especially formulas 6-34, p. 201.)
A Caution in Interpreting Item Analysis Results
Each of the various item statistics provided by ScorePak
provides information which can be used to improve individual test items
and to increase the quality of the test as a whole. Such statistics must
always be interpreted in the context of the type of test given and the
individuals being tested. W. A. Mehrens and I. J. Lehmann provide the
following set of cautions in using item analysis results (Measurement and
Evaluation in Education and Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, 1973, 333-334):

Item analysis data are not synonymous with item validity. An


external criterion is required to accurately judge the validity of
test items. By using the internal criterion of total test score, item
analyses reflect internal consistency of items rather than
validity.

The discrimination index is not always a measure of item

quality. There is a variety of reasons an item may have low


discriminating power:
a) extremely difficult or easy items will have low ability to
discriminate but such items are often needed to adequately
sample course content and objectives;
b) an item may show low discrimination if the test measures many
different content areas and cognitive skills. For example, if the
majority of the test measures "knowledge of facts," then an item
assessing "ability to apply principles" may have a low
correlation with total test score, yet both types of items are
needed to measure attainment of course objectives.
Item analysis data are tentative. Such data are influenced by the
type and number of students being tested, instructional
procedures employed, and chance errors. If repeated use of
items is possible, statistics should be recorded for each
administration of each item.

Raw scores are those scores which are computed by scoring


answer sheets against a ScorePak Key Sheet. Raw score names are
EXAM1 through EXAM9, QUIZ1 through QUIZ9, MIDTRMI through
MIDTRM3, and FINAL. ScorePak cannot analyze scores taken from
the bonus section of student answer sheets or computed from other
scores, because such scores are not derived from individual items which
can be accessed by ScorePak. Furthermore, separate analyses must be
requested for different versions of the same exam. Return to the text.
(anchor near note 1 in text)
A correlation is a statistic which indexes the degree of linear
relationship between two variables. If the value of one variable is related
to the value of another, they are said to be "correlated." In positive
relationships, the value of one variable tends to be high when the value of
the other is high, and low when the other is low. In negative
relationships, the value of one variable tends to be high when the other is
low, and vice versa. The possible values of correlation coefficients range
from -1.00 to 1.00. The strength of the relationship is shown by the

absolute value of the coefficient (that is how large the number is whether
it is positive or negative). The sign indicates the direction of the
relationship (whether positive or negative). Return to the text.
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QUESTION:
A few years ago in your Shiken column, you showed how to do
item analysis for weighted items using a calculator (Brown, 2000, pp. 1921) and a couple of columns back (Brown, 2002, pp. 20-23) you showed
how to do distractor efficiency analysis in a spreadsheet program. But, I
don't think you have ever shown how to do regular item analysis statistics
in a spreadsheet. Could you please do that? I think some of your readers
would find it very useful.
ANSWER:
Yes, I see what you mean. In answering questions from readers,
I explained more advanced concepts of item analysis without laying the
groundwork that other readers might need. To remedy that, in this
column, I will directly address your question, but only with regard to
norm-referenced item analysis. In my next Statistics Corner column, I
will address another reader's question, and in the process show how
criterion-referenced item analysis can be done in a spreadsheet.
The Overall Purpose of Item Analysis
Let's begin by answering the most basic question in item
analysis: Why do we do item analysis? We do it as the penultimate step
in the test development process. Such projects are usually accomplished
in the following steps:
1.
2.

Assemble or write a relatively large number of items of the type


you want on the test.
Analyze the items carefully using item format analysis to make
sure the items are well written and clear (for guidelines, see
Brown, 1996, 1999; Brown & Hudson, 2002).

3.

4.

5.

Pilot the items using a group of students similar to the group


that will ultimately be taking the test. Under less than ideal
conditions, this pilot testing may be the first operational
administration of the test.
Analyze the results of the pilot testing using item analysis
techniques. These are described below for norm-referenced tests
(NRTs) and in the next column for criterion-referenced tests
(CRTs).
Select the most effective items (and get rid of the ineffective
items) to make a shorter, more effective revised version of the
test.

Basically, those five steps are followed in any test development or


revision project.
Item Analysis Statistics for Norm-Referenced Tests
As indicated above, the fourth step, item analysis, is different
for NRTs and CRTs, and in this column, I will only explain item analysis
statistics as they apply to NRTs. The basic purpose of any NRT is to
spread students out along a general continuum of language abilities,
usually for purposes of making aptitude, proficiency, or placement
decisions (for much more on this topic, see Brown, 1996, 1999; Brown &
Hudson, 2002). Two item statistics are typically used in the item analysis
of such norm-referenced tests: item facility and item discrimination.
Item facility (IF) is defined here as the proportion of students
who answered a particular item correctly. Thus, if45 out of 50 students
answered a particular item correctly, the proportion would be 45/50 = .
90. An IFof .90 means that 90% of the students answered the item
correctly, and by extension,that the item is very easy. In Screen 1, you
will see one way to calculate IFusing the Excel spreadsheet for item 1
(I1) in a small example data set coded 1 for correct and 0 for incorrect
answers. Notice the cursor has outlined cell C21 and that the
function/formula typed in that cell (shown both in the row above the
column labels and in cell B21) is = AVERAGE (C2:C19), which means
average the ones and zeros in the range between cells C2 and C19. The

result in this case is .94, a very easy item because 94% of the students are
answering correctly.

All the other NRT and CRT item analysis techniques that I will
discuss here and in the next column are based on this notion of item
facility. For instance, item discrimination can be calculated by first
figuring out who the upper and lower students are on the test (using their
total scores to sort them form the highest score to the lowest). The upper
and lower groups should probably be made up of equal numbers of
students who represent approximately one third of the total group each.
In Screen 1, I have sorted the students from high to low based on their
total test scores from 77 for Hide down to 61 for Hachiko. Then I
separated the three groups such that there are five in the top group, five
in the bottom group, and six in the middle group. Notice that Issaku and
Naoyo both had scores of 68 but ended up in different groups (as did
Eriko and Kimi with their scores of 70). The decision as to which group
they were assigned to was made with a coin flip.

To calculate item discrimination (ID), I started by calculating


IFfor the upper group using the following: = AVERAGE(C2:C6), as
shown in row 22. Then, I calculated IFfor the lower group using the
following: = AVERAGE(C15:C19), as shown in row 23. With IFupper
and IFlower in hand, calculatingIDsimply required subtracting IFupper
IFlower. I did this by subtracting C22 minus C23, or = C22 -C23, as shown
in row 24, which resulted in an IDof .20 for I1.
Once I had calculated the four item analysis statistics shown in
Screen 1 for Il, I then simply copied them and pasted them into the
spaces below the other items, which resulted in all the other item
statistics you see in Screen 1. [Note that the statistics didn't always fit in
the available spaces, so I got results that looked like ### in some cells; to
fix that, I blocked out all the statistics and typed alt oca and thusadjusted
the column widths to fit the statistics. You may also want to adjust the
number of decimal places, which is beyond the scope of this article. You
can learn about this by looking in the Help menu or in the Excel manual.
Ideal items in an NRT should have an average IFof .50. Such
items would thus be well centered, i.e., 50 percent of the students would
have answered correctly, and by extension, 50 percent would have
answered incorrectly. In reality however, items rarely have an IFof
exactly .50, so those that Ell in a range between .30 and .70 are usually
considered acceptable for NRT purposes.
Once those items that fall within the .30 to .70 range of IFs are
identified, the items among them that have the highest IDs should be
further selected for inclusion in the revised test. This process would help
the test designer to keep only those items that are well centered and
discriminate well between the high and the low scoring students. Such
items are indicated in Screen 1 by an asterisk in row 25 (cleverly labeled
"Keepers").
For more information on using item analysis to develop NRTs,
see Brown (1995, 1996, 1999). For information on calculating NRT
statistics for weighted items (i.e., items that cannot be coded 1 or 0 for

correct and incorrect), see Brown (2000). For information on calculating


item discrimination using the point-biserial correlation coefficient instead
of ID, see Brown (2001). For an example NRT development and revision
project, see Brown (1988).
Conclusion
I hope you have found my explanation of how to do normreferenced item analysis statistics (item facility and item discrimination)
in a spreadsheet clear and helpful. I must emphasize that these statistics
are only appropriate for developing and analyzing norm-referenced tests,
which are usually used at the institutional level, like, for example, overall
English language proficiency tests (to help with, say,admissions
decisions) or placement tests (to help place students into different levels
of English study within a program). However, these statistics are not
appropriate for developing and analyzing classroom oriented criterionreferenced tests like the diagnostic, progress, and achievement tests of
interest to teachers. For an explanation of item analysis as it is applied to
CRTs, read the Statistics Corner column in the next issue of this
newsletter, where I will explain the distinction between the difference
index and the B-index.
3.3

ITEM DIFFICULTY:

Definition:
item difficulty is a measure of the proportion of individuals who
responded correctly to each test item. Item difficulty in a test
determined by two proportion of individuals who correctly respond to the
item in particular.
item difficulty of a test for a particular group is evaluated by the
percentage of participates who respond correctly.
Explanation:
Item difficulty is simply the percentage of students taking two
tests who answered the item correctly. The larger the percentage getting
an item rights the easier two items. The higher the difficulty index, the

easier the item is understood to be (wood, 1960). To compute the item


difficulty, divide the number of people answering the item correctly by
the total number of people answering item. The proportion for the item is
usually denoted by P and it called item difficulty. The range is from 0%
to 100%.
Examples:
To determine the difficulty level of test items, a measure called
difficulty Indene is used. This measure asks teachers to calculate the
proportion of students who answered the test correctly. By looking each
alternative (for multiple choice), we can also find out if there are answers
choices that should be replaced. For example, lets we give a multiple
choice quiz and there were four answer choices (A,B,C and D). Two
following talde illustrates how many students selected each answer
choice for Question # 1 and # 2.
Questions

#1

24*

#2

12*

13

*Devertes correct answers.


For question # 1, we can see that A was not a very good
distracter no one selected that answer. We can also compute the difficulty
of item by dividing the number of students who choose two correct
answers (24) by the number of total students (30) by using formula, the
difficulty of Question # 1, P is equal to
P=

24
30

P= .80
A rough role of thumb is that if the item difficulty is more
then 75, it is an easy item; if the difficulty is below 25, it is a difficult
item. Given these parameters, this item could be regarded moderately

easy 10ts (80%) of students got it correct. In contrast, Question # 2 is

much more difficult.

( 1230 =.40)
P=

12
30

P= .40
In fail, on question # 2, more students selected an incorrect
answer (B) than selected the correct answer (A). This item should be
carefully analyzed to ensure that B is an appropriate distracter.
Therefore Item difficulty should have been named item
easiness; it expresses the proportion or percentage of students who
answered two items correctly.
3.4

THE INDEX OF DISCRIMINATION

Introduction
1.

2.

3.

The index of discrimination is a useful measure of item quality


whenever the purpose of a test is to produce a spread of scores,
reflecting differences in student achievement, so that
distinctions may be made among the performances of
examinees. This is likely to be the purpose of norm-referenced
tests.
It is a degree to which students with high overall exam scores
also got a particular item correct. It is often referred to as Item
Effect, since it is an index of an item's effectiveness at
discriminating those who know the content from those who do
not.
The item discrimination index is a point biserial correlation
coefficient. Its possible range is -1.00 to 1.00. A strong and
positive correlation suggests that students who get any one
question correct also have a relatively high score on the overall

exam. Theoretically, this makes sense. Students who know


content and who perform well on the test overall should be
ones who know the content. There's a problem if students
getting correct answers on a test and they don't know
content.

the
the
are
the

Measurement of Index of Discrimination


Examples I If we are using the Item Analysis provided by Scanning
Operations, discrimination indices are listed under the column head
Disc.
RESPNSE TABLE - FORMA
ITEM
NO
1
2
3

OMIT
%
0
0
0

A
%
0
79
4

B
%
18
0
7

C
%
82
0
89

D
%
0
21
0

E
%
0
0
0

KEY-

The Index of Discrimination


We examine item discrimination; there are a number of things we should
consider.
1.

2.

3.

4.

Item difficulty! Very easy or very difficult items are not good
discriminators. If an item is so easy (e.g., difficulty = 98) that
nearly everyone gets it correct or so difficult (e.g., difficulty =
30)
That nearly everyone gets it wrong, then it becomes very
difficult to discriminate those who actually know the content
from those who do not.
That does not mean that very easy and very difficult items
should be eliminated. In fact, they are fine as long they are used
with the instructor's recognition that they will not discriminate
well and if putting them on the test matches the intention of the
instructor to either really challenge students or to make certain
that everyone knows a certain bit of content.
A poorly written item will have little ability to discriminate.

C
A
C

Example 2
Another measure, the Discrimination Index, refers to how well
an assessment differentiates between high and low scorers. In other
words, you should be able to expect that the high-performing students
would select the correct answer for each question more often than the
low-performing students. If this is true, then the assessment is said to
have a positive discrimination index (between 0 and 1) -- indicating that
students who received a high total score chose the correct answer for a
specific item more often than the students who had a lower overall score.
If, however, you find that more of the low-performing students
got a specific item correct, then the item has a negative discrimination
index (between -1 and 0). Let's look at an example.
Table 1 displays the results of ten questions on a quiz. Note that
the students are arranged with the top overall scorers at the top of the
table 1
Table-1:The Index of Discrimination
Student

Total score (%)

Qu
1

Asif

90

Sam

90

Jill

80

Charlie

80

Sonya

70

Ruben

60

Clay

60

Kelley

50

Justin

50

Tonya

40

1 indicates the answer was correct; 0 indicates it was incorrect.


Steps to determine the Difficulty Index and the Discrimination Index.

1.

After the students are arranged with the highest overall scores at
the top, count the number of students in the upper and lower
group who got each item correct. For Question #1, there were 4
students in the top half who got it correct and 4 students in the
bottom half.
Determine the Difficulty Index by dividing the number who got
it correct by the total number of students. For Question #1, this
would be 8/10 or p=.80.
Determine the Discrimination Index by subtracting the number
of students in the lower group who got the item correct from the
number of students in the upper group who got the item correct.
Then, divide by the number of students in each group (in this
case, there are five in each group). For Question #1, that means
you would subtract 4 from 4, and divide by 5, which results in a
Discrimination Index of 0.
The answers for Questions 1-3 are provided in Table 1

2.

3.

4.
Table-2
Item

# Correct
(upper group)

# Correct
(Lower group)

Difficulty
(p)

Discrimination
(D)

Question 1

.80

Question 2

.30

-0.6

Question 3

.60

0.8

In table 2 we can see that Question #2 had a difficulty index of .


30 (meaning it was quite difficult), and it also had a negative
discrimination index of -0.6 (meaning that the low-performing students
were more likely to get this item correct). This question should be
carefully analyzed, and probably deleted or changed. Our "best" overall
question is Question 3, which had a moderate difficulty level (.60), and
discriminated extremely well (0.8).

Recommendations for Determining Index of Discrimination


It is typically recommended that item discrimination be at least .
20. It's best to aim even higher. Items with a negative discrimination are

theoretically indicating that either the students who performed poorly on


the test overall got the question correct or that students with high overall
test performance did not get the item correct. Thus, the index could
signal a number of problems:

There is a mistake on the scoring key.


Poorly prepared students are guessing correctly.
Well prepared students are somehow justifying the wrong
answer.

In all cases, action must be taken! So, items with negative item
difficulty must be addressed. Items with discrimination indices less than .
20 (or slightly over, but still relatively low) must be revised or
eliminated. Be certain that there is only one possible answer, that the
question is written clearly, and that your answer key is correct.

UNIT-4:
INTERPRETING THE TEST SCORES
4.1

THE PERCENTAGE CORRECT SCORE:

What does score test mean?


A test score is a piece of information, usually a number, that conveys the
performance of an examinee on a test. One formal definition is that it is
"a summary of the evidence contained in an examinee's responses to the
items of a test that are related to the construct or constructs being
measured."
Test scores are interpreted with a norm-referenced or criterion-referenced
interpretation, or occasionally both. A norm-referenced interpretation
means that the score conveys meaning about the examinee with regards
to their standing among other examinees. A criterion-referenced
interpretation means that the score conveys information about the
examinee with regards a specific subject matter, regardless of other
examinees' scores.
Types of Test Scores
There are two types of test scores: raw scores and scaled scores. A raw
score is a score without any sort of adjustment or transformation, such as
the simple number of questions answered correctly. A scaled score is the
results of some transformation applied to the raw score.
The purpose of scaled scores is to report scores for all examinees on a
consistent scale. Suppose that a test has two forms, and one is more
difficult than the other. It has been determined by equating that a score of
65% on form 1 is equivalent to a score of 68% on form 2. Scores on both
forms can be converted to a scale so that these two equivalent scores
have the same reported scores. For example, they could both be a score
of 350 on a scale of 100 to 500.

