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Western Mining Electric Association San Antonio TX

Layer vs. Disk Windings Discussion


NOVEMBER 15, 2012

SPX Transformer Solutions, Inc.

PRESENTED BY

David L. Harris, PE
Customer Technical Executive
SPX Transformer Solutions, Inc.
Office: 262-521-0166
Cell: 262-617-3039
dlharris@ieee.org
Dave has a BS Electrical Engineering from Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York, and an MS
Engineering Management from Milwaukee School of Engineering. He has been in the transformer
industry for 43 years in design, development, manufacturing, testing, marketing, sales and
management of transformers and load tap changers. Currently, he holds the position of Customer
Technical Executive for SPX Transformer Solutions. Dave is a Life Member of the IEEE and is
active in the Electric Power Industry as a past chair of several Working Groups and
Subcommittees for the IEEE Substations Committee and IEEE Transformers Committee. Dave is
an individual member of CIGRE.
Layer vs. Disk Windings Discussion

Agenda

Thermal Performance
Mechanical Performance
Failure Photos
Questions

Layer vs. Disk Windings Discussion

SPX Transformer Solutions, Inc.

Rectangular, Layer-Type Transformers

Layer vs. Disk Windings Discussion

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Transformer Winding Conductors

Copper Strip or Foil


Bus bar
Rectangular wire (MW)
Continuously
Transposed Cable
(CTC)

MW

CTC

Layer vs. Disk Windings Discussion

SPX Transformer Solutions, Inc.

Winding Types
SLL / Layer / Barrel

Layer vs. Disk Windings Discussion

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Winding Types (cont.)


Helical / Screw

Layer vs. Disk Windings Discussion

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Winding Types (cont.)


Continuous Disk Winding
Inner cross-over

Layer vs. Disk Windings Discussion

Outer cross-over

SPX Transformer Solutions, Inc.

Circular, Layer-Type Transformers

Layer vs. Disk Windings Discussion

SPX Transformer Solutions, Inc.

Power Class Transformer

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Layer Winding Conductor Arrangements

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Layer Winding Thermal Performance

Layer Type Windings


Very large thermal mass of conductor and insulation between cooling
ducts: difficult to calculate and control the hot spot temperatures
No radial ducts, some axial ducts, most of them just on ends, not all
around

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Thermal Performance

Non-directed flow

Directed flow

Disk Type Windings


All turns are in contact with MOVING oil to lower hot spot temperatures

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Thermal Performance
IEEE Std C57.104-1991, IEEE Guide for the Interpretation of
Gases Generated in Oil-Immersed Transformers
Exponents used in temperature determination equations:
C57.91-1995 GUIDE

Adobe Acrobat
Document

TYPICAL TESTED VALUES*

TYPE OF COOLING

OA

0.8

0.8

0.3-0.6

0.6-0.7

FA

0.8

0.9

0.3-0.6

0.6-0.7

Non-Directed FOA or FOW

0.8

0.9

Not Available

Directed FOA or FOW

1.0

1.0

Not Available

* Based on transformers tested by SPX Transformer Solutions for disk-type


transformers. Similar information should be obtained for transformers with layertype windings for thermal evaluation and loading.

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Thermal Performance (cont.)


A four-level criterion has been developed to classify risks to transformers, when there is no
previous dissolved gas history, for continued operation at various combustible gas levels. The
criterion uses both concentrations for separate gases and the total concentration of all
combustible gases (see Table 1 on next slide).
Condition 1: TDCG below this level indicates the transformer is operating satisfactorily. Any
individual combustible gas exceeding specified levels should prompt additional investigation.
Condition 2: TDCG within this range indicates greater than normal combustible gas level. Any
individual combustible gas exceeding specified levels should prompt additional investigation.
Action should be taken to establish a trend. Fault(s) may be present.
Condition 3: TDCG within this range indicates a high level of decomposition. Any individual
combustible gas exceeding specified levels should prompt additional investigation.
Immediate action should be taken to establish a trend. Fault(s) are probably present.
Condition 4: TDCG within the range indicates excessive decomposition. Continued operation
could result in failure of the transformer. Proceed immediately and with caution.

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Thermal Performance

IEEE Std C57.104-1991, IEEE Guide for the Interpretation


of Gases Generated in Oil-Immersed Transformers
Defines various conditions and limits of gases for each condition:
TABLE 1 - DISSOLVED GAS CONCENTRATIONS
DISSOLVED KEY GAS CONCENTRATION LIMITS (ppm*)
STATUS

H2

CH4

C2H2

C2H4

C2H6

CO

CO2

TDCG

CONDITION 1

100

120

35

50

65

350

2500

720

CONDITION 2

101-700

121-400

36-50

51-100

66-100

351-570

2500-4000

721-1920

CONDITION 3

701-1800

401-1000

51-80

101-200

101-150

571-1400

4001-10000

1921-4630

CONDITION 4

>1800

>1000

>80

>200

>150

>1400

>10000

>4630

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Winding Leakage Flux Plot

Finite Element
Analysis of
Leakage Flux
Between Coils

Axial locations
of HV DETC
taps
Flux leaks
out radially
whenever
there is an
axial
spreading out
of turns in a
coil.

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Ampere Turn Winding Distribution Plot

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LV and TV Winding Turn Spreading

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Short Circuit Winding Mechanical Performance

Short circuit forces pulsate at twice


system frequency
Major and minor pulses gradually
become equal as the offset current
decays and the fault current becomes
symmetrical

Layer vs. Disk Windings Discussion

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Layer Winding Short Circuit Performance

Fig B2
Forces acting on both the HV and LV windings of a simplified rectangular
two-winding core-type transformer during through fault conditions.

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Mechanical Performance

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Short Circuit Mechanical Performance


Radial Forces Buckling (inner coil)

Axial Forces (Applying Left Hand Rule)

Radial Forces Hoop Stress (outer coil)


Outward Radial Force converted to Tensile Stress

Power Class transformers are


designed to withstand forces in
all directions.

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Axial Forces Applying Left Hand Rule


Current (I)

Flux (B)

(Br)

(I)

(Fa)

Force (F)

Length of beam:

2 ROD
l= m
-Wks

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Design for Short Circuit Duty


Conductor Telescoping Failure
Typically a problem for Layer
windings
Can happen to disk or helical
windings
Extent of damage to paper
insulation will determine how soon
a total unit failure will happen

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Circular, Layer-Type Transformers

What is the Axial Force during thru-faults?


How much axial compression can you put on this unit?

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Failure Photos

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Failure Photos (cont.)

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Failure Photos (cont.)

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Failure Photos (cont.)

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Failure Photos (cont.)

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Failure Photos (cont.)

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Questions?
Thank You!

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