You are on page 1of 29

Circuitos magnticos

Lneas de fuerza

Electroimn

Materiales ferromagnticos y no
magnticos

Ferromagnticos

hierro, cobalto, wolframio, nquel, acero y


aleaciones entre estos metales
alta permeabilidad y fcil imantacin

No magnticos (cobre, aluminio, madera,


vidrio)
Paramagnticos
permeabilidad relativa es ligeramente superior a 1.0

Diamagnticos
permeabilidad relativa es ligeramente menor a 1.0
Para casos prcticosla permeabilidad relativa para ambos
es 1

Permeabilidad del material


El trmino permeabilidad es similar al de
conductividad de un circuito elctrico
La permeabilidad de un material est dada en
funcin de su permeabilidad relativa, como se
expresa a continuacin
es permeabilidad del aire

Ley de Faraday e induccin magntica


Si se mueve un conductor a
una cierta velocidad a
travs de un campo
magntico de densidad , se
induce una fuerza
electromotriz (fem.) en el
conductor cuyo valor est
dado por la ley de Faraday
con la ecuacin = en
donde es la longitud del
conductor

Si en un conductor fijo
colocado en el interior de
un campo magntico se
hace circular una
corriente, el conductor
experimenta una fuerza
inducida sobre l cuya
ecuacin es = en
donde es la corriente
que circula en el
conductor

Induccin en el transformador

Densidad e Intensidad de campo


magntico

Magnetic Core

Fundamental Characteristics of a Magnetic Core

first, the flux density increases very slowly


up to point A
then, increases very rapidly up to point B
At point C, the magnetic core material
has saturated

Circuitos magnticos
Ley de Ohm para circuitos magnticos

La resistencia de un circuito elctrico depende


de la longitud , la conductividad y el rea A
mientras que la reluctancia depende de la
longitud , la permeabilidad y el rea A
para resolver o reducir las reluctancias se
aplica la misma regla empleada en resistencias
conectadas en serie o en paralelo

Curva de magnetizacin de materiales


ferromagnticos

Direcciones del flujo magntico


Regla de la mano derecha
Si el dedo pulgar seala el sentido de la
corriente y los dems dedos rodean el
conductor, stos indicarn el sentido del flujo
magntico

Inductance
The property of a coil of inducing emf due to
the changing flux linked with it is known as
inductance of the coil. Due to this property all
electrical coil can be referred as inductor

Self inductance
Whenever current flows through a circuit or coil,
flux is produced surround it and this flux also
links with the coil itself. Self induced emf in a coil
is produced due to its own changing flux and
changing flux is caused by changing current in the
coil. So, it can be concluded that self-induced
emf is ultimately due to changing current in the
coil itself. And self inductance is the property of a
coil or solenoid, which causes a self-induced emf
to be produced, when the current through it
changes.

The produced flux due to a current, in a circuit, always proportional to that current
K is the proportional constant, then:

and
V=
-V
L is defined as the self inductance of the coil

Unit of Inductance
From eqn. -V
If V= 1V, and di/dt=1 A/s then L=1 H
Henry is the unit of inductance

Types of inductors

Mutual Inductance

Mutual inductance may be defined as


the ability of one circuit to produce an
emf in a nearby circuit by induction
when current in the first circuit
changes.

Excitacin sinusoidal en circuitos


magnticos

Air Gap

Types of Air Gaps

Why would you need a gapped core?


In high power transformers, however, saturation
must be avoided at all costs because the ensuing
drop in inductance leads to a sharp increase in
magnetizing current, further core overload and a
'runaway' situation that often ends with smoke and
flames

What is a gapped core?


in a gapped core a small section of the flux path is
replaced by a non-magnetic medium - such as air.
The term 'air gapped core' is still used even if the gap
is filled not by air but by nylon or some other
material immune to saturation

Gap energy

How does the gap help?

Gap energy
Although the reluctor analogues dissipate no power they do store it