Two well-known tests in the United States that have scaled scores are the
ACT and the SAT. The ACT's scale ranges from 0 to 36 and the SAT's
from 200 to 800 (per section). Ostensibly, these two scales were selected
to represent a mean and standard deviation of 18 and .6 (ACT), and 500
and 100. The upper and lower bounds were selected because an interval
of plus or minus three standard deviations contains more than 99% of a
population. Scores outside that range are difficult to measure, and return
little practical value.
Note that scaling does not affect the psychometric properties of a test, it
is something that occurs after the assessment process (and equating, if
present) is completed. Therefore, it is not an issue of psychometrics, per
se, but an issue of interpretability.
Interpretation the Score by Criterion Referencing
The raw score is number of points received on a test when the test has
been scored according to the instructions. Raw score is not very
meaningful without further information. Criterion-referenced test
interpretation permits us to describe an individual's test performance
without referring to the performance of other individuals. Thus we might
describe a student's performance in terms of the speed, precision with
which a certain task is performed. Criterion-referenced interpretation of
test scores is most meaningful when the test is designed to measure a set
of clearly stated learning tasks. Enough items are used for each
interpretation to make dependable Judgments.
Interpretation the Score by Percentages
In mathematics, a relationship with 100 is called percentage (denoted by
%). Often it is useful to express the scores in terms of percentages for
comparison. Consider the following example.
Grade

Class A No. of
Students

Class B No. of
Students

10

12.50

40

25

31.25

30

30

37.50

20

15

18.75

10

Total

80

100

20

100

Ten students from class A and eight students from class B got
grade A. It looks apparently that class A is better in getting A grade but
12.5% of the students from class A and 40% students from class B got
grade A. It is clear from the percentages that class.
B is far better in getting grade A than class A.
Interpretation the Score by Norm Referencing
Interpretation of scores by norm referencing involves making of
scores and expressing a given score in relation, to the other scores Normreferenced test interpretation tells us how an individual is compared with
other persons who have taken the same test. The simplest type of
comparison is to rank the scores from highest to lowest and to note where
an individual's score falls. The rest of the scores serve as the norm group.
The given score is compared with the other scores by norm referencing.
If a student's score is second from the top in a group of 20 students, it is a
high score meaning that the scores of 90% of the students are less than
him.
Ordering and Ranking
A first step in organizing scores in the listing of scores in order
of magnitude from largest to the smallest score. The data so arranged are
called ordered array. By scanning an ordered array, we can determine
quickly the largest score, the smallest score and other facts about the
data.
Ranked data consists of scores in a form that shows their
relative position on some characteristic but does not yield a numerical
value for this characteristic. The order of finish of cars in a race is an
example of ranking. If we list the cars as first, second, third etc. up to the
last car, we can say that they were ranked on the characteristic of overall

speed. We know each car's position relative to any other car's position but
we have no precise knowledge of the speed of any car. A high school
teacher ranked Hamid 30th in a class of 100 means that Hamid did better
than 70 of his classmates but poorer than 29. But nothing has been aid
about Hamid's general level of achievement.
Measurement Scales
Measurement scales are of great significance in analyzing and
interpreting results. The important types of measurement scales are:
The Nominal Scale
The lowest measurement scale is the nominal scale. In this
scale, each individual is put into one of the distinct categories or classes.
Each class has a name. The names are just labels. There is no order in
these classes. We cannot say that one class is larger than the other class.
You cannot do arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division) on this scale.
Examples of the nominal scale are Categorization of blood
groups of the students of a college into A, B, AB and 0 groups. We
cannot say that group A is better than group B. Classification of books in
a college library according to subjects.
Distribution of the population of Pakistan according to sex,
religion, occupations, marital status, literacy etc., is examples of the
nominal scale.
The Ordinal Scale
When measurements are not only different from category to
category but can also be ranked according to some criterion, they are to
be measured on an ordinal scale. The members of anyone category are
considered equal but members of one category are considered lower than
those in another category. The ordinal scale is one-step higher than the
nominal scale because we distribute the individuals not only in classes
but we also order these classes.

Examples of the ordinal scale are Categorization of schools


according to their educational level into primary, middle, secondary or
higher secondary is an ordinal scale. There is an order in these classes.
The primary level is lower than the middle level and the middle level is
lower than the secondary level. You cannot do arithmetic operations on
this scale.
Individuals may be classified according to socioeconomic status
as low, medium, high. Intelligence of students may be average, above
average or below average. Classification of examination results into
different grades A), A, B, C, D, E etc. In this measurement scale, we can
say that one individual is larger than the other but we cannot say how
large it is.
The Interval Scale
In this scale, it is not only possible to order measurement but
also the distance between two measurements is known. We can say that
the difference between two measurements 30 and 40 is equal to the
difference between measurements 40 and 50. The level of the interval
scale is higher than the nominal and the ordinal scales. This is truly a
quantitative scale. A unit of measurement and a zero point are required
for this scale. The selected zero point is not necessarily a true zero. It
does not have to indicate a total absence of the quantity being measured.
We measure height in meters or feet, weight in kilograms or pounds,
temperature in centigrade or Fahrenheit, income in rupees and the time in
seconds. Arithmetic operations can be done on this scale. You can add the
income of a wife to that of his husband.
The Ratio Scale
The highest level of measurement is the ratio scale. Equality of
ratios as well as equality of intervals is determined in this scale.
Fundamental to the ratio scale is the true zero point. The measurement of
height, weight and length makes use of the ratio scale.

Frequency Distribution
Data that have been originally collected is called raw data or
primary data. It has not yet undergone any statistical technique. To
understand the raw data easily, we arrange into groups or classes. The
data so arranged is called groups data or frequency distribution.
General rules far the construction of a frequency distribution:
1.

Determine the Range. Range is the difference between highest


and lowest scores.

2.

Decide the appropriate number of class intervals: 'There is no


hard and fast formula for deciding the number of class intervals.
The number of class intervals is usually taken between 5 and 20
depending on the length of the data.

3.

Determine the approximate length of the class interval by


dividing the range with number of class intervals.

5.

Determine the limits of the class intervals taking the smallest


scores at the bottom of the column to the largest scores at the
top.

5.

Determine the number of scores falling in each class interval.


This is done by using a tally or score sheet.

Example:
The marks obtained by 120 students of first year class in the
subject of Education are given below-Construct a frequency distribution.
57

86

69

62

75

73 80

78

87 83

77

35 70

6
8

84

73 81 78

61

72

59

98

95

63 76

73

88 60

52

83 86

4
5

70

53 85 74

62

78

89

84

60

79 91

64

84 85

81

79 90

7
8

83

50 71 65

76

58

71

79

51

61 61

89

81 74

76

74 82

9
1

71

76 80 52

71

66

77

65

44

79 95

74

79 63

83

87 77

7
5

83

48 70 85

61

70

72

67

61

83 75

79

97 75

66

54 81

78

75 83 61

8
33

76

62

55

72 76

78

75 99

80

83 86

The following steps are followed to-make a frequency distribution.


1.

Step-1: Range = maximum score-minimum score = 99 33 =


66.

2.

Step-2: Number of approximate class intervals to be taken is 7.

3.

Step-3: Length of the class intervals, usually denoted by i, is.

I=

Range
No . of class intervals

The length is usually rounded upward to whole number.


Therefore 9.4 is taken as 10.
4.

Step-4: Determine the limits of the class intervals


90 99
80 89
70 79
60 69
50 59
40 49
30 39

The lowest class interval is taken in which the minimum scores


can be included. The minimum score is 33. The lowest class interval can
be started from 30, but it is convenient to start the lowest class interval
from the score to which addition of the length of the class intervals is
easy. So we start from 30. This is called lower limit of the class intervals.
Add 9 (1 1 = 10 1 = 9) to the lower limit to get the upper limit of
the first class interval. Now add consequently i = 10 to the lower limits
and upper limits to get the remaining class intervals.

5.

Step-5: Distribute the scores in the class intervals by putting a


tally mark in the relevant class interval and count the number of
scores in each class interval.

Grade

Tallies

90 - 99

||||| |||

80 89

||||| ||||| ||||| ||||| ||||| |||||

70 79

||||| ||||| ||||| ||||| ||||| ||||| ||||| ||||| |||||

60 69

||||| ||||| ||||| ||||| ||

50 59

||||| |||||

40 49

|||

30 39

||

Frequency
The number of scores lying in a class interval is called the
frequency of that class interval. For Example two scores lie in the class
interval 30-39. Therefore 2 is the frequency of the class interval 30-39.
Mid-Point of Class Mark
The middle of a class interval is called mid point or class mark
and is usually denoted by X. It is calculated as
Midpoint = X =

Lower limit +Upper limit


2

For Example, the mid point of the class interval 30-39 is


X=

Lower limit +Upper limit 30+39


=
2
2

69
2

= 34.5

Measures of Central Tendency:


A single score calculated to represent all the scores is called an
average. Average tends to lie in the centre of an array. That is why
averages are called measures of central tendency. Since averages locate
the centre of a data set, these are also called measures of location.
Several types of average can be defined. Most commonly used
averages are arithmetic mean, median and mode.

The Arithmetic Mean or Mean


The arithmetic mean is the most commonly used average. It is
usually called mean or average. The arithmetic mean is defined as the
number obtained by dividing the sum of the scores by their number. It is
denoted by putting bar on the variable symbol e.g., X (reads as X bar).
The formula for calculating the arithmetic mean ungrouped data is:

x
X =
N
Where
Read as sigma, is the Greek symbol means sum of.
X Means sum of the values of variable X.
N is the number of scores of measurements. In order to calculate
the arithmetic mean for grouped data formula is: X fx / f /
Where
fx means the sum of product of values for f and `x', f means
frequency of the scores and x means score. f means the sum of
all the frequencies of the distribution.

The Median:
The median of a set of scores is the middle score of the
arithmetic mean of two middle scores in an array. 50% of the scores are
less than median and 50% of the scores are greater than median.
Formula for calculating median for ungrouped data:
Median =

( N 2+ 1 )

th score

Formula for calculating median for grouped data:


Median = L +

i N
+ C
f
2

Where
L = lower class boundary of the median class interval.
I = length of the median class interval.
F - the frequency of the median class interval.
N= f
C = the cumulative frequency of the class interval below the median class
interval.
The Mode
The mode is the score that occurs greatest number of times in a
data set. Mode does not always exist. If each score occur the same
number of times, there is no mode. There may be more than one mode. If
two or more scores occur greatest number of times, then there are more
than one mode.
The mode can be calculated for grouped data with the help of
following formula.

f mf l
L+
i
Mode =
2 f mf 1f 2
Where
L = lower class boundary of the modal class interval.
Fm = the maximum frequency.
Fi = the frequency preceding to the modal class.
f2 = the frequency succeeding to the modal class,
I = the length of the modal class interval.
Note: The mode lies in the class interval having maximum frequency.
This class interval is called the modal class.
Empirical Relationship between Mean, Median and Mode:
For moderately skewed distributions, we have the following
empirical relation:
Mode = 3 Median 2 Mean
Mode = 3 (74.61) 2 (73.42)
Mode = 76.99
Comparison of Measures of Central Tendency:
The numerical value of every score in a data set contributes to
the mean. This is not true of the mode or median because only the mean
is based on the sum of all the scores. In a single peaked symmetrical
distribution mean = median = mode. In practice, no distribution is exactly
symmetrical, so the mode, median and mean usually have different
values. If a population is not symmetrical, the mean, median and mode
will not be equal. The mean is affected by the presence of a few extreme
scores which the median and mode are not. The mean is preferred if
extreme values are not present in the data. Median is preferred if interest
is centered on the typical rather than the total score and if the distribution
is skewed. If some scores are missing so that the mean cannot be

computed directly, the median is appropriate. Mode is preferred only if


the distribution is multimodal and a multi-valued index is satisfactory.
The Quartiles
The values that divide a set of scores into four equal parts are
called quartiles and are denoted by Ql, Q2, and Q3. Q1 is called the
lower quartile and Q3 is called the upper quartile. 25% of the scores are
less than Ql- and 75% of the scores are less than Q3. Q2 is the median.
The formulas for the quartiles are given as:
Q1 =

( N 4+ 1 )

Q2 =

2 ( N +1 ) N + 1
=
th score
4
2

Q3 =

3 ( N +1)
th score
4

th score

and

4.2

THE PERCENTILE RANKS:

The Percentiles:
The values that divide a set of scores into hundred equal parts
are called percentiles and are denoted by P1, P2, P3, .. and P99.?
P25 is the first quartile, P75 is the third quartile and P50 is the median.
The Percentile Ranks (PR):
The procedure for calculating percentile ranks is the reverse of
the procedure for calculating percentiles. Here we have an individual's
score and find the percentage of scores that lies below it. In the Example,
we calculate P78== 83.37. It means that 83.37 is the score below which
78% of the scores fall. If a student has a score of 83.37, we can say that
his percentile rank (PR) is 78 on a scale of 100.

Relationships with a Distribution


Computing the Coefficient of Correlation
A coefficient of correlation measures the degree of linear
relationship between two sets of scores. The range of the coefficient is
from -- 1 to + I with intermediate value 0 meaning no linear relationship.
There are two extremes: r = + 1 indicates perfect positive correlation and
r = I indicates perfect negative correlation. The larger the value of r,
the higher is the degree of linear relationship.

Positive Correlation

Negative Correlation

No correlation
The most common methods of computing the Coefficient of
correlation are:
1.

Rank-difference method:

This method is useful when the number of scores to be


correlated'-is small or exact magnitude of the scores cannot be
ascertained. The scores are ranked according to size or some other
criterion using numbers 1, 2, 3 n The rank-difference coefficient of
correlation can be computed by the following formula.
2

Rs = 1

6 D
2
N (N 1)

Where D == the difference between two rankings.


N = Number of pairs of scores.
2.

The Product-moment method

The product-moment coefficient is usually used when the


number of scores is large. Thus this method is used in most research
studies. The product-moment coefficient is usually denoted by r.

XY X Y

( )( )
( ) ( )

rxy =

X2
N

Y2
N

Measures of Variability:
Measures of central tendency measure the centre of a set of
scores. However, two data sets can have the same mean, median and
mode and yet be quite different in other respects. For example, consider
the heights (in inches) of the players of two basketball teams.
Team-1: 72 73 76 76 78
Team-2: 67 72 78 76 84
The two teams have the same mean height. 75 inches, but it is
clear that the heights of the players of team 2 vary much more than those
of team 2. If we have information about the centre of scores and the
manner in which they are spread out we know much more bout set of
scores. The degree to which scores tend to spread about. an average value
is called dispersion.
The Range
It is the simplest measure of dispersion. The range of a set of
scores is the difference between maximum scores and minimum scores.
In symbols
Range = Xm Xo
Where Xm is the maximum score and Xo is the minimum score.
Quartile Deviation:
The quartile deviation is defined as half of the difference
between the third and the first quartiles.
In symbols
Q. D. = (Q3 Ql) / 2

Where
Q1 is the first quartile and
Q3 is the third
The Mean Deviation or Average Deviation:
The average deviation is defined as the arithmetic mean of the
deviations of the scores from the mean or median; the deviations are
taken as positive. In symbols

X X
N

M.D. =

For grouped data

M.D. =

f X X
f

The Standard Deviation:


The standard deviation is the positive square root of the
arithmetic mean of the squares of deviations of all the scores from their
mean.

X X 2

S=

Short formula for calculating standard deviation

S=

X2 X
N

( )
N

The Coefficient of Variation:


Karl Pearson introduced a relative measure of dispersion known
as coefficient of variation (denoted by c.v). It expresses the standard
deviation as a percentage of the arithmetic mean of a data set. It is
number without units and is used to compare variation in two or more
distributions. The smaller value of the c.v. indicates lesser variation. It is
also used as a criterion for consistent performance of the students,
players etc.
C.V.

S
X

100

Standard Scores:
A frequently used quantity is statistical analysis is the standard
score or Z-score. The standard score for a data value in the number of
standard deviations that the data value is away from the mean of the data
set.
Z=

X X
S

The Normal Curve:


Before explaining the normal distribution, some basic concepts
of probability is given below an event is a specified result That mayor
may not occur when an experiment is performed. For example, in tossing
of a coin once, appearance of head is an event, which may or may not
occur. The probability of an event is a measure of the likelihood of its
occurrence. A probability near indicates that the event is very unlikely to
occur. Whereas a probability near 1 indicates that the event is quite likely
to occur.

Relative frequency interpretation of probability:


Consider the, experiment of tossing a balanced coin once. There
are 50-50 chances the head will appear. Consequently, we assign a
probability of 0.5 to that event. The relative-frequency interpretation is
that in a large number of tosses, the head will appear about half of the
time.
Some Basic Properties of the Normal Curve
1.

The total area under the normal curve is equal to 1.

2.

The normal curve extends indefinitely in both directions.

3.

The normal distribution is symmetric about the mean that is


the part of the curve to the left of is the mirror image of the
part of the curve to the right of it.

4.

The mean, the median and the mode are equal.

5.

Mean deviation is 0.7979 .

6.

Quartile deviation is 0.6745 .

7.

In a formal distribution,
0.674+5 to + 0.6745 covers 50% of the area.
to + covers 68.27% of the area.
- 2 to + 2 covers 95.45 of the area.
- 3 to IA + 3 covers 99.73% of the area.

