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CLIMATE CHANGE AND

WATER SUPPLY

CONTENTS
What Is Climate Change
Effects of Climate Change to Water Cycle
Water Supply and Demand
Impacts of Climate Change
Other Challenges
Strategies, Adaptations & Mitigations
Conclusion

WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE?


Change in the statistical properties of the climate

sys. when considered over long periods of time,


regardless of cause (Wikipedia)
Climate always changing, largely irreversible
CO2 emission heart of problem, Human activities
caused concentration of CO2 increase 35% since
the beginning of the age of industrialization
Lead to global warming, sea level rise, extreme
max.daily temperature
Change in daily rainfall extreme in terms of
intensity & frequency
Water sector worst affected by climate

change

WATER CYCLE

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE TO WATER CYCLE


PRECIPITATION

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
SURFACE RUNOFF
CHANGE IN VEGETATION

INFITRATION
RIVER FLOW etc
GROUND WATER

SEA LEVEL
ETC

WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND


The National water demand will be expected
to increase an average 1.2 % from 14069 MLD
in 2010 to 25884 MLD in 2050. To cater for
this increase in the next four decades RM 4
billion of CAPEX works will be expected.

Expected capital works programe for the next 4 decades,


source works at RM 1.6 billion, treatment work and
distribution networks RM 1.7 billion. The above increase in
water demand and their corresponding CAPEX works
assume the per capita demand will decrease to 180 litres in
year 2050

PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY


CAPEX 2011 - 2050

WATER DEMAND PER CAPITA


2000 2010

litres per capita per day (lcd)

MALAYSIA - LITRES PER CAPITA PER DAY (LCD)


2002-2010
250
200
150

187

184

171

172

172

2004

2005

2006

206

205

202

203

2007

2008

2009

2010

Singapore

100
50
0
2002

2003

years

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE


Climate change will change the availability,
quantity, quality and demand of water
resources, which will impact water supply
In terms of Availability & Quantity

Malaysian Climate Projection from NAHRIM Study for

Pen Malaysia for future annual rainfalls there will be


10% increase for Kelantan, Terengganu and
Pahang, and
5% decrease for Selangor and Johor.
There will be more droughts i.e dry years
anticipated (2028, 2029, 2034, 2042 and 2044) and
higher maximum and lower minimum rainfall
will be observed in the future in many sub regions.

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

Drought
Prolong drought was experienced in Kluang,
Johor Feb.-March 2010
- Sembrong Timur Plant almost zero prodn.
- For water security,March 2011 the
Fed.Govt.announced Empangan Kahang
project at RM 105 million
August 2009, drought in Sarawak. Decrease
river yield affects water supply to Kuching, Sri
Aman, Limbang, Sarikei, Mukah, Betong, Kapit
dan Samarahan.
Labuan drought (2009-2010) water
rationing major part of Labuan, closing of 2nd
Petronas Methanol Plant
Labuan adaptation measures : Increase use of
ground water, Brackish water T/Plant

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE


Flood
Extreme flood events in Sarawak,Kedah, Malacca
and Johor.
Feb.2009, Flood in parts of Sarawak
Jan.2011 Johor, flood, communication and water
supply to many districts was cut-off including
Segamat, Muar, Batu Pahat & Kluang. Water tankers
dispatched from neighbouring states.
Perlis & Kedah Nov.2010 flood, Bukit Pinang T/Plant
in Alor Setar completely submerged with flood water
leaving thousands of consumers without water
supply.
After effects, water operator endure high cost of
rebuilding damaged plants and equipments while
consumers endure long duration of supply disruption
due to ongoing repair works.

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE


Change in River Yield

safe yield of rivers (low flows) decrease. Also leads to

lowering of river level, treatment plants could not


produce their normal/design production.
River intake has to be relocated further downstream
where yield is higher, lowering of river intake or weir
constructed across river to increase water depth eg.
lowering of river intakes along Sg.Pahang from
Temerloh - Pekan

Summary of Simulated Flows for the Historical


and Future Period (NAHRIM 2006 Study)

Simulation shows higher maximum and lower minimum flow

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

Raw Water Quality


It was observed that Malaysia sea level rised at
1.25 mm per year over 1986 to 2006
Water resources close to sea face threat from
saline intrusion eg. Relocation of Peramu T/Plant
intake (due to saline intrusion)
In the 9th Malaysian Plan, Kemaman barrage in
the state of Terengganu was contructed to raise
river level and stop instruction of saline water into
intake of Bt.Sah T/Plant.
Deterioration of river water quality due to
pollution and decrease in river flow (dry months)
leads to plant shut down eg. Cheras and Labu
Treatment plants

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE


Water Demand

Rising temperature may lead to more


water usage
Impact on agriculture due to rising
temp.,evapotranspiration, need more
water

T a k l i m a t
SISTEM BEKALAN AIR Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan
Paras Empangan Sg. Pagar Pada 29 Jun 2009

JBA Labuan

Taklimat
STATUS TERKINI MASALAH BEKALAN AIR LABUAN
Paras Empangan Sg. Pagar Pada 22 Mac 2010

Taklimat
STATUS TERKINI MASALAH BEKALAN AIR LABUAN

KEDAH 2010 FLOOD

KEDAH 2010 FLOOD


- WATER ASSISTANCE FROM SYABAS & REJIMEN 60

Pemandangan di luar Rumah Pam Fasa IV LRA Bukit


Pinang yang ditengelami banjir

Other Challenges
More than 80 % of future water stress
due to population and development and
not climate change

Rapid urbanisation and population growth

are the major challenges


More often than not government policies for
water and sewerage provision are outpaced
by rapid urbanisation and unplanned
urbanisation contribute to water resource
pollution
Challenges dealing with poor governance and
understanding of the river basin and its ecosystems and lack of financing.

Strategies, Adaptation &


Mititigation
Adaptation to reduce risk, government and institutional concern

must be addressed
quantify uncertainties and reduce them
Engineering to be robust. Adaptive measures with respect to
design and safety of installation
Need Total Water approach, holistic view
Integration of climate change consideration into planning
activities.
Protection from saline intrusion
flash flood and prolong drought. Flood closed major plants.
Proper location of new source infrastructure with regard to
climate change
Having major network connectivity during crisis. How to divert
pipe flow from unaffected area to affected area (eg flow from
neighbouring areas, district, states
Water supply and demand management, Reducing NRW and
consumption, need for rain water harvesting
Efficient flood response plan

Conclusion
Climate change slow but will gain momentum
Improve understanding of long-term climate variability and

change. Quantify uncertainties and reduce them. This will


facilitate improved urban water supply systems and design
water resource management options and policy response.
Policy not only to consider cost-benefit but also environment,
social, response and recovery measures, knowledge and
information mgmt., engaging public, stakeholders
Efficient water management could mean adoption of more
efficient water treatment technologies, increased re-use of
water and wastes, going for non-coventional source and
improved demand management.
Protect our environment, not to stress and polute it
Consumers can be the source of and solution to
unsustainable consumption by reducing daily water demand
and changing lifestyle