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Harvest Methods for Onions:

There are several methods used for harvesting onions, and three mechanical were incorporated
with dual manual methods used as controls. Through these performances onion growers attempt
to make a decrease in costs regarding to harvesting, while attaining at the same time the quality
required out of storage. For determining the quality of this approach, a comparisment was
developed with Spanish onions which were harvested using five methods which were not similar.

Methods
As per examination Vega sweet Spanish onions were planted March 15 on the soil owned by Ken
Teramura, Ontario, OR at 4-in dividing in double twofold columns on 40-in beds. The planting
rate creation on that time was 156,800 seeds/section of land and the genuine stand achieved was
around 80 percent or 125,000 plants/section of land. The dirt had a cation discussion volume of
20 meq/100 g and got fall preparation of 80 lb N/section of land and 100 lb/section of land of
phosphate as 16-20-00. Spring N treatment contained of 170 lb N/section of land as ammonium
nitrate.the trial period was taken from 1997, and went on for a year, until 1998.
The flailed activity was performed on September 7. Onions were raised September 8, and the
onions were gathered from September 18-20, 1997. Vision sweet Spanish onions were created
April 18 in Umapine sediment dirt in a field developed by Ontario Produce, Ontario, OR. The
yield had entire supplement, weed control, and ailment control administration according to
standard business hones. The thrashed conduct was thrashed on September 21. Onions were
lifted September 22, and the onions stayed gathered October 1-3, 1998. Altogether medications
made in 1997 were rehashed in 1998 to ensure research quality and the event of suitable check
treatments.the sencond trial period kept going from 1998 to 1999. Six containers were prepared
for every treatment for both years.
In the following chart the data presented notes five onion toping strategies:
Strategy
Description
Topper/loader
Harvest with a topper loader (Top Air, Parma,
ID) to a truck and from there to bins.
Topper/windrower
Harvest with a topper windrower (Parma,
Parma, ID). Onions were loaded in a truck and
from the truck to bins.
Flailer
Top onions with a flailer earlier lifting (Slyter
Flailer, Weiser, ID). Onions were loaded in a
truck and from the truck to bins.
Hand-topped
Onions and poured straight into bins by hand.
Untopped
- Onions were located into topping
baskets and poured directly in the bins

At the closure of the first trial period, so in the year of 1998, three receptacles from all treatment
were found straight to putting away and three canisters were high temperature treated then put
away. Hotness treated receptacles were energized until onion globule mash temperature at 1 cm
profundity touched 90 of. Each of the 30 receptacles were then put away at 34-42 of at the
Malheur Experiment Station for ordering in January. Onions were reviewed out of capacity on
January 7, 8, and 9, 1998, and on January 7, 8, and 11, 1999. Onions were confined into the
resulting classes: onions demonstrating mechanical damage, botrytis disease , dark mold, grew
onions, translucent scale, plate decay and solid onions. The solid onions were characterized into
separated double onions and by width into minor, medium, kind sized and titanic measured
onions. Onions were esteemed outwardly for color, top maintenance, and skin maintenance out
of putting away.
Results and Discussion:
The results of harvesting methods of onions for this specific periods are discussed in detail in the
following segments, through the fisr trial period and the start of second (years 1998-1999)
-

1997 Topping Trial


Untopped onions
Topper/loader

The administering toward oneself of garnish and stacking, the rate of estimated loss to dark
coulor and changed shape had a tendency to happen in the canisters with the most extreme rate
of mechanical wounds. This may be impact of more extensive rank to the business: harsh taking
care of could reason the loss of skins and knob harm, inclining onions to better danger of
misfortune from disintegration away. At pack out, onions from each one fixing and
administration treatment were set sidewise for visual assessments of color and skin maintenance.
Topper/windrower onions that were windrowed then stacked appeared lighter in color on the
grounds that less skin was held. These onions endured additional harm in the reviewing
procedure than the extra medicines and were not as outwardly attractive as the onions from the
other four activities.
In the 1997, during the first Topping trial broken onions found the middle value of a sensible 6.4
percent. Vega onions with botrytis ash mold in the onion neck and on the shoulders arrived at the
midpoint of 5.5 percent, yet the fixing and taking care of methodologies did not essentially touch
botrytis in this trial. Mechanical wounds shifted essentially among every treatment, with
untopped onions enduring the most modest mechanical harm and topper/windrower resultant in
the best measure of mechanical damage. Compared to that the untopped onions had 1.07 percent
tops out of capacity, and a whole pack less out. This is in respect of weight terms of for every
receptacle, on the grounds that there were 13 percent less onions in every canister. Untopped
onions held their skins shining, had the lowermost rate of mechanical damage and had a low
amount of dark mold. Untopped, hand topped, and topper/loader medicines were between the
best in rate of pack out.
The topper/loader conduct had just 5.2 percent defective onions and was amongst those with the
most reduced aggregate psychologist exploited people and with the finest rate pack out, 90.2
percent. It would be important for producers to have the capacity to reduction harvest expense