4.3

STANDARD SCORES:

Most educational and psychological tests provide standard


scores that are based on a scale that has a statistical mean (or average
score) of 100. If a student earns a standard score that is less than 100,
then that student is said to have performed below the mean, and if a
student earns a standard score that is greater than 100, then that student is
said to have performed above the mean. However, there is a wide range

of average scores, from low average to high average, with most students
earning standard scores on educational and psychological tests that fall in
the range of 85-115. This is the range in which 68% of the general
population performs and, therefore, is considered the normal limits of
functioning.
Classifying Standard Scores
However, the normal limits of functioning encompass three
classification categories: low average (standard scores of 80-89), average
(standard scores of 90-109), and high average (110-119). These
classifications are used typically by school psychologists and other
assessment specialists to describe a student's ability compared to sameage peers from the general population.
Subtest Scores
Many psychological tests are composed of multiple subtests that
have a mean of 10, 50, or 100. Subtests are relatively short tests that
measure specific abilities, such as. vocabulary, general knowledge, or
short-term auditory memory. Two or more subtest scores that reflect
different aspects of the same broad ability (such as broad Verbal Ability)
are usually combined into a composite or index score that has a mean of
100. For example, a Vocabulary subtest score, a Comprehension subtest
score, and a General Information subtest score (the three subtest scores
that reflect different aspects of Verbal Ability) may be combined to form
a broad Verbal Comprehension Index score. Composite scores, such as
IQ scores, Index scores, and Cluster scores, are more reliable and valid
than individual subtest scores. Therefore, when a student's performance
demonstrates relatively uniform ability across subtests that measure
different aspects of the same broad ability (the Vocabulary,
Comprehension, and General Information subtest scores are both
average), then the most reliable and valid score is the composite score
(Verbal Comprehension Index in this example). However, when a
student's performance demonstrates uneven ability across subtests that
measure different aspects of the same broad ability (the Vocabulary score
is below average, the Comprehension score is below average, and the

General Information score is high average), then the Verbal


Comprehension Index may not provide an accurate estimate of verbal
ability. In this situation, the student's verbal ability may be best
understood by Helping Children at Home and School II: Handouts for
Families and Educators S2-8llooking at what each subtest measures. In
sum, it is important to remember that unless performance is relatively
uniform on the subtests that make up a particular broad ability domain
(such as Verbal Ability), then the overall score (in this case the Verbal
Comprehension Index) may be a misleading estimate.
4.4

PROFILE:

One advantage of converting raw scores to derived scores is that


a pupils performance on different tests can be compared directly. This is
usually done by means of a test profile, like the one presented in Figure
14.3. such a graphic representation of test data makes it easy to identify a
pupils relative strengths and weaknesses. Most standardized tests have
provisions for plotting test profiles.
The profile shown in figure 14.3 indicates a desirable tend in
profile construction, instead of plotting targets scores as specific points
on the scales, test performance is recorded in the form of bands that
extend one standard error of measurement above and below the pupils
obtained scores. Recall from our discussion of reliability that there are
approximately two chances out of three that a pupils true source will fall
within one standard error of the obtained score. Thus, these confidence
bands indicate the ranges of scores within which we can be reasonably
certain of finding the pupils true standings. Plotting them on the profile
enables us to take into account the inaccuracy of the test scores when
comparing performance on different tests. Interpreting differences
between tests is simple with these score bands. If the bands for two tests
overlap, we can assume that performance on the two tests does not
different significantly, and if the ands do not overlap, we can assume that
there is probably a real difference in performance.

The score bands used with the differential aptitude test can be
plotted by hand or by computer. The computer produced profile shown in
figure 14.3 is based on the same sex percentiles. There are recorded
down the left side of the profile and were obtained from the percentile
norms in table 14.3 the opposite sex percentiles are listed down the right
side of the report also to show how the scores compare with the female
norms. The differences in percentiles for some tests plot the results
directly on the profile. The use of such bands minimizes the tendency of
test profiles to present a misleading picture. Without the bands we are apt
to attribute significance to differences in test performance that can be
accounted for the chance alone.
When profiles are used to compare test performance, it is
essential that the norms for all tests be comparable. Many test publishers
provide for this by standardizing a battery of achievement tests and a
scholastic aptitude test on the same population.
Profile Narrative Reports
Some test publishers are now making available to profile of
each pupils cores, accompanied by a narrative report that describes how
well the pupil is achieving. The graphic profile provides a quick view of
the pupils strengths and weaknesses, and the narrative report aids in
interpreting the scores and in identifying areas in which instructional
emphasis is needed. A typical report of this type, for a widely used test
battery, is shown in figure 14.4.
Narrative reports should be especially useful in communicating
test result to parents. They are, of course, also helpful to those teachers
who have had little or no training in the interpretation and use fo scores
from published tests.

UNIT-5:
EVALUATING PRODUCT, PROCEDURES &
PERFORMANCE
5.1

EVOLUTION THEMES AND TERMS PAPERS:

The evaluation is structured around a logical sequence of


seventeen questions which fall under six evaluation themes. The
following are major themes of evaluation.
1.

Learning Outcome:-

The quality of learning outcome is the first theme identified in


teaching and learning from work under this theme one of important sub
theme is identified.
Attainment of Curriculum Objectives:

Considered the knowledge, skill and understanding of our pupil.


How does the knowledge level of pupil reflect the curriculum

objectives for chosen area?


What opportunities are pupil's afforded use and display their

ability applies their knowledge and skill?


Can pupils use their skills for curriculum reasoning in problem

solving?
What is the attitude of pupils to learning curriculum?
Do our pupils enjoy learning? Are they motivate to learning.
In numeracy what do you understand by each of the following

skills?

Applying and problem solving


Communicating and expressing
Implementing
Integrating
Reasoning
Understanding of recalling

In the course of a week how many of the following future in


yours numeracy lessons? What opportunities are provided to
development of the following context

Oral language
Reading
Writing
Digital literacy

If we have not completed a school improvement plan to date,


what do we need to focus on the support learns out comes and attainment
of curriculum objectives in each curriculum area.
2.

Learning Experience.

The quality learning experience is the second theme identified in


teaching of three important sub theme are Identified.

Learning environment
Engaged in learning
Learning to learning

Engaged in Learning

Are students interested and enthused by the content and teaching

approaches used?
Do we encouraged pupil questioning considered teacher input

V'S pupil participation in your class room.


How pupils are active when teacher work?
Collaborative and independent learning.
Progressive skill learning and skill development.
Challenge and support.

To support learning by referring to outcomes and related success


criteria to allow for further enhancement of understanding.

Pupils enjoy learning in class room and are eager to find out

more,
All students in class room afforded the opportunity to participate
in lesson and engage with learning.

Learning Environment
To involve the students in development rules which recognize
the rights of responsibilities of the community.
Prepare supervision of pupils both within the class and at break
times within the school setting.
All the recourses well organized, labeled and clear to all
learners.
Celebrates pupils learning and achievements through a range of display.
Concrete and visual materials, centers of interest and display of pupil
work.
Learning to Learn
Learning to learning is the third sub theme of learning
experiences.
To engage the pupils to monitor their own progress in learning
for learning technique to utilize them properly in class room to develop
the skills of learner by proper planning of lessons.
To allow the learner to communicate work with other in the clam.
How do we enable the student learner to develop their personal
organization to plan out their own work study and revision skills do we
teach.
To teach the pupils how to organized prose nil the work.
To make the pupil creative and give the opportunity for collaborative
work.
3.

Teacs Practice

The quality of teacher's practice is the third theme of teacher


and learning from work. Under this theme four sub themes are identified

Preparation for teaching


Teaching approach
Management of pupils

Assessment

1.

Preparation for Teaching

Learning outcome:
Do we provide class, relevant and differentiated learning out

comes to pupil?
How pupils are made aware of what they are going to learn?
Are pupil familiar with the expected success criteria in learning
activities.

Written Plans

Are the long and short terms plans prepared in accordance with

the rules for primary teacher.


Does the planning clearly indicate expected learning out comes,
teaching approaches resources and activities.

Monthly Progress Report

Do our cantos miosuila provide a clear picture of the


progression and continuity of pupil learning across the
curriculum.

Literacy and Numeracy

Are the literacy and numeracy opportunities identified across

the curriculum?
How we identified these opportunities an are whole school plans
individual planning?

Resources
How satisfied are we with the resources, materials and
equipment we have with in our class room and available within the
school? Are the necessary and relevant material & readily available?

Assessment

Reflect on the use of assessment as an aid to teaching and

learning how do we plan for assessment.


Does our planning reflect whole school assessment policy?
How do we incorporate best practice as ????? in assessment
guide line 2007 into our teaching and learning?

Teaching Approach
Learning Outcome

How are lessons guided by expected learning outcome and

linked to curriculum.
What provision is made to ensure expected learning outcomes
are achieved during lesson?

Focus of Learning

Is attention given within each curriculum area.


To the systematic development and application of knowledge

and skill including ICI?


Pupils leaving timely and does it happen at a regular interval

Analysis use of Assessment Information


Information teacher's setting of learning targets and activities for
individual pupils group, the whole class pupils group the whole class,
Inform the school improvement plan and as revise and update
whole school improvement target.
What is term piper?
Term Paper:
Definition
A term paper has two purposes the student should demonstrate
an understanding of the material as well as the ability to communicate
that understanding effectively.
Writing term papers gives students practical experience in
writing at length communicating thoughts and idea through the written
word is a necessary skill in any profession.

A term paper is a research paper written by students over an


academic term accounting of a large part of a grade. Terms papers are
generally intended to describe on event, a concept or argue paint. A term
is a written original work discussing a topic in detail, usually several
typed paper in length and is often due at the end of semester there is
much overlap between term papers and research paper "The term Paper"
was originally used to describe a paper (usually a research based) that
was due to at the end of "term" either a semester or quarter, depending on
which unit of measure a school used common usage has "term paper" and
"research paper" as interchangeable but this is not completely accurate.
Not all term papers involve academic research and not all research papers
are one term papers.
Term papers date back to the beginning of the 19th century
when print could be reproduced cheaply and written text of all types
(reports memoranda specifications, and scholarly articles) could be easily
produced and disseminated during the year from 1870 to 1900, mouton
and Holmes (2003) write that American education was transformed as
writing become a method of discoursed and research the hallmark or
learning.
Importance:
Right away that you are cognizant of the fundamentals of
composing A+ research projects here are some extra mysteries to
guarantee. Never forget to dependably edit your term paper articles.
The term paper is a necessary evil for every college student.
Many students wonder why the need to regurgitate lectures and research
on paper, but the term paper actually serves an important purpose for a
college education and farther careers.

Effects:

In addition to the immediate effects on a student's course grade


and grade point average, a term paper will be valuable when searching
for or advancing in careers.
Term Paper Evolution
Term paper has been graded according to the following criteria.
The Cortical Section
Range depth and quality of literature research on your topic.

The author has integrated a variety of key pieces of literature on

the topic but so representing the consent state of research as well


as covering various view point.
The author has integrated a variety of key pieces of literature but

focuses too much on one particular author or view point.


No independent literature research has been carried out the
author exclusively refers to pieces of literature that have been
assigned as course reading.

Correctness of theoretical part

The content of individual pieces of literature and giving than

appropriate prominence.
The contents of individual pieces of literature are largely

represented correctly although the student may give too much


prominence to individual.
The literature review reveals that the student has not fully under
stood large parts of the literature. The content of theoretical part
is, as a result incorrect to the considerable degree.

Presentation of Literature Review Development of Argument:

The student has represented the views of prominent scholars on


the topic and has developed critical argument and support of or
against the literature represented has / her literature review is
focused on the research question and relevant to it.

The student presents the current state of research concerning the


topic at hand too much on one particular view point.

The literature review shows lack of focus. The author presents


bit and piece that are loosely related to the topic at hand.

Presentation of Results

The tables and figures are legible and easily to grasp at the first
glance It is evident that the author has spent find best visual
means of presentation.

The formatting of tables and figures is satisfactory yet not


always easy to grasp to grasp at the first glace.

The student has not attempted to use tables and figures to


support his / her argument.

The student's plain how he/she arrived at the result represented


and indicates their significance to the topic or field of linguistics
in which paper is written.

The author largely points out the most striking result at the same
time; however he/she concentrates too much discussing aspects
that are not entirely relevant to research question at hand.

The author mainly lists example from her data no comparison of


her results with those of previous studies is offered.

Language (Vocabulary, Grammar, Style).

The student uses the academic writing register/ style with


appropriate linguistic terminatories.

The language used is largely suitable for an academic piece of


writing but the paper exhibit some mainly recurring.

The student uses writing style which is an inappropriate for an


academic paper. There are great number of grammatical mistake
and Paragraph Lake coherence.

Further instructions End rubric for term paper grading

Each student must submit an independently-written report of


their term paper project. Team members are welcome to share literature
related to their project theme and may work jointly to develop
hypotheses, predictions and experimental design. Nonetheless, the
organization and text of each report must be developed independently by
each team member. Normal rules concerning plagiarism apply. If you
have any questions about this, best ask us first.
The written term paper must have the following structure and
include all of the following elements:
THE PAPER SHOULD BE A MAXIMUM IF 5 PAGES (doublespaced; Times New Roman 12 font), excluding the title page and
literature cited.
First (title) page must include:
1.
2.
3.

Descriptive title
Author
Abstract (NOTE: MAXIMUM 200 WORDS)

Subsequent pages must include:


4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Introduction
Hypotheses and predictions (these can be incorporated into the
introduction or presented below a separate sub-heading)
Study Area and Organisms
Methods and experimental design
Significance of work
Literature Cited (use a journal format of your choice (e.g.
Journal of Ecology, Oecologia)

The following criteria will be used for grading the report:


1. Abstract: Does the abstract reflect the title of the project and the aim
and scope of the work? Does it contain essential information on rationale,
hypothesis, study system and significance? Is it written clearly? (10
points)
2. Introduction: Does the introduction start by introducing a significant
question in community ecology? Are statements supported by appropriate

citations from published literature? Is the initial question refined through


the introduction to statement of the objective of the study? (10 points)
3. Hypotheses and predictions: Are the hypotheses presented clearly
related to the objective of the study and are they logically connected to
the ideas presented in the introduction? Are hypothesis stated correctly
(i.e., do they provide an explanation for an observation)? Are predictions
logically connected to the hypotheses? Are alternatives to the primary
hypothesis acknowledged (where appropriate)? (10 points)
4. Study area and organisms: Is necessary background information on
the ecology/natural history of study organisms and the study site
presented? Is there unnecessary/irrelevant information that could have
been omitted? Is the choice of organism/study sit appropriate given the
objective of the study? (10 points)
5. Methods and Experimental Design: Is the explanation of the
methods clear (use figures if necessary)? Are the methods appropriate to
test the hypothesis proposed? Are essential methodological details
included? This might include, for example, replication of treatments, size
of treatments, duration of experiment, description of independent and
dependent variables. Has the author considered potential confounding
effects that might interfere with the ability to test the hypothesis? Are
these recognized/addressed (where possible)? (10 points)
6. Significance, originality and creativity of work: This is the
justification statement for the project this does NOT mean just the
conservation/management (i.e., applied) importance of your proposed
work. I am looking here for a statement to indicate how this project can
move the field of community ecology forward. Does this study
potentially provide new insights into how communities are organized?
Are the results from this study system broadly applicable to other groups
of organisms or other kinds of interactions? What other studies might
build on the results from this one or would the results of this study
allow you to infer something new about this system that you could then
go on to test? (10 points)

7. Literature Cited: Are the papers in the body of the proposal cited in
here? Are the references cited here in the body of the text? Is consistent
formatting used? (5 points)
8. Presentation and clarity: Are the different sections of the proposal
well linked? Are the ideas presented clearly and can they be followed
from one section of the proposal to the next? Is the writing style clear
(topic sentences introduce themes presented in each paragraph; concise
language used; spelling and grammar acceptable)? Use of tense and
active/passive voice is consistent? Note: Use the past tense to describe
results found in previous studies; use future tense "we will..." to describe
work that you propose to do (5 points).
5.2

EVALUATING GROUP WORK & PERFORMANCE

Evaluating group work can provide valuable information about


the degree to which:

The use of group work enhanced (or otherwise) student

achievement of learning outcomes and engagement.


The use of group work enhanced (or otherwise) evaluator
delivery or assessment of the unit of study,

Specific Questions:
Evaluator can ask more specific questions about:

The response of individual students to group work as compared

to individual work.
Group work process versus the group work product.
The effectiveness of group work in class and/or out of class to

enhance learning,
The appropriateness of group work.
Organizational, planning, management and monitoring issues.
Strengths and weakness of group work and ideas for

improvement.
Diversity issues (did some students find it easier or harder,
benefit more

than others and why, what about issues of power),


The ways in which explained, facilitated, managed and

monitored the groups.


The overall nature of the unit o study.

Timing of Evaluation:
Evaluation an occur at any time during the unit of study
program, but it usually occurs at the end of the semester or at the end of
the task that is being undertaken and evaluated.
Ideally students should be given time to reflect upon their
experiences prior to completing any form of evaluation especially if
evaluator desire some specific information about their experiences of
group work or have a specific reflection component within the work
being evaluated.

It is also important to clearly explain why undertaking


evaluating?

It's a good idea to explain all of this at the start of the unit of
study and to provide opportunities for students to reflect along the way.
Evaluation can also be built into the requirements of the group
work tasks by asking students to complete an evaluation of their own or
the whole groups experience of group. This could also be a requirement
of their assessment. It is up to evaluator whether or not to allocate marks.
Method for Collecting Data for Evaluation:
There is no single method for designing or conducting an
evaluation method can be quantitative or qualitative, formal or informal,
formative or summative, self administrated or externally administered, or
any combination of these. There are advantages and disadvantages to
each method and evaluator will largely depend upon the purpose of the
evaluation and the content, material practices, tasks or activities being
evaluated,

1.

Questionnaire:

Questionnaire is a common method of approach that involves


having students complete a survey in the class. When evaluator designing
questionnaire ensure that there is an introduction which explains the
purpose of the evaluation, that there are clear instructions for completion
and that the questions are unambiguous. The questions posed can be open
ended or closed, or a combination.
Open Ended Questions:These questions have the advantage of allowing students to
identify what were the most important elements of their experience. A
disadvantage is that they may not write much or may be nothing at all.
Closed Questions:
These are statements that allow students to rate their agreement
or disagreement with a comment or statement by using a Liker Scale.
Strongly agree

Agree

Neural

Disagree

Students are usually willing to answer these questions, especially if the


questionnaires are anonymous. A disadvantage is that they do not give
detailed response or answer "why" or "how" questions.
2.

Checklist:
Checklist is another method that can provide basic data.

An example may be a list of provided unit outcomes


(knowledge, skills, attributes, abilities etc) and students circle or tick the
ones that apply.
Alternatively evaluator could ask to generate their own list of
outcomes, For example group work provided me with......

Autonomy.
Opportunity to get to know my classmates.

Opportunity to work on a real life problems students are usually


willingly to complete these lists but again the disadvantages is that they
do not give detailed responses or answer "why" or "how" questions.
Evaluation Hand-Out:
Some academies design their own evaluation hand-out that can
combine a number of evaluation methods and are anonymous, quick and
easy to complete. They can take any form, use images, diagrams,
comment boxes or questions and lists as above.
Interview:
Interview can be done individually or in small groups and
provide the opportunity for evaluator to probe for deeper analysis of the
process and experience.
The disadvantage of this method is that it can be time
consuming for both evaluator and the students, and in a larger group may
be some students may be more vocal than others.
Focus Group:
Focus group uses a facilitative rather than direct questioning
approach and is a useful way of having students discusses the process of
group work. This method allows students to work off and build upon
each other's answers.
The disadvantage is that it is time consuming for both evaluator
and students and there is the added difficult of arranging a time that will
suit everyone.
Practicality of the Evaluation Process:
Before making a choice about evaluation method also consider
the following questions:

What resource is needed to undertake the evaluation?


What has to be done in order to undertake the evaluation
(printing of forms, preparation of one-line questionnaire,
ordering questionnaires, arranging interview rooms)?

What levels of participation evaluator require from the students,


tutors, organizations or any other party who were involved in
the group work activities?

Uses of Evaluation:
It is important to consider who will use the evaluations and how
it will be used. This is a key part of the planning process which relates to
the purpose of the evaluation.
It is also important to reflect upon and consider the methods that
have been used to gather information about the effectiveness of group
work.
5.3

EVALUATING DEMONSTRATION:

1.

The evaluation portion of the demonstration-performance


method is where students get an opportunity to prove that they
can do the manoeuvre without assistance.
For the simulated forced approach you should tell students that
you will be simulating an engine failure and that they are to
carry out the entire procedure including all checks and look-out.
While the student is performing this manoeuvre you must
refrain from making any comments. Offer no assistance
whatsoever, not even grunts or head nods. You must, however,
observe the entire manoeuvre very carefully, so that you can
analyze any errors that the student may make and debrief
accordingly.

2.

3.

NOTE: You would interrupt the student's performance, of course, if


safety became a factor.
4.

Success or failure during the evaluation stage of the lesson will


determine whether you carry on with the next exercise or repeat
the lesson.

Demonstration
1.

The explanation and demonstration may be done at the same


time, or the demonstration given first followed by an
explanation, or vice versa. The skill you are required to teach
might determine the best approach.

2.

Consider the following: You are teaching a student how to do a


forced landing. Here are your options:
a.

Demonstrate a forced approach and simultaneously give an


explanation of what you are doing and why you are doing it; or,

b.

Complete the demonstration with no explanation and then give a


detailed explanation of what you have done; or

c.

Give an explanation of what you intend to do and then do it.

You will find that different instructors will approach the


teaching of this skill differently. The following represents a suggested
approach that appears to work best for most instructors.
On the flight prior to the exercise on forced landings, give a
perfect demonstration of a forced landing. It may be better not to talk
during this demonstration, since you want it to be as perfect as possible
to set the standard for the future performance. There is another advantage
of giving a perfect demonstration prior to the forced landing exercise.
Your students will be able to form a clearer mental picture when studying
the flight manual because they have seen the actual manoeuvre.
a.

The next step would be for you to give a full detailed


explanation of a forced landing. During this explanation you
would use all the instructional techniques described previously.
You must give reasons for what is expected, draw comparisons
with things already known and give examples to clarify points.
This explanation should be given on the ground using visual
aids to assist student learning.

b.

When in the air, give a demonstration, but also include


important parts of the explanation. Usually asking students

questions about what you are doing or should do, will give them
an opportunity to prove they know the procedure, although they
have not yet flown it.
c.

After completing the forced landing approach, while climbing


for altitude, clear up any misunderstandings the students may
have and ask questions.

d.

The demonstration and explanation portion of the


demonstration-performance method is now complete and you
should proceed to the next part, which is the student
performance and instructor supervi

Evaluation Matrix for the Demonstration


When assessing the demonstration of teaching skills, attention is
given to the applicant's use of didactic solutions. The following matrix
transparently describes the criteria used to evaluate the demonstration.
The matrix is indicative instead of normative, and is used for support
when evaluating the demonstration of teaching skills. In other words, not
all of the aspects listed in the matrix need to be assessed systematically.
The evaluators use the criteria listed below to form an overall appraisal
of the demonstration's standard by assessing the quality of the
components that are of a good or better level. If the demonstration
includes a preliminary assignment, all the individual components are
assessed in relation to it. If well grounded, the demonstration may also be
virtual, held in real time and interactively.
Component of the
demonstration of
teaching skills
Objectives

Passabl
e

Satisfactor
y

Good

Very good

The applicant The applicant


specifies
specifies the
the
objectives
objectives.
clearly
The applicant
specifies the
objectives
taking into
account the
context,

content and
target group.
Content
Correspondence
between
the
topic
and
content of the
demonstration
Academic nature of
the content
Consistency
and
clarity
of
presentation of
the content
Critical approach
Many-sided
argumentation
Connection
between theory
and practice
Aptness, diversity
and topicality
of the research
data used
Use
of
own
research results
Consideration given
to the target
group in the
choice
of
content

Methods

The topic and


content of
the
demonstrat
ion
correspond
to
each
other.

The content is
academic.
The applicant
presents
the content
clearly and
consistentl
y.

Where
appropriate
,
the
applicant
uses
his/her
own
research
results

during the
demonstrat
ion.
The applicant
takes the
target

group into
considerati
on when.

The topic and


content of
the
demonstratio
n correspond
to
each
other.
The content is
academic
and topical.
The applicant
presents the
content
clearly and
consistently.
The applicant
examines the
conte
critically.
The applicant
discusses the
topics from
many
angles.
The applicant
explains the
connection
between
theory and
practice.
The research
data
discussed
are relevant,
many-sided
and topical.
Where
appropriate,
the applicant
uses his/her
own
research
results
during the
demonstratio
n.

The

teaching The

teaching

Organization
of
teaching
Motivation of target
group
Suitable use of
teaching
methods
Suitable use of
teaching aids and
materials

Wrap-up
Evaluation of the
teaching
situation in terms
of the objectives
set
Consideration given
to the target
group
in
solutions related
to evaluation

situation is
organized
appropriate
ly.

situation is
organized
appropriate
ly, taking
into
considerati
on
its
objectives,
contents,
target
group and
context.
The applicant
inspires the
target
group
to
engage,
stimulates
the
listeners
interest and
motivates
them
to
participate.
The applicant
uses
different
teaching
methods
appropriate
ly in terms
of
the
situation,
objectives.

The applicant The applicant


evaluates
evaluates
the
the
teaching
teaching
situation in
situation in
terms
of
terms
of
the
the
objectives
objectives
set.
set.
The solutions
related to
evaluation
are
relevant
and
take
the target
group into

considerati
on.

Interaction skills
Use of voice
Clarity
and
intelligibility of
speech
Coherence of oral
and
written
communication
Quality
of
interaction
Other
matters
improving
communication.

Alignment of the
preliminary
assignment
and
the demonstration
of teaching skills

The applicants The applicants


delivery is
delivery is
clear and
clear and
understand
understand
able.
able.
Oral
and Oral, written
written
and visual
communic
communica
ation
is
tion
is
coherent.
coherent.
The applicant
interacts
with
the
listeners in
a natural
and
appropriate
manner in
teaching
situation.
The

The
preliminar
y
assignment
and
the
demonstrat
ion
of
teaching
skills are
well
aligned.

preliminary
assignment
lays
the
foundation
for
and
supports
the
demonstrat
ion,
and
the
two
form
a
consistent
whole.

5.4

EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL MOVEMENTS AND


MOTOR SKILLS:

Motor Skills
A motor skill is a function, which involves the precise
movement of muscles with the intent to perform a specific act.
Motor skills are skills that are associated with the activity of the
body muscles like the skills performed in sport. Fine motor skills arc the
type that is associated with small movements of the wrists, hands, feet,
fingers and toes.
Motor skills are the ability to make particular bodily movements
to achieve certain tasks. They are a way of controlling muscles to make
fluid and accurate movements. These skills must be learned, practiced
and mastered, and overtime can be performed without thought, for
example, walking or swimming. Children are clumsy in comparison to
adults, because they have yet to learn many motor skills that allow them
to effectively accomplish tasks.
Motor skills are also learned and refined in adulthood. If a
woman takes up belly dancing, her first movements will not closely
resemble that of the teacher. Overtime however, she will learn how to
control her muscles to make the signature movements that a belly dancer
makes.
Genetic factors also affect the development of motor skills, for
example, the children of a professional dancer are far more likely to be
good at dancing, with good coordination and muscular control, than the
children of a biochemist. Gross motor skills are usually learned during
childhood and require a large group of muscles to perform actions, such
as balancing or crawling. Fine motor skills involve smaller groups of
muscles and are used for fine tasks, such as threading a needle or playing
a computer game. These skills can be forgotten if disused over time.

Types of Motor Skills


There are two major categories of motor skills
1.
2.

Gross Motor Skills


Fine Motor Skills

Gross Motor Skills

Gross motor skills maneuver large muscle groups


coordinating functions for sitting, standing, walking, running,
keeping balance and changing positions. These skills involve skills are
those that are typically acquired during infancy and young childhood to
control the large muscles of the body. These skills include sitting,
crawling, walking. According to Anna Maria Wilms Floet, MD, on
Medicine. Throwing a ball, riding a bike, playing sports, lifting and
sitting upright are brief descriptions of large motor movements. Gross
motor skills depend upon muscle tone, the contraction of muscles and
their strength for positioning movements.
Fine Motor Skills
Fine motor skills coordinate precise, small movements
involving the hands, wrists, feet, toes, lips and tongue. Features of fine
motor control include handwriting, drawing, grasping objects, cutting
and controlling a computer mouse. Experts agree that one of the most
significant fine motor achievements is picking up a small object with the
index finger and thumb referred to as the pincher grip, which usually
occurs between 8 and 12 months of age
Fundamental Motor Skills
Fundamental motor skills are common motor activities with
specific observable patterns. Most skills used in sports and movement
activities are advanced versions of fundamental motor skills. For
example, throwing in softball and cricket, the baseball pitch, javelin
throw, tennis serve and netball shoulder pass are all advanced forms of
the overhand throw. The presence of all or part of the overhand throw can
be detected in the patterns used in these sport specific motor skills.

Similar relationships can be detected among other fundamental motor


skills and specific sport skills and movements.
Assessment of Motor Skills
A motor skills assessment is an evaluation of a patient to
determine the extent and nature of motor skill dysfunction. Care
providers like physical therapists and neurologists can perform the
assessment, which may be ordered for a number of reasons. It is not
invasive, but does require the completion of a number of tasks. The
length of time required can vary, depending on the test or tests used. It
may be necessary to set aside a full day for testing.
One reason for a motor skills assessment may be to establish a
child's baseline level of motor competency. This can provide a reference
point for the future. Physical education teachers, for example, may
perform brief assessments with new students to determine which kinds of
activities would be safe and appropriate for them. Pediatricians also use
such testing to assess their patients. If a child appears to have
developmental delays, this may result in a referral for a more extensive
examination
Different Ways to Assess Motor Skills
Motor Skills can be evaluated in different ways .some of them
are as follow.
1. Test gross motor skills using range of motion. Assess gross motor
skills by asking the individual to perform a series of movements known
as range of motion. Evaluate range of motion by asking the individual to
hold an arm out and move it in a circular direction. The arm should be
able to move in a complete circle when fully extended. Then ask the
individual to stand and place one leg out. Have the individual move the
leg up and down, back and forth and left to right. Note any difficulty in
movement, abnormalities or pain experienced by the individual.
2. Assess gross motor skills using games. Gross motor skills can be
evaluated using games and sports. Ask the individual to kick a ball to test
gross motor skills of the leg. Jumping rope is a great way to evaluate

motor skills, because it uses both the arms and legs working together to
accomplish the task. Hopscotch, basketball and walking on a balance
beam are also good ways to evaluate gross motor skills. Look for the
fluidity of movement, problems with balance and hand-eye coordination.
3. Evaluate fine motor skills of arms and legs. Ask the individual to put
a clothespin on the edge of a box. Stringing beads on a shoelace is
another way to assess fine motor skills. Using a stapler and placing a
paperclip on a sheet of paper are also ways to assess fine motor skills.
Place an item on the floor and ask the individual to pick it up using his
toes only. Watch the individual perform each task, looking at how smooth
the movements are and how easily the task is completed, and note any
difficulties.
4. Test fine motor skills using common household items. Give the
individual a jar and ask her to unscrew the lid and screw the lid back on.
Ask the individual to place items, such as coins or blocks, into containers
such as a bowl, bucket or cup. Draw a straight line on a piece of paper
and have the individual use a pair of scissors to cut the line on the paper.
Using pencils or pens of different sizes, ask the person to pick up and
grasp each pencil/pen. Then ask the individual to trace items drawn on
the paper. Watch for the completion of each task, looking for any
problems during each movement.
5. Assess fine motor skills while getting dressed. Ask the individual to
put on and button up a shirt. Next, have the individual put on a pair of
pants that have a snap closure and a zipper. Give the individual a pair of
shoes, which have shoelaces and not Velcro closures, and ask him to tie
the shoes. Watch the individual perform each task, looking for
difficulties, abnormal movements and the ability to perform each task
completely without help.
Some Motor Skills and Their Evaluation for Preschoolers
Dancing, either freestyle or through songs with movements, such as "I'm
a Little Teapot Dance and movement classes, like pre-ballet, can be fun
but aren't necessary for motor-skills developmen

Walking, around the house, neighborhood, or park. For variety, add in


marching, jogging, skipping, hopping, or even musical instruments to
form a parade. As they walk, tell stories, count, or play games. Observe
the child how he walks on a piece of string or tape, a low beam or plank
at the playground, or a homemade balance beam.
Playing pretend: Kids boost motor skills when they use their bodies to
become waddling ducks, stiff-legged robots, galloping horses, soaring
planeswhatever their imagination comes up with!
Riding tricycles, scooters, and other ride-on toys; pulling or pushing
wagons, large trucks, doll strollers, or shopping carts.
Playing tag or other classic backyard games, such as Follow the Leader,
Red Light/Green Light, Tails, or Simon Says (avoid or modify games that
force kids to sit still or to be eliminated from play, such as Duck Duck
Goose or musical chairs). Throwing, catching, and rolling large,
lightweight, soft balls Swinging, sliding, and climbing at a playground or
indoor play space.
Ball Control Skills
The following ball skills are generic in that they are not specific to a
particular sport, and they are grouped by whether they require one or two
balls. Skills are listed in their approximate order of difficulty. Younger
movers may use a plastic ball, volleyball, or child's basketball, and older
movers may use a youth-sized or adult-sized basketball. Select the
highlighted name of a given skill to view a short video clip.
Assessing Motor Skills in Early Childhood - Using the PDMS
(Peabody Developmental Motor Scale)
Does your toddler have special needs? Early diagnosis of
problems in developmental motor skills is crucial for helping children
with special needs. One of the most popular assessment tools is the
Peabody Developmental Motor Scale. Is it reliable and sufficiently
responsive?