while retentive onion fabulousness away and pack out. One-time-over mechanical harvest with
the topper/loader in 1997 compressed onion harm without touching storability, contrasted with
onions that were windrowed then further cured heretofore stacking.
The onions in the 1998, amid the begin of the second trial period, topping test had minor
misfortunes to dark mold, botrytis neck decay, translucent scale, and plate decay count generally
just 0.44 percent. The event of mechanical damage not infected with dark mold or botrytis was
irrelevant in 1998, and grew onions were likewise unimportant. Pack out was extraordinary for
all fixing medications, connoting that with overall oversaw and generally cured Vision onions,
topping strategy as such is not as discriminating as garnish expense and legitimate administration
of the supplies.
As the modern technology has advanced the following loaser series described give in
information on the progress of harvester. Starting of with the Topper loader Series, The Top Air
Topper Loader is based on a one step technique which has given maximum efficiency, as it was
noted by numerous harvesters. In addition, university studies has shown that these series hase a
better exposure quality.
Topper Loaders are uniquely fabricated to fitting any setup and configuration. The firmly
ascertained Top Air onion gatherers are produced with honor to give our clients years of low
upkeep process. The licensed Top Air topping framework endeavors air and a sickle blade to
professionally separate the max from the onions. The onion tops, next to other light speciments
which are then dislodged out the rearmost of the machine with relatively clean item progressing
through the reaper. The onions then travel upward in our elite Top Air vertical lift. Our only
planned examination table then allows manual sorting to evacuate overwhelming garbage, for
example, stones, earth lumps and select onions, succeeding in clean item setting off to the
stockpiling or pressing office.
The Top Air Topper Windrower Series of harvesters endures to be a backbone in the onion
industry. The first step of the Two Step method of harvest, Topper Windrowers is very popular
in zones where growers favor to cure the onions in windrows after the tops are detached.
Enormously high capacity, coupled with very gentle handling make these machines
accomplished of harvesting any type of onion. Our original Top Air topping system utilizes air
and a sickle knife to professionally sever the max from the onions. The onion tops, lengthways
with other light debris are then expelled out the rear of the machine. The lowering conveyor
system then gently transmissions the clean onions to the ground into windrows. After curing, the
windrows can be selected up by any one of our Top Air high capacity loaders in the second step
of the Two Step technique. Topper Windrowers are custom manufactured to competition any
bed width and windrow configuration. Our solidly intended Top Air onion harvesters are factorymade with integrity to give our customers years of low maintenance operation.
Marginally unique in relation to the past arrangement is the Top Air Onion Rod Lifter Series
abuses the counter turning square bar thought to undercut onions. Bar Lifters are custom

manufactured to match any bunk design, they are fabricated with uprightness to give our
demographics years of low upkeep operation. The somewhat slanted coupled pole outline
permits the first bar to make the first cut, with the second bar slackening the dirt from the roots
for prior curing of the onions. In the wake of undercutting, the onions safeguard their upright
position to help evade sunburn. The pressure driven drive substitutes drivelines and gearboxes
for immensely low support. Gauge wheels safeguard exact profundity for a nearby, reliable cut.
Onion savers could be abused to keep onions from falling into creases or wheel tracks.
The last of the arrangement is the Top Air Onion Digger Series of reapers which has created a
general answer for undercutting onions in the southern United States. It is critical to specify how
this zone is liable to regular rains all through the harvest season, the onions are best debilitate
and put on top of a firm bunk. The normal for this arrangement is an execution of undercutting
the couch. This strategy allows the dirt free attaches and tops to dry in these tricky climatic
conditions. Onion Diggers are custom made to rivalry any bunk design. Our firmly planned Top
Air onion gatherers are fabricated with genuineness to stretch our client's years of low upkeep
operation.
The Top Green onion harvester conveys the response to high expenses connected
with difficult work. The first Top Green innovation utilizes Teflon covered spiraled
moves with elastic finger strips to turn the onions tops down and transport them to
the cutter head. As they allow completed the cutter head the onions are filed on
arches which ensure a dependable cut neck length. Sets of using pressurized water
driven roundabout edges, one side barbed feeder sharpened pieces of steels and
the other side a sharp cutter cutting edge, effectively dis-join the tops from the
globule. The little uniform necks, more or less 1" long, help decline curing time in
the field or at the pressing capability. A post survey table guarantees basically 100%
garnish skill, best case scenario limit. Field built in the Southwest, the Top Green
collector has dependably conveyed amazing, consistently finished onions with
irrelevant mechanical harm. The standard mass blast will stack the tallest trucks or
burden containers on trailers with the receptacle sock extra. Top Green gatherers
are custom production line made to fit any bunk setup and might be sifted with
choices in guideline to suit peculiar conditions.

Top Air, The worldwide leader in onion harvesting, 2013


http://www.topair-usa.com/onion_products.html

Evaluation of Onion Harvesting Methods, 1997-1999, C. Shock, D. Saunders,


Teramura, Komoto, Oregon State University
http://oregonstate.edu/dept/malheurexpsta/AnnualReports/1998/top.onion.html
http://www.topair-usa.com/resources/TopAirBroc.pdf