After more than ten years of extensive research, a second edition


known as the PDMS-2 finally replaced the first edition of the Peabody
Developmental Motor Scale. The authors, M. Rhonda Folio and Rebecca
R. Fewell, claim that the new and updated version provides better and
more in-depth assessment of the gross and fine motor skills of preschoolage children. The PDMS-2, of course, is just one of the most commonlyused assessments for measuring the motor skills of toddlers. However,
for children with special needs, the Peabody Development Motor Scale is
one of the most reliable testing instruments used by many professionals,
such as therapists, psychologists, and diagnosticians.
Purpose of the Test
The main purpose of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale is
to test the motor skills of children. Gross motor skills involve using large
muscles such as in bending, balancing, crawling, walking, and jumping.
Fine motor skills, on the other hand, involve using smaller muscles,
particularly the muscles in the hand. A child, at a specific age, is expected
to display proficiency at certain motor skills.
With the PDMS-2, most dysfunctions of motor skills will be
identified. And using the results of the PDMS-2, the special education
teacher, parents, and other professionals of the IEP team can develop a
more responsive learning and remediation program for the child with
special needs. Would you want your child to take this assessment test?
The next part describes how the test will be administered.
Administration of the Test
This assessment test is composed of six sub-tests that include
special instructions on how each is administered to the preschool-age
child. To keep the results of the test reliable and precise, the actual
instructions on how the test will be carried out are only given to the test
administrators and psychologists. This will prevent the parents from
"preparing" their child to pass the test. But the sub-tests are given below:
Reflexes A reflexive action is a quick and automatic reaction to a
particular environmental stimulus. This reaction is measured in this sub-

test that is composed of eight items. This sub-test, however, is


administered only to children who are 11 months and younger because
reflexes have been observed to be extensively integrated within 12
months.
Stationary This sub-test aims to measure the child's ability to maintain
balance or equilibrium. It involves mainly the ability of the preschoolage child to control his or her body. It is composed of 30 items.
Locomotion This sub-test evaluates the child's ability to move. The
movement involves crawling, walking, running, and other similar
actions. The sub-test has 89 items.
Object Manipulation In this sub-test, the object that is manipulated is
the ball. Since it is developmentally impossible for babies to even hold a
ball, this sub-test is administered only to children who are older than 11
months. This 24-item sub-test involves activities such as throwing,
catching, and kicking balls.
Grasping This sub-test primarily measures the preschool-age child's
ability to use the muscles of the hand. Made of 26 items, the sub-test
progressively determines their ability to grasp objects and to control
fingers.
Visual-Motor Integration This sub-test evaluates the child's eye and
hand co-ordination. Aside from controlling muscles, the test determines
the level of the child's visual perception. Some examples of the activities
of this 72-item sub-test include building blocks and copying designs.
5.5

EVALUATING ORAL PERFORMANCE:

Communication skills are taught in a wide range of general


education courses and students are in need of speaking and listening
skills that will help them succeed in future courses and in the workplace.
Thus, the assessment of communication skills is an important issue in
general education .Oral assessment is often carried out to look for
students' ability to produce words and phrases by evaluating students'
fulfillment of a variety of tasks such as asking and answering questions

about themselves, doing role-plays, making up mini-dialogues, defining


or talking about some pictures given them. The operations in an oral
ability test are either informational skills or interactional skills. The
testing of speaking is widely regarded as the most challenging of all
language tests to prepare, administer and score.
Kind of Oral Communication
Oral communication can also be delivered individually or as
part of a team. Therefore, knowing the kind of oral communication act
that is expected is a necessary step in being able to give useful feedback
and ultimately an accurate evaluation
Pronunciations
Pronunciation is a basic quality of language learning. Though
most second language learners will never have the pronunciation of a
native speaker, poor pronunciation can obscure communication and
prevent a student from making his meaning known. When evaluating the
pronunciation of students, listen for clearly articulated words, appropriate
pronunciations of unusual spellings, and assimilation and contractions in
suitable places. Also listen for intonation. Are students using the correct
inflection for the types of sentences they are saying? Do they know that
the inflection of a question is different from that of a statement? Listen
for these pronunciation skills and determine into which level student
falls.
Vocabularies
Vocabulary comprehension and vocabulary production are
always two separate banks of words in the mind of a speaker, native as
well as second language. Teacher should encourage students to have a
large production vocabulary and an even larger recognition vocabulary.
For this reason it is helpful to evaluate students on the level of
vocabulary they are able to produce. Are they using the specific
vocabulary instructed them in the class? Are they using vocabulary
appropriate to the contexts in which they are speaking? Listen for the

level of vocabulary students are able to produce without prompting and


then decide how well they are performing in this area.
Accuracy
Grammar has always been and forever will be an important
issue in foreign language study. Writing sentences correctly on a test,
though, is not the same as accurate spoken grammar. As students speak,
listen for the grammatical structures and tools teachers have taught them.
Are they able to use multiple tenses? Do they have agreement? Is word
order correct in the sentence? All these and more are important
grammatical issues, and an effective speaker will successfully include
them in his or her language.
Communications
A student may struggle with grammar and pronunciation, but
how creative is she when communicating with the language she knows?
Assessing communication in the students means looking at their creative
use of the language they do know to make their points understood. A
student with a low level of vocabulary and grammar may have excellent
communication skills if she is able to make other understand
her/him whereas an advanced student who is tied to manufactured
dialogues may not be able to be expressive with language and would
therefore have low communication skills. Don't let a lack of language
skill keep the students from expressing themselves. The more creative
they can be with language and the more unique ways they can express
themselves, the better their overall communication skills will be.
Interactions
Ask the students questions. Observe how they speak to one
another. Are they able to understand and answer questions? Can they
answer when teacher ask them questions? Do they give appropriate
responses in a conversation? All these are elements of interaction and are
necessary for clear and effective communication in English. A student
with effective interaction skills will be able to answer questions and
follow along with a conversation happening around him. Great oratory

skills will not get anyone very far if he or she cannot listen to other
people and respond appropriately. Encourage your students to listen as
they speak and have appropriate responses to others in the conversation.
Fluency
Fluency may be the easiest quality to judge in your students'
speaking. How comfortable are they when they speak? How easily do the
words come out? Are there great pauses and gaps in the student's
speaking? If there are then your student is struggling with fluency.
Fluency does not improve at the same rate as other language skills. You
can have excellent grammar and still fail to be fluent. You want your
students to be at ease when they speak to you or other English speakers.
Fluency is a judgment of this ease of communication and is an important
criterion when evaluating speaking.
Suggestions for Improvement
Offer suggestions (rather than criticisms) for improved delivery
style. Many students are aware of their difficulties in delivering oral
communication and want feedback and support, and they do want
suggestions. Not so useful: "Don't wave your hands when you
talk."Better: "Let's figure out what you're going to do with your hands so
that you don't distract the audience from what you are saying. What feels
more natural to you?"
Present oral communication skills as a set of professional skills
that all professionals learn and practice steadily throughout their lives.

UNIT-6:
PORTFOLIOS
6.1

PURPOSE OF PORTFOLIOS:

Literally Definition:

A) a large, flat, thin case for carrying loose papers or drawings or


maps; usually leather

B) a set of pieces of creative work collected to be shownto

C)

potential customers or employers; ' the artist had put together a


portfolio of his work"; "every actor has a portfolio of
photographs"
A collection of various company shares, fixed interest
securities or money-market instruments.

Terminological Ally Definition:


A portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that
exhibits the student's efforts, progress, and achievements in one or more
areas of the curriculum. The collection must include the following:

Student participation in selecting contents.


Criteria for selection.
Criteria for judging merits.
Evidence of a student's self-reflection.

It should represent a collection of students' best work or best


efforts, student-selected samples of work experiences related to outcomes
being assessed, and documents according growth and development
toward mastering identified outcomes.
Purpose of Portfolios:
In this new era of performance assessment related to the
monitoring of students' mastery of a core curriculum, portfolios can
enhance the assessment process by revealing a range of skills and
understandings one students' parts; support instructional goals, reflect
change and growth over a period of time; encourage student, teacher, and

parent reflection; and provide for continuity in education from one year
to the next. Instructors can use them for a variety of specific purposes,
including:

Encouraging self-directed learning.


Enlarging the view of what is learned.
Fostering learning about learning.
To promote student control of learning
To track student progress
To demonstrate individual growth
To respond to individual needs
To evaluate and report on student progress
To facilitate student-led conferences
To show process and product
To show final products
To show student achievement with respect to specific curricular

goals
To document achievement for alternative credit
To accumulate "best work" for admission to other educational

institutions or program
Demonstrating progress toward identified outcomes.
Creating an intersection for instruction and assessment. ,
Providing a way for students to value themselves as learners.
Offering opportunities for peer-supported growth.

Benefits of Portfolio:

One of the most important benefits of using portfolios is the

enhancement of critical thinking%, skills which result from the


need for students tot
Develop evaluation criteria
Students are pleased to observe their personal growth,
They have better attitudes toward their work, and
They are more likely to think of themselves as writers.

Factors that go into the development of a student portfolio assessment:

1.

First, you must decide the purpose of your portfolio. For example,
the portfolios might be used to show student growth, to identify

2.

3.

weak spots in student work, and/or to evaluate your own


teaching methods.
After deciding the purpose of the portfolio, you will need to
determine how you are going to grade it. In (titer words, what
would a student need in their portfolio for it to be considered
success and for them to earn a passing grade.
The answer to the previous two questions helps form the answer to
the third: What should be included in the portfolio? Are you
going to have students put of all their work or only certain
assignments? Who gets to choose?

How to Build a Student Portfolio


The following suggestions will help you effectively design a
student portfolio.
1.

Set a Purpose for the Portfolio. First, we need to decide what


your purpose of the portfolio is. Is it going to be used to show
student growth or identify specific skills? Are we looking for a
concrete way to quickly show parents student achievement, or
are we looking for a way to evaluate your own teaching
methods? Once we have figured out your goal of the portfolio,
then we think about how to use it.

2.

Decide How ' You Will You Grade it. Next, we will need to
establish how we are going to grade the portfolio. There are
several ways you can grade students work, we can use a rubric,
letter grade, or the most efficient way would be to use a rating
scale. Is the work completed correctly and completely? Can we
comprehend it? we can use the grading scale of 4-1. 4 = Meets
all Expectations, 3 = Meets Most Expectations, 2 = Meets Some
Expectation, 1 = Meets No Expectations. Determine what skills
you will be evaluating then use the rating scale to establish a
grade.

3.

What will b Included in it. How will we determine what will


go into the portfolio? Assessment portfolios usually include
specific pieces that students are required to know. For example,

work that correlates with the Common Core Learning Standards.


Working portfolios include whatever the student is currently
working on, and display portfolios showcase only the best work
students produce. Keep in, mind that we can create a portfolio
for one unit and not the next. We get to choose what is included
and how it is included. If you want to use it as a long-term
project and include various pieces throughout the year, we can.
But, we can also use it for short- term projects as well.
4.

How Much Will You Involve the Students. How much we


involve the students in the portfolio depends upon the students
age. It is important that all students should understand the,
purpose of the portfolio and what is expected of them. Older
students should be give n a checklist of what is expected, and
how' it will be graded. Younger students may 1 of understand
the grading scale so we can give them the option of what w 11
be include d in their portfolio. Ask them questions such as, why
did you choose this particular piece and does it represent your
best work? Involving students in the portfolio process will
encourage them to reflect on their work.

5.

Will You Use a Digital Portfolio. With the fast-paced world of


technology, paper portfolios may'become a thing of the past.
Electric portfolios (e-portfolios/digital portfolios) are Teat
because they are easily accessible, easy to transport and easy to
use. Todays students are tuned into the latest must-have
technology, and electronic portfolios arc part of that. With
students using an abundance of multimedia outlets, digital
portfolios seem like a great fit. The uses of these portfolios are
the same, students still reflect upon the r work but only in a
digital way.

The key to designing a student portfolio is to take the time to


think about what kind it will be, and how we well manage it. Once we do
that and follow the steps;above, we will find it will be a success.

Types C F Portfolios Duo


1)

Best Work Portfolio

This type of portfolio highlights and shows evidence of the best


work of learners. Frequently, this type of portfolio is called a display or
showcase portfolio. For Students, best work is often associated with pride
am a sense of accomplishment and can result in a desire to share their
work with o hers. Best work can include both product and process. It is
often correlated with the amount of effort that few learners have invested
in their work. A major advantage of this type of portfolio is that learners
(an select items that reflect their highest level of learning and canexplain
why these it (ms represent their best effort and achievement. Best work
portfolios are used for the following purposes:
Student Achievement. Students may select a given number of entries
(e.g., 10) that reflect their best effort or achievement (or both) in a course
of study. The portfolio can be presented in a student-led parent
conference or at a community open house. As students publicly share
their excellent work, work they have chosen and reflected upon, the
experience may enhance their self-esteem.
Post-Secondary Admissions. The preparation of g.post-secondary
portfolio targets work samples from high school that can be submitted
forconsideration in the process of admission to college or university. This
portfolio should show evidence of a range of knowledge, skills, and
attitudes, and may highlight particular qualities relevant to specific
programs. Many colleges and universities are adding portfolios to the
initial admissions process while others are using them to determine
particular placements once students are admitted.
Employability. The audience for this portfolio is an employer, .This
collection of work needs to be focused on specific knowledge, skills, and
attitudes necessary for a particular job or career. The school-to-work
movements in North America are influencing an increase in the use of
employ-ability portfolios. The Conference Board of Canada (1092), for
example, outlines the academic, personal management, and teamwork

skills that are the foundation of a high-quality Canadian workforce. An


employability portfolio is an excellent vehicle for showcasing these
skills.
2)

Growth Portfolio

A growth portfolio demonstrates an individual's development


and growth over time. Development can be focused on academic or
thinking skills, content knowledge, self-knowledge, or any area that is
important in your setting. A focus on growth connects directly to
identified educational goals and purposes. When growth is emphasized, a
portfolio will contain evidence of struggle, failure, success, and change.
The growth will likely be' an uneven journey of highs and lows, peaks
and valleys, rather than a smooth continuum. What is significant is that
learners recognize growth whenever it occurs and can discern the reasons
behind that growth. The goal of a growth portfolio isfor learners to see
their own changes over time and, in turn, share their journey with others.
A growth portfolio ca -I be culled to extract a best work sample.
It also helps learners see how achievement is often a result of their
capacity to self-evaluate, set goals, and work over time. Growth
portfolios car be used for the following purposes:
Knowledge. This portfolio shows students' growth in knowledge in a
particular content area or across several content areas over time. This
kind of portfolio can contain samples of both satisfactory and
unsatisfactory work, along with reflections to guide further learning.
Skills and Attitudes. This portfolio shows students' growth in skills and
attitudes in areas such as academic discipline s, social skills, thinking
skills, and work habits. In this type of portfolio,challenges, difficult
experiences, and other growth events can be included to demonstrate
students' developing skills. In a thinking skills portfolio; for example,
students might include evidence showing growth in their ability to recall,
comprehend, apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information
Teamwork. This portfolio demonstrates growth in social skills in a
variety of cooperative experiences. Peer responses and evaluations are

vital elements in this portfolio model, along with self-evaluations.


Evidence of changing attitudes resulting from team experiences can also
be included, especially s expressed in self-reflections and peer
evaluations.
Career. This portfolio helps students identify personal strengths related
to potential career choices: The collection can be developed over several
years, perhaps beginning in middle school and continuing throt4;hout
high school. The process of selecting pieces over time empowers young
people to make appropriate educational choices leading toward
meaningful careers. Career portfolios mat items from outside the
school setting that substantiate students' choices and create a holistic
view of the students as learners and people. This type of portfolio may be
modified for employment purposes.
3)

Showcase Portfolios

Showcase portfolios highlight the best products over a particular


time period or course. For example, a showcase portfolio in a
composition class may include the best examples of different writing
genres, such an essay, a poem, a short story, a biographical piece, or a
literary analysis. In a business class, the showcase portfolio may include
a resume, sample business letters, a marketing project, and a
collaborative assignment that demonstrates the individual's ability to
work in a team. Students are often allowed to choose What they believe
to be their best work, highlighting the it achievements and skills.
Showcase reflections typically focus on the strengths of selected pieces
and discuss how each met or exceeded required standards

4)

Process Portfolios

Process portfolios, by contrast, concentrate more on the journey,


of learning rather than the final destination or end pro lusts of the
learning process. In the composition class, for example, different stages
of the processan outline, first draft, peer and teacher responses, early
revisions, and a final edited draftmay be required. A process reflection

may discuss why a particular strategy was used, what was useful or
ineffective for the individual in the writing process, and how the student
went about making progress in the face of difficulty in meeting
requirements. A process reflection typically focuses on many aspects of
the learning process, including the following: what approaches fiches
work best, which are ineffective, information about oneself as a learner,
and strategies or approaches to remember in future assignments.
5)

Evaluation Portfolios.

Evaluation portfolios may vary substantially in their content.


Their basic purpose, however, remains to exhibit a series of evaluations
over a course and the learning or accomplishments of the student in
regard to previously determined criteria or goals. Essentially, this type of
portfolio documents tests, observations, records, or other assessment
artifacts required for successful completion of the course. A math
evaluation portfolio may include tests, quizzes, and written explanations
of how me went about solving a problem or determining which formula
to use, whereas a science evaluation portfolio might also include
laboratory experiments, science project outcomes with photo ; or other
artifacts, and research reports, as well as tests and quizzes. Unlike the
showcase portfolio, evaluation portfolios do not simply include the best
work, but rather a selection of predetermined evaluations that may also
demonstrate students' difficulties and unsuccessful struggles as well as
their better world. Students who reflect on why some work was
successful and other work was less so continue their learning as they
develop their met cognitive skills.

6)

Online or e-portfolios

Online or e-portfolios may be one of the above portfolio types


or a combination of different types, a general requirement being that all
information and artifacts are somehow accessible online. A number of
colleges require students to maintain a virtual portfolio that may include
digital, video, or Wet -based products. The portfolio assessment process

may be linked to a specific course or an entire program. As with all


portfolios, students are able to visually track and show their
accomplishments to a wide audience,
Conclusion: The portfolio process will continue to be refined and efforts
made to improve students' perceptions if the process as it is intended to
develop the self-assessments skills they will need to improve their
knowledge and professional skills throughout their education careers.
6.3

GUIDELINE AND STUDENTS ROLE IN SELECTION OF


PORTFOLIO ENTRIES AND SELF-EVALUATION:

Portfolio:
An organized presentation of an individuals education, work
samples, and skills.
Terminologically a portfolio is a purposeful collection of student
work that exhibits the students efforts, progress, and achievements in
one or more areas of the curriculum.
Guidelines:

Identify purpose

Select objectives.

Think about the kinds of entries that will best match


instructional outcomes.

Decide who select the entries

Decide how much to include, how to organize the portfolio,


where to keep it and when to access.

Set the criteria for judging the work (rating scales, rubrics,
checklists) and make such student understand the criteria.

Review the students progress.

Hold portfolio conferences with students to discuss their


progress.

These guidelines are discussed below in detail.


Identify Purpose:
Without purpose, a portfolio is only a collection of student work
samples. Different purposes result in different portfolios. For example, if
the student is to be evaluated on the basic of the work in the portfolio for
admission to college, then his final version of his best work would
probably be included in the portfolio.
Select Objectives:
The objectives ot be met be students should be clearly stated a
list of communicative functions can be included for students to check
when the feel comfortable with them and stapled to the inside lover.
Students would list the little or the number of the samples which address
this function.
Portfolios also can be organized according the selected
objectives addressing one skill such as writing. The selected objectives
will be directly related to the stated purpose for the portfolio. At any rate,
teachers must ensure that classroom instruction support the identified
seals.
Decide how much to include & how to Organize:
Teachers may want to spend some time going over the purpose
of the portfolio at regular intervals with students to ensure that the
selected pieces do address the purpose and the objectives. At regular
times, ask students to go through their entries, to choose what should
remain in the portfolio, and what could be replaced by another work
which night be move illustrative of the objectives. Other material no
longer current and/or not useful to document student progress toward
attain bent of the objective should be discarded.
What is the students role?
The students role of participation in the portfolio will be largely
responsible for the success of the portfolio. For this reason, students must

be actively involved in the choices of entries and in the rationale for


selecting those entries.
i.

Selecting:

The students first role is in selecting some of the items to be4


pair of the portfolio. Some teachers give students a checklist for making
choices. Others leave students almost freedom in selecting their entries.
At an rate student should include their best and favorite pieces of work
along with those showing growth and process.
ii.

Reflecting and self-assessing:

An essential component of self-assessment involves the student


in reflecting about their own work. At the beginning students might not
know what to saw so teaching will need to model the kinds of reflection
expected from students.
Set the Criteria for Judging the Work:
There are two kinds of criteria needed at this point.

Criteria for individual entries (refers to the section on rubrics for


details).

Criteria for the portfolio as a whole.

Assessing the individual entries in a portfolio is different from


assessing the portfolio as a whole. If the purpose of the portfolio is to
now student progress then if is highly probable that some of the
beginning entries may not reflect high quality; however, over several
months, the student now have demonstrated growth toward the stated
objectives.
Criteria can be established by teachers alone and/or by teachers
and students together. At and rate, criteria for evaluating the portfolios
must be announced a head of time.
Possibilities of criteria include teacher evaluation and/or
observation, student self-evaluation, peer assessment, and a combination
of several teachers comments.

Following is a list of suggested criteria for a portfolio as a


whole.
Variety: Selected pieces display the range of tasks students can
accomplish and skills they have learned.
Growth: Student work represents the students growth in content
knowledge and language proficiency.
Completeness: Students organized the contents systematically.
Organization: Students organized the contents systematically.
Fluency: Selected pieces are meaningful to the students and
communicate information to the teacher.
Accuracy: Student work demonstrates skills in the mechanics of the
language.
Goal Oriented: The contents reflect progress and accomplishment of
curricular objectives.
Following Directions: Students followed the teachers directions for
pieces of the portfolio.
Neatness: Student work is neatly written, typed or illustrated.
Justification or Significance: Student include reasonable justifications
for the work selected or explain why selected items are significant.
Reference
Katozai, Murad Ali. Measurement & Evaluation. Peshawar. University
Publisher, 2013
6.4

USING PORTFOLIOS IN INSTRUCTION AND


COMMUNICATION:

Portfolio:
Literally the word Portfolio is used in the following meanings:
1.

A portable large things and flat briefcase especially of leather


used for carrying papers, pictures, drawings or maps.

2.
3.
4.

A list of the financial assests held by an individual or a bank or


other financial institution.
The role of the head of a government department e.g. He holds
the portfolio for foreign affairs.
An organized presentation of an individuals education, work
samples and skills.

Using portfolios of studne4t work in Instruction and communication:


The term portfolio has become popular buzz word.
Unfortunately, it is not always clear exactly what is meant or
implied by the term especially when used in the context of portfolio
assessment. This training module is intended to clarify the notion of
portfolio assessment and help users design such assessments in a
thoughtful manner. We begin with a discussion of the rationale for
assessment alternatives and the discuss portfolio definitions
characteristics and design considerations.
Educators and critics are currently reciting a litany of problems
concerning the use of multiple-choice and other structured format tests
for assessing many important students outcomes. This has been
accompanied by an explosion of activity searching for assessment
alternatives.
1.

Capture a richer array of what students know and can do than is


possible with multiple-choice tests. Current goals for students
go beyond knowledge of facts and include such things as
problems solving critical thinking, lifelong learning of new
information and thinking independently. Goals also include
dispositions such as persistence, flexibility, motivation and selfconfidence.

2.

Portray the process by which students produce work. It is


important for example that students utilize efficient strategies
for solving problems as well as getting the right answer. It is
also important for students to be able to do such things as

monitoring their own learning so that they do when they


perceive they are not understanding.
3.

Make our assessment align with what we consider important


outcomes for students in order to communicate the right
message to students and other about what we valve. For
example if we emphasize higher order thinking in instruction
but only test knowledge because testing thinking is difficult,
students figure out pretty fast figure out pretty fast what is really
valued.

4.

Have realistic contexts for the production of work, so that we


can examine what students know and can do in real-life
situations.

5.

Provide continuous and ongoing information on how students


are doing in order to chronicle development, give effective
feedback to students and encourage students to observe their
own growth.

6.

Integrate assessment with instruction in a way consistent with


both current theories of instruction and goals for students.
Specifically we want to encourage active student engagement in
learning, and student responsibility for the control of learning.
We also want to develop assessment techniques that in their use,
improve achievement and not just monitor it.

7.

Using portfolios of student work for assessment, already an


instructional tool in many places, it seen as one potential way to
accomplish these things. But using portfolios will only have
these desired effects if we plan them carefully.

Important Points in Portfolio Developing Process:


Some important points in portfolio development process are as
follows:
1.

It should be consulted to teachers, students, parents and school


administrations in deciding which items would be placed in it.

2.

It should be created a shared, clear purpose for using portfolios.

3.

It should reflect the actual day-to-day learning activities of


students.

4.

It should be on-going so that they show students efforts,


progress and achievements over a period of time.

5.

Items in portfolio should be collected as a systematic,


purposeful and meaningful.

6.

It should give opportunities for students in selecting pieces they


consider most reprehensive of themselves as learners to be
placed into their portfolios, and to establish criteria for their
selections.

7.

It should be viewed as a part of learning process rather than


merely as recordkeeping tools, as a way to enhance students
learning.

8.

Students can access their portfolios.

9.

Share the criteria that will be used to assess the work in the
portfolio as well as in which the result are to be used. Teachers
should give feedback to students, parents about the use the
portfolio.

In conclusion, in portfolio making process some necessary steps


are; assessment of studies should be clearly explained the process should
over a certain time period, portfolio should encourage students to learn,
and items in the portfolio should be multi-dimensional and should
address different learning areas. Besides, it is vitally important that the
studies in a portfolio should be designed in order to present students,
performance and development in any time period in detail.
Reference
Katozai, Murad Ali. Measurement & Evaluation. Peshawar. University
Publisher, 2013

6.5

POTENTIAL STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES OF


PORTFOLIOS:

Potential Strength of Portfolios


(Or Advantages of Portfolios as Method of Assessment)
Portfolio can present a wide perspective of learning process for
students and enables a continuous feedback for them. Besides this, it
enables students to have a self-assessment for their studies and learning,
and to review their progress. Since it provides visual and dynamic proofs
about students' interests, their skills, strong sides, successes and
development in a certain time period, portfolio which is the systematic
collection of the student's studies helps assessing students as a whole.
Portfolio is strong devices that help students to gain the impbrtant
abilities such as self-assessment, critical thinking and monitoring one's
own learning. Furthermore, portfolio provide pre-service teacher
assessing their own learning and growth, and help them become selfdirected and reflective practitioners, and contribute them the individual
and professional developments. Mullin (1998) stresses that portfolio
provides teachers to have new perspective in education. For instance,
portfolio can answer these questions: what kind of troubles do students
have? Which activities are more effective or ineffective? What subjects
are understood and not understood? How efficient is the teaching
process? Some advantages or strengths of Portfolios are given below:
1.

Portfolio provides multiple ways of assessing students' learning


over time

2.

It provides for a more realistic evaluation of academic content


than pencil-and paper tests.

3.

It allows students, parent, teacher and staff to evaluate the


students' strength and weakness.

4.

It provides multiple opportunities for observation and


assessment

5.

It provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate his/her

strengths as well as weakness.


6.

It encourages students to develop some abilities needed to


become independent, self-directed learners

7.

It also helps parents see themselves as partners in the learning


process.

8.

It allows students to express themselves in a comfortable way


and to assess their own learning and growth as learners.

9.

It encourages students to think of creative ways to share what


they are learning

10.

It increases support to students from their parents and enhances


communication among teachers, students and parents.

11.

It encourage teachers to change their instructional practice and it


is a powerful way to link curriculum and instruction with
assessment

12.

It assesses and promotes critical thinking.

13.

It encourages students to become accountable and responsible


for their own learning (i.e., self-directed, active, peer-supported,
adult learning).

14.

It can be the focus of initiating a discussion between student and


tutor.

15.

It facilitates reflection and self-assessment.

16.

It can accommodate diverse learning styles, though they are not


suitable for all learning styles.

17.

Portfolios can monitor and assess students' progress overtime.

18.

Portfolios can assess performance, with practical application of


theory, in real-time naturalistic settings (i.e., authentic
assessment).

19.

Portfolios use multiple methods of assessment.

20.

Portfolios take into account the judgment of multiple assessors.

21.

Portfolios have high face validity, content validity, and construct


validity.

22.

Portfolios integrate learning and assessment.

23.

Portfolios promote creativity and problem solving.

24.

Portfolios promote learning about learning (i.e., metacognition).

25.

Portfolios can be standardized and used in summative


assessment.

26.

Portfolios combine subjective and objective, as well as


qualitative and quantitative, assessment procedures.

27.

Portfolios can be used to assess attitudes and professional and


personal development.

28.

Portfolios enable identification of the unsatisfactory or


struggling performer.

29.

Portfolios offer teachers vital information for diagnosing


students' strengths and weaknesses to help them improve their
performance (i.e., formative assessment).

30.

Portfolios reflect students' progression


outcomes (i.e., student profiling).

31.

Portfolios allow the evaluators to see, the student, group, or


community as individual, each unique with its own
characteristics, needs, and strengths.

32.

Portfolios serve as a cross-section lens, providing a basis for


future analysis and planning. By viewing the total pattern of the
community or of individual participants, one can identify areas
of strengths and weaknesses, and barriers to success.

33.

Portfolios serve as a concrete vehicle for communication,


providing ongoing communication or exchanges of information
among those involved.

34.

Portfolios Promote a shift in ownership; communities and

toward

learning

participants can take an active role in examining where they


have been and where they want to go.
35.

Portfolio assessment offers the possibility of addressing


shortcomings of traditional assessment. It offers the possibility
of assessing the more complex and important aspects of, an area
or topic.

36.

Portfolios cover a broad scope of knowledge and information,


from many different people who know the program or person in
different contexts (e.g., participants, parents, teachers or staff,
peers, or community leaders).

Potential Weaknesses of Portfolios


(Or Disadvantages of Portfolios as Method of Assessment)
1.

When portfolios are used for summative assessment, students


may be reluctant to reveal weaknesses.

2.

Portfolios are personal documents, and ethical issues of privacy


and confidentiality may arise when they are used for
assessment.

3.

Difficulties may arise in verifying whether the material


submitted is the candidate's own work.

4.

Portfolios take a long time to complete and assess.

5.

The portfolio process involves a large amount of paperwork.

6.

Portfolio assessment may produce unacceptably low inter-rater


reliability, especially if the assessment rubrics .are not properly
prepared or are used by untrained assessors.

7.

May be seen as less reliable or fair than more quantitative


evaluations such as test scores.

8.

Can be very time consuming for teachers or program staff to


organize and evaluate the contents, especially if portfolios have
to be done in addition to traditional testing and grading.

9.

Having to develop your own individualized criteria can be

difficult or unfamiliar at first.


10.

If goals and criteria are not clear, the portfolio can be just a
miscellaneous collection of artifacts that don't show patterns of
growth or achievement.

11.

Like any other form of qualitative data, data from portfolio


assessments can be difficult to analyze or aggregate to show
change.

Portfolio Assessment is Most useful for:


1.

Evaluating programs that have flexible or individualized goals


or outcomes. For example, within a program with the general
purpose of enhancing children's social skills, some individual
children may need to become less aggressive while other shy
children may need to become more assertive.

2.

Each child's portfolio assessment would be geared to his or her


individual needs and goals.

3.

Allowing individuals and programs in the community (those


being evaluated) to be involved in their own change and
decisions to change.

4.

Providing information that gives meaningful insight into


behaviour and related change. Because portfolio assessment
emphasizes the process of change or growth, at multiple points
in time, it may be easier to see patterns.

5.

Providing a tool that can ensure communication and


accountability to a range of audiences. Participants, their
families, funders, and members of the community at large who
may not have much sophistication in interpreting statistical data
can often appreciate more visual or experiential "evidence" of
success.

6.

Allowing for the possibility of assessing some of the more


complex and important aspects of many constructs (rather than
just the ones that are easiest to measure).

Portfolio Assessment is not as useful for:


1.

Evaluating programs that have very concrete, uniform goals or


purposes. For example, it would be unnecessary to compile a
portfolio of individualized evidence in a program whose sole
purpose is full immunization of all children in a community by
the age of five years. The required immunizations are the same,
and the evidence is generally clear and straightforward.

2.

Allowing you to rank participants or programs in a quantitative


or standardized way (although evaluators or program staff may
be able to make subjective judgments or relative merit).

3.

Comparing participants or programs to standardized norms.


While portfolios can (and often do) include some standardized
test scores along with other kinds of evidence, this is not the
main purpose of the portfolio.

4.

May be seen as less reliable or fair than more quantitative


evaluations such as test scores.

5.

Can be very time consuming for teachers or program staff to


organize and evaluate the contents, especially if portfolios have
to be done in addition to traditional testing and grading.

6.

Having to develop you own individualized criteria can be


difficult or unfamiliar at first.

7.

If goals and criteria are not clear, the portfolio can be just a
miscellaneous collection of artifacts that dont show patterns of
growth or achievement.

8.

Like any other form of qualitative data, data from portfolio


assessments can be difficult to analyze or aggregate to show
change.

6.6

EVALUATION OF PORTFOLIO:

According to Paulson, Paulson and Meyer, (1991, p. 63):


Portfolios offer a way of assessing student learning that is different than

traditional methods. Portfolio assessment provides the teacher and


students an opportunity to observe students in a broader context: taking
risks, developing creative solutions, and learning to make judgments
about their own performances.
In order for thoughtful evaluation to take place, teachers .must
have multiple scoring strategies to evaluate students' progress. Criteria
for a finished portfolio might include several of the following:

Thoughtfulness (including evidence of students' monitoring of


their own comprehension, metacognitive reflection, and
productive habits of mind).

Growth and development in relationship to key curriculum


expectancies and indicators.

Understanding and application of key processes.

Completeness, correctness, and appropriateness of products and


processes presented in the portfolio.

Diversity of entries (e.g., use of multiple formats to demonstrate


achievement of designated performance standards).

It is especially important for teachers and students to work


together to prioritize those criteria that will be used as a basis for
assessing and evaluating student progress, both formatively (i.e.,
throughout an instructional time period) and summatively (i.e., as part of
a culminating project, a.ctivity, or related assessment to determine the
extent to which identified curricular expectancies, indicators, and
standards have been achieved).
As the school year progresses, students and teacher can work
together to identify especially significant or important artifacts and
processes to be captured in the portfolio. Additionally, they can work
collaboratively to determine grades or scores to be assigned. Rubrics,
rules, and scoring keys can be designed for a variety of portfolio
components. In addition, letter grades might also be assigned, where

appropriate. Finally, some form of oral discussion or investigation should


be included as part of the summative evaluation process. This component
should involve the student, teacher, and if possible, a panel of reviewers
in a thoughtful exploration of the portfolio components, students'
decision-making and evaluation processes related to artifact selection,
and other relevant issues.

UNIT-7:
BASIC CONCEPTS OF INFERENTIAL
STATISTS
7.1

CONCEPT & PURPOSE OF INFERENTIAL


STATISTICS:

Introduction:
The role and importance of statistics in education cannot be
denied. In education we come across with measurement, evaluation and
research. Similarly, we have to make educational policies and budgets. In
all these fields we need to make proper measurement and present the data
quantitatively. Thus without statistics we cannot make proper
measurement. As quoted in different statistics books "Planning is the
order of the day, and planning without statistics is inconceivable". Good
statistics and sound statistical analysis assist in providing the basis for the
design of educational policies, monitor policy implications and evaluate
policy impact. To generate reliable and relevant information the data
should be collected using appropriate statistical methods. The materials
one uses for data collection should be well designed. The data analysis
should also be done using appropriate statistical method. All these show
that statistics plays vital role in Education Management and educational
planning.
Concept of Inferential Statistics
Definition:
The branch of statistics concerned with using sample data to
make an inference about a larger group of data is called inferential
statistics.
Example:
For instance the college teacher decides to use the average grade
achieved by one statistics class to estimate the average grade of all the

sections of the same statistics course. This is a problem of estimation,


which falls in the inferential statistics.
In educational research, it is never possible to sample the entire
population that we want to draw a conclusion about. For example, we
might want to determine how well a new way of teaching mathematics
can affect mathematical achievement for all children in Primary 1.
However, it would be impossible to test all children in Primary 1 because
of time, resources, and other logistical factors. Instead, we choose a
sample of the population to conduct a study. Then we want to make
conclusions - or inferences, about the entire population based on the
results of the study from the sample.
Quantitative research in education and social science aims to
test theories about the nature of the world in general (or some part of it)
based on samples (;?) of "subjects" taken from the world (or some part
of it). When we perform research on the effect of TV violence on
children's aggression, our intention is to create theories that apply to all
children who watch TV, or perhaps to all children in cultures similar to
our own who watch TV. We of course cannot study all children, but we
can perform research on samples of children that, hopefully, will
generalize back to the populations from which the samples were taken.
Recall that external validity is the ability of a sample to generalize to the
population.
Purpose of Inferential Statistics
The main purpose of inferential statistics is .to determine
whether the findings from the sample can generalize to the entire
population. There will always be differences between groups in a
research study. Inferential statistics can determine whether the difference
between the two groups in the sample is large enough to be able to say
that the findings are significant. If the findings are indeed significant,
then the conclusions can be applied - generalized - to the entire
population. On the other hand, if the difference between the groups is
very small, then the findings are not significant and therefore were
simply the result of chance.

To illustrate this practically, imagine an entire room full of


socks. You want to determine whether there are more white socks than
green socks in the room. However, there are too many socks in the room
to count them all, so you want to take a sample of socks. Based on this
sample of socks, you will draw a conclusion about whether there are
more white socks than green socks. After you collect your sample, then
you will need to calculate inferential statistics is to determine whether the
colours chosen in your sample likely reflect the colours of socks in the
entire room or if your results were due to chance.
What factors will determine whether the colours in the sample
of socks adequately represents the colours of the entire room? Sample
size. If you only pick two socks, they would probably not represent the
entire room. The larger the sample is, the more representative the sample
will be of the entire room and the more likely the inferential statistics will
find a significant result. This is why when conducting experiments, the
larger the sample is, the better: with large samples, the results will more
likely reflect the entire population.
Inferential statistics is the mathematics and logic of how this
generalization from sample to population can be made. The fundamental
question is: can we infer the population's characteristics from the
sample's characteristics? Descriptive statistics remains local to the
sample, describing its central tendency and variability, while inferential
statistics focuses on making statements about the population.
Unlike descriptive statistics, inferential statistics provide ways
of testing the reliability of the findings of a study and "inferring"
characteristics from a small group of participants or people (your sample)
onto much larger groups of people (the population). Descriptive statistics
just describe the data, but inferential let you say what the data mean.
7.2

SAMPLING ERROR:

In statistics, sampling error is incurred when the statistical


characteristics of a population are estimated from a subset, or sample, of

that population. Since the sample does not include all members of the
population, statistics on the sample, such as mean and quantities,
generally differ from parameters on the entire population.
For example:
If one measures the height of a thousand individuals from a
country of one million, the average height of the thousand is typically not
the same as the average height of all one million people in the country.
Since sampling is typically done to determine the characteristics of a
whole population, the difference between the sample and population
values is considered a sampling error.
Population and Samples:
A population is the entire group to which we want to generalize
our results. A sample if a subset of the population might be all adult
humans but our sample might be a group of 30 friends and relatives.
Types of sampling errors:
1.
2.
3.
1.

2.

Random sampling
Bias problems
Non-sampling error
Random Sampling:
In statistics, sampling error is the error caused by observing a
sampling instead of the whole population. The sampling error
can be found by subtracting the value of a parameter from the
value of a statistic. In nursing research, a sample error is the
difference between sample statistics used to estimate a
population parameter and the actual but unknown value of the
parameter.
(Bunns and Grove, 2009)
Parameters and statistics:
A numerical summary of a population is called a parameter,
while the same numerical summary of a sample is called a
statistic.
Bias Problems:
Sampling bias is a possible source of sampling errors. It leads to
the sampling error which either have a prevalence to be positive

3.

4.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
7.3

or negative. Such errors can be considered to be systematic


errors.
Non-sampling Error:
Sampling error can be constrasted with non-sampling error.
Non-sampling error is a catch all term for the deviations from
the true value that are not a function of the sample chosen,
including various systematic errors and any random errors that
are not due o sampling. Non-sampling errors are much harder to
quantify than sampling error.
Example of non-sampling error:
Answers given by respondents may be influenced by the desire
to impress an interviewer.
Characteristics:
Sampling Error:
Generally decreased as the sample size increases (but not
proportionally)
Depends on the size of the population under study.
Depends on the variability of the characteristic of interest in the
population.
Can be accounted for and reduced by an appropriate sampling
plan.
Can be measured an controlled in probability sample surveys.
NULL HYPOTHESIS:

Before defining the term null-hypothesis, it is necessary that we


must know about Hypothesis and statistical hypothesis.
Hypothesis:
A hypothesis is any statement or assumption about any
phenomena of nature.
Statistical Hypothesis:
A statistical hypothesis is a statement or assumption about the
value of a population parameter.
For example;
1 = 80

(The population mean is equal to 80)

> 22

(The population mean is greater than 22)

2 # 25

(The population variance is not equal to 25)

1 = 2

(Population mean 1 is equal to population

mean 2)
1 - 2 = 0

(there is no difference between 1 and 2)

Null Hypothesis:
The hypothesis to be tested in a test of hypothesis is called null
hypothesis. It is a hypothesis which is tested for possible rejection or
mollification under the assumption that it is true. It is denoted by H 0 and
usually contains and equal sign.
For example if we want to test that the population mean is 80,
then we write.
H0 : = 80
Another definition of Null-Hypothesis:
Null hypothesis is a type of hypothesis used in statistics that
proposes that no statistical significance exists in a set of given
observations.
The null hypothesis attempts to show that no variation exists
between variables, or that single variable is no different than ero. It is
presumed to be true until statistical evidence nullifies it for an alternative
hypothesis.
Examples:
Hypothesis:
The loss of my socks is due to alien burglary. (Alien burglary
means unfamiliar theft).
Null Hypothesis:
The loss of my socks is nothing to do with alien burglary.
Alternative Hypothesis:

The loss of my socks is due to alien burglary. In statistics, the


only way of supporting your hypothesis is to refute the null hypothesis.
Rather than trying to brave your idea (the alternative hypothesis) right
you must show that the null hypothesis is likely to be wrong. You have to
refute or nullify the null hypothesis.
7.4

TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE:

Once sample data has been gathered through an observational


study or experiment, statistical inference allows analysts to assess
evidence in favor or some claim about the population from which the
sample has been drawn. The methods of inference used to support or
reject claims based on sample data are known as tests of significance.
Every test of significance begins with a null hypothesis HO. HO
represents a theory that has been put forward, either because it is
believed to be true or because it is to be used as a basis for argument, but
has not been proved. For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the
null hypothesis might be that the new drug is no better, on average, than
the current drug. We would write HO: there is no difference between the
two drugs on average.
The alternative hypothesis, Ha, is a statement of what a
statistical hypothesis test is set up to establish. For example, in a clinical
trial of a new drug, the alternative hypothesis might be that the new drug
has a different effect, on average, compared to that of the current drug.
We would write Ha: the two drugs have different effects, on average. The
alternative hypothesis might also be that the new drug is better, on
average, than the current drug. In this case we would write Ha: the new
drug is better than the current drug, on average.
The final conclusion once the test has been carried out is always
given in terms of the null hypothesis. We either "reject HO in favor of
Ha" or "do not reject HO"; we never conclude "reject Ha", or even
"accept Ha".

If we conclude "do not reject HO", this does not necessarily


mean that the null hypothesis is true, it only suggests that there is not
sufficient evidence against HO in favor of Ha; rejecting the null
hypothesis then, suggests that the alternative hypothesis may be true.
Example
Suppose a test has been given to all high school students in a
certain state. The mean test score for the entire state is 70, with standard
deviation equal to 10. Members of the school board suspect that female
students have a higher mean score on the test than male students, because
the mean score from a random sample of 64 female students is equal to
73. Does this provide strong evidence that the overall mean for female
students is higher?
The null hypothesis HO claims that there is no difference
between the mean score for female students and the mean for the entire
population, so that = 70. The alternative hypothesis claims that the mean
for female students is higher than the entire student population mean, so
that > 70.s
Steps in Testing for Statistical Significance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1)

State the Research Hypothesis


State the Null Hypothesis
Select a probability of error level (alpha level)
Select and compute the test for statistical significance
Interpret the results
State the Research Hypothesis

A research hypothesis states the expected relationship between


two variables. It may be stated in general terms, or it may include
dimensions of direction and magnitude.
For example,
General: The length of the job training program is related to the
rate of job placement of trainees. Direction: The longer the training
program, the higher the rate of job placement of trainees.

Magnitude: Longer training programs will place twice as many


trainees into jobs as shorter programs.
General: Graduate Assistant pay is influenced by gender.
Direction: Male graduate assistants are paid more than female
graduate assistants.
Magnitude: Female graduate assistants are paid less than 75% of
what male graduate assistants are paid.
2)

State the Null Hypothesis

A null hypothesis usually states that there is no relationship


between the two variables. For example,
There is no relationship between the length of the job training
program and the rate of job placement of trainees.
Graduate assistant pay is not influenced by gender.
A null hypothesis may also state that the relationship proposed
in the research hypothesis is not true. For example,
Longer training programs will place the same number or fewer
trainees into jobs as shorter programs.
Female graduate assistants are paid at least 75% or more of what
male graduate assistants are paid.
Researchers use a null hypothesis in research because it is easier
to disprove a null hypothesis than it is to prove a research hypothesis.
The null hypothesis is the researcher's "straw man." That is, it is easier to
show that something is false once than to show that something is always
true. It is easier to find disconfirming evidence against the null
hypothesis than to find confirming evidence for the research hypothesis.
(Definitions taken from Valerie J. Easton and John H. McColl's
Statistics Glossary v1.1)

One Tailed and Two Tailed Significant Tests


One important concept in significant testing is whether you use
a one tailed or two tailed test of significance. The answer is that it
depends on your hypothesis. When your research hypothesis states the
direction of the difference or relationship, then you use a one tailed
probability. For example, a one tailed test would be used to test these null
hypothesis: Females will not score significantly higher than males on an
IQ test. Superman is not significantly stronger than the average person.
The one tailed probability is exactly half the value of two tailed
probability.
7.5

LEVELS OF SIGNIFICANCE:

In hypothesis testing, the significance level is the criterion used


for rejecting the null hypothesis.
The significance level is used in hypothesis testing as follows.
First, the difference between the results of the experiment and
the null hypothesis is determined. Then alluring the null hypothesis is
true, the probability of a difference that large or larger is computed.
Finally, the probability is compared to the significance level.
If the probability is less than ON equal to the significance level,
then the null hypothesis is rejected & the outcome is said to be
statistically significant. Traditionally experiments have used to be
statistically significant. Traditionally, experiments have used either the
0.05 level (sometime called 5% level) on the 0.01 level (1% level),
although the choice of levels is largely subjective. The lower the
significance level, the more the data must diverge from the null the 0.01
level is more conservative than the 0.05 level.
Symbols:
The Greek word alpha () is sometime used to indicate the
significance level. The above explanation shows that the significance
level is a value associated to some statistical value, tests, which indicates

the probability of obtaining those on more extreme results. This value


can be interpreted as the probability of obtain those results. If the null
hypothesis were (true) when (sampling is random) on as the probability
of obtaining those results by chance alone. (When sampling is less than
random). The value of this probability (also known as p, p value,
alpha & Type I error) runs between 0& 1. The closer to 0 the lower the
probability of the results being found if the null hypothesis were true, on
the lower the probability of the result being a chance result. As stated in
beginning, significance levels are used to reject the null hypothesis that,
for example, there is no correlation between variables there is no
difference between groups on there is no change between treatments.
A significant level of 0.051 is conventionally used in the social
sciences, although probity as high as 0.10 also be used. Probability
greater than 0.10 are rarely used. A significance level of 0.05 for example
indicates that there is a 5% probability that results are due to chance. A
significance level of 0.10 indicates a 10% probability that the results are
due to chance. Thus, using significance levels above 0.10 is rather risky:
while using lower significance level is safer.
History:
The present day concept of statistical significance originated by
Ronald Fisher when he developed statistical hypothesis testing which he
described as test of significance in his 1925 publication.
Fisher suggested a probability of one-in-twenty (0.05) as a
convenient cut off level of rejection null hypothesis.
Role in Statistics:
Statistical significance play a pivotal role in statistical
hypothesis testing where it is used to determine it a null hypothesis can
be rejecting on retained. A null hypothesis is the greater on general
default statement that nothing happened on changed. For a null
hypothesis to be rejected on false, the result has to be identified as being
statistical significant. i.e. unlikely to have occurred by chance alone.

To determine a result is statistically significant a researcher


would have to calculate a p-value which is the probability of observing
an effect given that the null hypothesis is true.
References
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/statistical_significance.
M.A. Kotazoi, Measurement & Evaluation: 2013.
7.6

TYPE-I AND TYPE-II ERRORS: REMAINING:

Statistical Errors
Even in the best research project, there is always a possibility
that the researcher will make a mistake regarding the relationship
between the two variables. This mistake is called statistical error.
In statistical test theory the notion of statistical error is an
integral part of hypothesis testing. The test requires an unambiguous
statement of a null hypothesis, which usually corresponds to a default
"state of nature", for example "this person is healthy", "this accused is
not guilty" or "this product is not broken". An alternative hypothesis is
the negation of null hypothesis, for example, "this person is not healthy",
"this accused is guilty" or "this product is broken". The result of the test
may be negative, relative to null hypothesis (not healthy, guilty, broken)
or positive (healthy, not guilty, not broken). If the result of the test
corresponds with reality, then a correct decision has been made.
However, if the result of the test does not correspond with reality, then an
error has occurred. Due to the statistical nature of a test, the result is
never, except in very rare cases, free of error. Two types of error are
distinguished: type I error and type II error.
In statistics, a type I error (or error of the first kind) is the
incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis. A type 11 error (or error of
the second kind) is the failure to reject a -false. null hypothesis. A type I
error is a false positive. Usually a type I error leads one to conclude that a
thing or relationship exists when really it doesn't, for example, that a

patient has a disease being tested for when really the patient does not
have the disease, or that a medical treatment cures a disease when really
it doesn't. A type II error is a false negative. Examples of type II errors
would be a blood test failing to detect the disease it was designed to
detect, in a patient who really has the disease; or a clinical trial of a
medical treatment failing to show that the treatment works when really it
does. When comparing two means, concluding the means were different
when in reality they were not different would be a Type I error;
concluding the means were not different when in reality they were
different would be a 'Type II error.
All statistical hypothesis tests have a probability of making type
I and type II errors. For example, all blood tests for a disease will falsely
detect the disease in some proportion of people who don't have it, and
will fail to detect the disease in some proportion of people who do have
it. A test's probability of making a type I error is denoted by a. A test's
probability of making a type II error is denoted by .
The detail is given below:
Type-I Error:
The first is called a Type I error. This occurs when the
researcher assumes that a relationship exists when in fact the evidence is
that it does not. In a Type 1 error, the researcher should accept the null
hypothesis and reject the research hypothesis, but the opposite occurs.
The probability of committing a Type I error is called alpha (a).
A type I error, also known as an error of the first kind, occurs
when the null hypothesis (H0) is true, but is rejected. It is asserting
something that is absent, a false hit. A type I error may be compared with
a so-called false positive (a result that indicates that a given condition is
present when it actually is not present) in tests where a single condition is
tested for. Type I errors are philosophically a focus of skepticism and
Occam's razor. A Type I error occurs when we believe a falsehood. In
terms of folk tales, an investigator may be "crying wolf' without a wolf in
sight (raising a false alarm) (Ho: no wolf).

The rate of the type I error is called the size of the test and
denoted by the Greek letter a (alpha). -It usually equals the significance
level of a test. In the case of a simple null hypothesis a is the probability
of a type I error. If the null hypothesis is composite, a is the maximum
(supremum) of the possible probabilities of a type I error.
Explanation:
A Type I Error is also known as a False Positive or Alpha Error.
This happens when you reject the Null Hypothesis even if it is true. The
Null Hypothesis is simply a statement that is the opposite of your
hypothesis. For example, you think that boys are better in arithmetic than
girls. Your null hypothesis would be: "Boys are not better than girls in
arithmetic."
You will make a Type I Error if you conclude that boys are
better than girls in arithmetic when in reality, there is no difference in
how boys and girls perform. In this case, you should accept the null
hypothesis since there is no real difference between the two groups when
it comes to arithmetic ability. If you reject the null hypothesis and say
that one group is better, then you are making a Type I Error.
Type-II Error
The second is called a Type II error. This occurs when the
researcher assumes that a relationship does not exist when in fact the
evidence is that it does. In a Type II error, the researcher should reject the
null hypothesis and accept the research hypothesis, but the opposite
occurs. The probability of committing a Type II error is called beta.
Generally, reducing the possibility of committing a Type I error
increases the possibility of committing a Type II error and vice versa,
reducing the possibility of committing a Type II error increases the
possibility of committing a Type I error.
Researchers generally try to minimize Type I errors, because
when a researcher assumes a relationship exists when one really does not,
things may be worse off than before. In Type II errors, the researcher

misses an opportunity to confirm that a relationship exists, but is no


worse off than before.
Type II Error is a statistical term used within the context of
hypothesis testing that describes the error that occurs when one
accepts a null hypothesis that is actually false. The error rejects
the alternative hypothesis, even though it does not occur due to
chance.
A type II error accepts the null hypothesis, although the
alternative hypothesis is the true state of nature. It confirms an idea that
should have been rejected, claiming that two observances are the same,
even though they are different.
Example:
An example of a type II error would be a pregnancy test that gives a
negative result, even though the woman is in fact pregnant. In this
example, the null hypothesis would be that the woman is not pregnant,
and the alternative hypothesis is that she is pregnant.
In other words, a type DI error, also known as an error of the second
kind, occurs when the null hypothesis is false, but erroneously fails to be
rejected. It is failing to assert what is present, a miss. A type II error may
be compared with a so-called false negative (where an actual 'hit' was
disregarded by the test and seen as a 'miss') in a test checking for a single
condition with a definitive result of true or false. A Type II error is
committed when we fail to believe a truth. In terms of folk tales, an
investigator may fail to see the wolf ("failing to raise an alarm"). Again,
Ho: no wolf.
The rate of the type II error is denoted by the Greek letter f3
(beta) and related to the power of a test (which equals 143).
What we actually call type I or type H error depends directly on
the null hypothesis. Negation of the null hypothesis causes type I and
type II errors to switch roles.
The goal of the test is to determine if the null hypothesis can be
rejected. A statistical test can either reject (prove false) or fail to reject

(fail to prove false) a null hypothesis, but never prove it true (i.e., failing
to reject a null hypothesis does not prove it true).
Explanation:
A Type II Error is also known as a False Negative or Beta Error.
This happens when you accept the Null Hypothesis when you should in
fact reject it. The Null Hypothesis is simply a statement that is the
opposite of your hypothesis. For example, you think that dog owners are
friendlier than cat owners. Your null hypothesis would be: "Dog owners
are as friendly as cat owners."
You will make a Type II Error if dog owners are actually
friendlier than cat owners, and yet you conclude that both kinds of pet
owners have the same level of friendliness. In this case, you should reject
the null hypothesis since there is a real difference in friendliness between
the two groups. If you accept the null hypothesis and say that both types
of pet owners are equally friendly, then you are making a Type II Error.
7.7

DEGREES OF FREEDOM:

In statistics, the numl er of degrees of freedom is the number of


values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to vary.
The number of independent ways by which a dynamic system
Can move without violating any constraint imposed of it, is called degree
of freedom. In other words, the degree of freedom can be defined as the
min mum number of independent coordinates that can specify the
position of the system completely:
Estimates of statistical parameters can be based upon different
amounts of information or data. The number of independent pieces of
information that go into the estimate of a parameter is called the degrees
of 7eedom. In general, the degrees of freedom of an estimate of a
parameter is equal to the number o 'independent scores that go into the
estimate minus the number of parameters used as intermediate steps in
the estimation of the parameter itself (which, in sample variance, is one,
since the sample mean is the only intermediate step).

In many statistical problems we are required to determine the


degrees of freedom. This refers to a positive whole number that indicates
the lack of restrictions in, our calculations. The degree of freedom is the
number of values in a calculation that we can vary.
One step in most statistical inference problems is to determine
the number of degrees of freedom. The number of degree of freedom in a
problem is related to the,precise probability distribution that is to be used
in the inference procedure. This step is an often overlooked but crucial
detail in both the calculation of confidence intervals and the workings of
hypothesis tests.

There is not a single general formula for the number


of degrees Of freedom for every inferenceproblem. Instead
there are specific formulas to be used for each type of
procedure in inferentialstatistics. In other worlds, the setting
that we are working in will determine how we calculate
thenumber of degrees of freedom.
Determining Degree of Freedom:

Number of components that are free to vary about a parameter


Df = Sample size Number of parameters estimated
Df is n-1 for one sample test of mean

A Few Examples
For a moment suppose that we know the mean of data is 25 and
that the values are 20,10, 50, and one unknown value. To find the mean
of a list of data, we add all of the data and divide by the total number of
values. This gives us the formula (20 + 10 + 50 + x)/4 = 25, where x
denotes the unknown. Despite c ling this unknown, we can use some
algebra to determine that x = 20.

Let's alter this scenario slightly. Instead we suppose that we


know the mean of a data set is 25, with values 20, 10; and two unknown
values. These unknowns Could be different, so we use two different
variables, A and y to denote this. The resulting formula is (20 + 10 + x
+y)/4 = 25. With some algebra we obtain y = 70 - x. The formula is
written in this form to show that once we choose a value for x, the value
fory is determined. This shows 'that there is one degree of freedom.
Now we'll look at a t ample size of one hundred. If we know
that the mean of this sample data is 20, but do not know he values of any
of the data, then there are 99 degrees of freedom. All values must add up
t ) a total of 20 x 100 = 2000. Once we have the values of 99 elements in
the data set, then the last one has been determined.
Example
To compute the variance I first sum the square deviations from
the mean. The mean is a parameter: it is a characteristic of the variable
under examination as a whole and is part of describing the overall
distribution of values. If you know all the, parameters you can accurately
describe the data. The more parameters you know, that is to saythe more
you fix, the fewer samples fit this mode of the data. If you know only the
mean, there will be many possible sets of data that are consistent with
this model but if you know the mean and the standard deviation, fewer
possible sets of data fit this model.
So in computing the Variance I had first to calculate the mean.
When I have calculated the mean, I could vary any of the scores in the
data except for one. If I leave one score unexamined it can always be
calculated accurately from the rest of the data and the mean itself. Maybe
an example can make this clearer.
I take the ages of a class of students and find the mean. If I fix
the mean, how many of the other scores (there are N of them remember)
could still vary? The answer is N-1. There are N-1 independent pieces of
information that could vary while the mean is known. These are the
degrees of freedom. One piece of information cannot vary because its

value is fully determined by the parameter (in t its case the mean) and the
other scores. Each parameter that is fixed during our computations
constitutes the loss of a degree of freedom.
If we imagine starting with a small number of data points and
then fixing a relatively large number of parameter: as we compute some
statistic, we see that as more degrees of freedom are lost, fewer and
fewer different situations are accounted for by our model since fewer and
fewer pieces of information could in principle be different from what is
actually observed.
So, the interest, to put it very informally, in our data is
determined by the degrees of freedom: if there is nothing that can vary
once our parameter is fixed (because we have so very few data points maybe just or e) then there is nothing to investigate. Degrees of freedom
can be seen as linking sample size to explanatory power.
The Standard Deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers
are;
Its symbol is a (the greek letter sigma)
The formula is easy: It is the square root of the Variance.
To calculate the variance follow these steps:
Work out the Mean (the simple average of the numbers)
Then for each number: subtract the Mean and square the resIult
(the squared difference).
Then work out the average of those squared differences.
Let suppose we have five values i.e 600,470,170,430 & 300

Mean =
= 394

600+ 470+170+ 430+300


5

1970
5

2
Variance: =n

94

2
2062 + 762 +(224 )2+36 2+

42,436+5,776+50,176+1,296+ 8,836
5

108,520
5

2
Variance =

= 21,704

94

2
2062 + 762 +(224 )2+36 2+

42,436+5,776+50,176+1,296+ 8,836
5

108,520
5

= 21,704

UNIT-8:
SELECTED TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE
8.1

T-TEST:

Definition:
i)

ii)

iii)

A t-test helps you compare weather two groups have


different average values (For example, weather men and
women have different average heights).
A t-test asks weather a different between two groups
averages unlikely to have occurred because of random
chance in sample selection. A difference is more likely to be
meaningful and real if (a) the difference between, the
average is large, (b) the sample size is large, and (c)
Responses are consistently close to the average values and
not widely spread out (the standard deviation is low).
A statistical examination of two population means. A twosample. T-test examines weather two samples are different
and is commonly used when the variances of two normal
distribution are unknown and when an experiment uses a
small sample size. For example, a t-test could be used to
compare the average floor routine score of the U.S womens
Olympic gymnastic team to the average floor routine score
of Chinas womens team.

The t-tests statistical significance and the t-tests effect size are
the two primary outputs of the t-test. Statistical significance indicates
weather the difference between sample averages is likely to represent an
actual difference between population and the effect size indicates wither
that difference is large enough to be practically meaningful.
The One sample t-test is similar to the independent samples
t-test except it is used to compare one groups average value to a single
number .x. for practical purposes you can look at the confidence interval
around the average value to gain this same information.

The paired t-test is used when each observation in one group


is paired with a related observation in the other group. For example do
Kansans spend money on movies in January to February. Where each
respondent is asked about their January from their February spending? In
fact a period t-test subtracts each respondents January spending from
their February spending (yielding the increase is spending), then take the
average of all those increases in spending and looks to see wither that
average is statistically significantly greater than Zero (using a one sample
t-test).
The ranked independent t-test ask a similar question to the
typical unranked test but it is more robust to outliners (a few bad
outliners can make the results of an unranked t-test invalid).
T-test (Independent Samples)
Dollars spend on movies per month. Stat-wing represents t-test
results as distribution curves. Assuming there is a large enough sample
size, the difference between these samples probably represents a reals
difference between population from they were sampled.
Example:
Lets say you are curious about wether New Yorkers and
Kansans spend a different amount of money per month on movies. It is
impractical to ask every New Yorker and Kansans about their movie
spending, so instead you ask a sample of each may be 300 New Yorkers
and 300 Kansans and the average are 14 Dollars and 18 Dollars. The ttest asks wether that difference is probably representative of a real
difference between Kansans and New Yorkers generally or whether that
is most likely a meaningless statistical fluke.
Technically, it asks the following. If there were in fact no
difference between Kansans and New Yorkers generally, what are
chances that randomly selected groups from those populations would be
as different as these randomly selected groups are?

For example if Kansans and New Yorks as a whole actually


spent the same amount of money on average. It is very unlikely that 300
randomly selected Kansans each spend exactly 14 Dollars and 300
randomly selected New Yorkers each spend. 18 Dollars exactly. So if you
are sampling yielded those results, you would conclude that the
difference in the sample groups is most likely representative of a
meaningful difference between the populations as a whole.
Statistical Analysis of the T-test:
The formula for the t-test is a ratio. The top part of the ratio is
just the difference between the two means or averages. The bottom part is
a measure of the variability or dispersing of the scores. This formula is
essentially another example of the signal-to-noise metaphor in research
the difference between the means is the signal that in this case, we think
our program or treatment introduced into the data, the bottom part of the
formula is a measure of variability that is essentially noise that may make
it harder to see the group difference.
Signal noise:
The top part of the formula is easy to compute----- Just find the
difference between the means. The bottom part is called the standard
error of the difference. To compute it, we take the variance for each
group and divide it by the number of people in that group. We add these
two values and then their square root. The specific formula is given in
Figure.
SE

( X T X c )=

var T var c
+
nc
nc

Remember that the variances is simply the square of the


standard deviation. The final formula for the T-test is shown in the given
figure as under.

T=

T X C
X

nar t nar c
+
nT
nC

Formula for T-test.

References
OMahony, Michael (1986). Sensory Evaluation of Food: Statistical
Methods and procedures.
William H.; Saul A. Teukolsky. William T. Vetterling Br Ain P. Flannery
(1992). Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of \Scientific
Computing.
Internet Google, pre Encyclopedia.
8.2

CHI-SQUARE (X2):

The X2-distribution (X is the Greek letter Chi, pronounced Ki)


was first obtained in 1875 by H.R Helmert a German physicist. Later in
1900, Karl Pearson showed that as n-increasing to infinity a discrete
multinomial distribution may be transformed and made to approach a
chi-square distribution. This approximation has broad application such as
a test of goodness of fit, as a test of independence and a test of
homogeneity.
The chi-square distribution contains only one parameter, called
the number of degree of freedom.
Chi-Square Distribution:
Let Z1, Z2 ----- Zn be normally and independently distributed
variables with Zero mean and unit vassance (0, 1). Then the random
variable expressed by the quantity.
X2 =
In otherworlds it can be defined as It is the sum of squares of
n-indep endant standardized random variables.

Properties of Chi-Square Distribution:


Chi-square distribution has the following properties.
1.

The chi-square distribution is continuous ranging from Zero to


infinity.

2.

Total area under the curve is unity.

3.

The mean of X2 distribution is equal to the number of degree of


freedom i.e. n.

4.

The variance of f2 distribution is equal to twice the degree of


freedom i.e. 2n.

5.

The carve of chi-square distribution is positively skewed.

6.

The X2 distribution tends to normal distribution an the number


of degrees of freedom approaches to infinity.

7.

Moment generating function of x2 distribution is (1-2+)-n/2

8.

X2 distribution is leptokurtic as 2> 3.

Uses of X2 Distribution:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

X2 is used to test the goodness of fit.


X2 is used to test the independence of attributes.
X2 is used to test the validity of a hypothetical ratios.
X2 is used to test the homogeneity of soosal X2 variances.
X2 is used to test whether the hypothical value S2 of
population variances hypothical value S2 of population
variances is true on not.
X2 is used to test the equality of several population
correlation co-efficient.

Goodness of Fit Test:


This test is based on the property that cell probabilities depend
upon unknown parameters, provided that the unknown parameters are
replaced with their estimates and provided that and one degree of
freedom is deducted for each parapets estimated. To see whether there is
evidence of small or large differences, the test statistic to use is;

2 /ei

oiei

u
(npi)2
=
npi
i=1
K

x2
i=1

With k-1-number of parameters estimated degrees of freedom.


The symbol Oi and ei are represented observed and expected
frequencies respectively. When the observed values are equal to the
expected values, the X2 = 0. The larger the difference between the
observed and expected frequencies, the larger will be the X 2 value. A
small value of X2 indicates that the fit is good and leads to accept H 0. A
large value of X2 indicates that the fit is poor and leads to accept H1.
Contingency Table:
A table consists two & more rows and two or more columns,
into which n-observations are classified according to two different
criteria (or variables) is commonly called, a contingency table.
The simplest form of a contingency table is 22 table which is
obtained when both criteria are dichotomized. The totals of the
frequencies in each of the rows and columns are called the marginal total
a frequencies. Contingency tables provides a useful method of comparing
two variables.
A 2 2 contingency table are as under.
Classes

B1

B2

To

A1

O11

O12

(A

A2

O21

O22

(A

Total

(B1)

(B2)

A contingency table may be extended to higher dimension. i.e. r


c contingence table, where r represents number of rows and c
represents number of columns.
Testing Hypothesis of Independence in Contingency Table:
The data presented in a contingency table can be used to test the
hypothesis that the two variables of classification are independent. It this
hypothesis is rejected, the two variables of classification are not
independent and we say that there is some also citation (or interaction)
between the two variables of classification. To do so, we must calculate
the expected frequencies based on this hypothesis, keeping the marginal
totals fixed.
Let eij denote the expected frequency belonging to Ai and Bj.
Assuming the hypothesis of independence is true, the proportion of
members belonging to any class Ai should be the same and equal to the
proportions in the total. Thus
r

eij
=
( Ai)

eij
i=1
4

(Ai )

(Bj )
So that
n

i=1

Eij =

( Ai ) (Bj)
n

That is, under Ho: The classification are independent, the


expected frequency in any cell is equal to the product of the marginal
total common to that cell divided by the total number of observation.
If our hypothesis of independence is true the difference between
observed and expected frequencies are small and are attributed to
sampling error. Large differences arise of the seeing false. The Chisquare statistic provides a means for deciding whether the differences are
large or small overall. Hence the statistic to use is,

i=1

j=1

X = ( oijeij )
2

1 /eij

With (r-1) (c-1) degrees of freedom. Where r represents rows


and c represents the number of columns. A large value of X 2 indicates
that the null hypothesis is false.
The procedure for testing the null
independence in contingency table is given below:
i)

hypothesis

of

Formulate the null and altonative hypothesis as:

H0:
The two variables of classification are
independent OR
There is no relationship / Association between
the two variables.
H1:

The two variables of classification are not


independent; means they are associated.

ii)

Choose a significance level x. The commonly used


levels are at x = 0.01, 0.05 etc.

iii)

The test statistic use to


r

i=1

j=1

X = ( oijeij )
2

2 /eij

Which, if H0 is true, has an approximate chi-square distribution


with (r-1) (c-1) degrees of freedom.
iv)

eij=

Compute the expected frequencies under H0 for each


cell by the formula

( Ai )( Bj )
n

( ith row total ) ( jth column total )


Total number of observation

Also calculate the value of X2 and the degrees of freedom.

v)

Determine the critical region which depends on X and


the number of degrees of freedom.

iv)

Decide as below:
(i)

Reject H0, if the computed value of


X2> X2 (r-1) (c-1)

(ii)

Accept H0 if
X2> X2 (r-1) (c-1)

References
1.

Chudry and Kamal (2004), Introduction to statistical theory


part-I. Markazi Kutab Khana, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Pakistan.

2.

B.L. Agarwal (2003), Programmed Statistics, 2 nd Edition. New


Age International (P) Limited Publishers 4835/24, Ansori Road,
Daryaganj, New Delhi 110002, ISBN: 81-224-1458-3.

8.3

REGRESSION:

In statistics, regression analysis is a statistical technique for


estimating the relationships among variables. It includes many
techniques for modelling and analysing several variables, when the focus
is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more
independent variables.
In other words regression is a statistical measure that attempts to
determine the strength of the relationship between one dependent
variable (usually denoted by Y) and a series of other changing variables
(known as independent variables).
Types of 'Regression'
There are two basic types of regression:
(i)

Linear regression

(ii)

Multiple regression.

Linear regression uses one independent variable to explain


and/or predict the outcome of Y, while multiple regression uses two or
more independent variables to predict the outcome. The general form of
each type of regression is:
Linear Regression: Y = a + bX + u
Multiple Regression: Y = a + b1 X1+ b2 X2 + B3 X3

B3X3 + Bt Xt u

Where:
Y

the variable that we are trying to predict

the variable that we are using to predict Y

the intercept

the slope

the regression residual.

In multiple regression, the separate variables are differentiated


by using subscripted numbers.
Regression takes a group of random variables, thought to be
predicting Y, and tries to find a mathematical relationship between them.
This relationship is typically in the form of a straight line (linear
regression) that best approximates all the individual data points.
Regression is often used to determine how much specific factors such as
the price of a commodity, interest rates, particular industries or sectors
influence the price movement of an asset.