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Calculus: Concepts and Applications Instructor’s Resource Book Exploration Masters

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You are on page 1of 7

Name:

Group Members:

of Change of a Function

Date:

Door

or closing? How do you tell?

time t H 0 s, someone pushes the door. It swings open,

slows down, stops, starts closing, then slams shut at time

t H 7 s. As the door is in motion, the number of degrees, d,

it is from its closed position depends on t.

1. Sketch a reasonable graph of d versus t.

for the time interval [1, 1.1]? Based on your answer,

does the door seem to be opening or closing at time

t H 1? Explain.

d H 200t 2Dt

Plot this graph on your grapher. Sketch the results

here.

6. By finding average rates using the time intervals

[1, 1.01], [1, 1.001], and so on, make a conjecture

about the instantaneous rate at which the door is

moving at time t H 1 s.

t H 0 through t H 10. Round to the nearest 0.1.

t

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

algebraically,

numerically,

graphically,

verbally (talking and writing).

What did you learn as a result of doing this

Exploration that you did not know before?

8

9

10

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Exploration Masters / 51

Name:

Group Members:

Date:

Objective: Recall the graphs of familiar functions, and tell how fast the function is

changing at a particular value of x.

3. f(x) H x 2 C 2x D 2

a. Without using your grapher, sketch the graph on the

axes provided.

f(x)

c. Tell whether the function is increasing, decreasing,

or not changing when x H 1. If it is increasing or

decreasing, tell whether the rate of change is slow

or fast.

x

1. f(x) H 3Dx

5

5

f (x)

5

x

5

4. f(x) H sec x

5

f(x)

5

x

5

5

f (x)

5

x

5

1

5. f(x) H x

5

f(x)

5

x

5

52 / Exploration Masters

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Name:

Group Members:

Date:

that involves the speed of a car.

As you drive on the highway you accelerate to 100 ft/s to

pass a truck. After you have passed, you slow down to a

more moderate 60 ft/s. The diagram shows the graph of

your velocity, v(t), as a function of the number of seconds,

t, since you started slowing.

represent? How far, therefore, did you go in the time

interval [0, 20]?

v (t )

100

x-value and the y-value for a function where y may

vary with x. Such a product is called the definite

integral of y with respect to x. Based on the units of

t and v(t), explain why the definite integral of v(t)

with respect to t in Problem 4 has feet for its units.

60

of a football as a function of the distance, x, in in.,

from one of its ends. Estimate the definite integral

of y with respect to x.

t

0

10

20

30

40

50

and t H 50 s? How far do you travel in the time

interval [30, 50]?

30

20

10

x

0

12

represented as the area of a rectangular region of

the graph. Shade this region.

Problem 6? What, therefore, do you suppose the

definite integral represents?

3. The distance you travel between t H 0 and t H 20 can

also be represented as the area of a region bounded

by the (curved) graph. Count the number of squares

in this region. Estimate the area of parts of squares

to the nearest 0.1 square space. For instance, how

would you count this partial square?

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Exploration that you did not know before?

Exploration Masters / 53

Name:

Group Members:

by Trapezoidal Rule

Date:

Objective: Estimate the definite integral of a function numerically rather than graphically

by counting squares.

Rocket Problem: Ella Vader (Darths daughter) is driving in

her rocket ship. At time t H 0 min, she fires her rocket

engine. The ship speeds up for a while, then slows down

as Alderaans gravity takes its effect. The graph of her

velocity, v(t), in miles per minute, is shown below.

v(t)

t H 8, which represents the distance, into four

vertical strips of equal width. Draw four trapezoids

whose areas approximate the areas of these strips

and whose parallel sides extend from the x-axis to

the graph. By finding the areas of these trapezoids,

estimate the distance Ella goes. Does the answer

agree with the answer to Problem 2?

Put a program into your grapher to use this rule. The

function equation may be stored as y1. The input

should be the starting time, the ending time, and the

number of trapezoids. The output should be the

value of the definite integral. Test your program by

using it to answer Problem 4.

200

100

definite integral using 20 trapezoids.

t

5

10

estimate the distance Ella goes between t H 0 and

t H 8?

of the estimates by trapezoids as the width of each

trapezoid approaches zero. By using the program

from Problem 5, make a conjecture about the exact

value of the definite integral.

2. Estimate the distance in Problem 1 graphically.

9. Approximately what was Ellas rate of change of

velocity when t H 5? Was she speeding up or slowing

down at that time?

3. Ella figures that her velocity is given by

v(t) H t 3 D 21t 2 C 100t C 110

Plot this graph on your grapher. Does the graph

confirm or refute what Ella figures? Tell how you

arrive at your conclusion.

positive values of time t at which Ella is stopped.

What is the first such time? How did you find your

answer?

Exploration that you did not know before?

54 / Exploration Masters

2005 Key Curriculum Press

6. Average rate for time interval [1, 1.01] 30/s.

Average rate for time interval [1, 1.001] 31/s.

Average rate for time interval [1, 1.0000001] 31/s.

The average rate seems to be approaching 30.68/s 31/s!

Chapter 1

Exploration 1-1a

180

Exploration 1-2a

1. a. f(x) H 3Dx :

90

f(x)

5

1

t

9 10

2. d H 200t 2Dt:

180

x

5

90

t

7

3. t

0.0

100.0

100.0

75.0

50.0

31.3

18.8

10.9

6.3

3.5

10

2.0

c. Decreasing slowly

f (x)

5

x

5

was less than 100 before t H 1 s and greater than 100

after t H 1 s.

5. Average Rate H (change in value)/(Time)

H (200(1.1) 2D1.1 D 200(1) 2D1)/(1.1 D 1)

(102.6 D 100)/0.1 s

H 26/s

This number is greater than zero, which shows that the door

is still opening because d is increasing.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c. Not changing

3. a. f(x) H x 2 C 2x D 2:

c. Decreasing slowly

f(x)

5

Exploration 1-3a

1. From t H 30 and t H 50 s, the velocity seems to be about 60 ft/s.

Distance H rate time, so the distance traveled is about

60 ft/s (50 s D 30 s) H 1200 ft.

x

t H 30 to t H 50 has area H base height H 1200.

3. The sample partial square has about 0.6 square space under

the curve. All the partial squares under the graph from t H 0

to t H 20 have area about 28.6 square spaces.

4. Each small space has base representing 5 s and height

representing 10 ft/s. So the area of each small square H

base height H 5 s 10 ft/s represents 50 ft. Therefore, the

distance was about 28.6 50 H 1430 ft. (Exact answer is

1431.3207... ft.)

so their product (i.e., the definite integral) is in

seconds feet/second H feet.

c. Increasing quickly

4. a. f(x) H sec x:

6. The squares and partial squares under the curve have about

45.2 square spaces of area. Each square space has base

representing 1 and height representing 5. So one square

space represents 5 units of definite integral, and the total

definite integral is about 226 units. (Exact answer is

226.1946....)

f(x)

5

x

5

inches. So their product, the definite integral, is in cubic

inches. The definite integral seems to represent the volume

of the football.

8. Answers will vary.

Exploration 1-4a

1. The graph shows time on the x-axis and velocity on

the y-axis. A definite integral can be used to find

time velocity H distance.

2. There are about 60.8 square spaces under the graph. Each

square represents about 25 miles, so the total distance is

about 1520 miles.

c. Increasing quickly

1

5. a. f(x) H x:

The graph confirms Ellas conclusion. Tracing to integer

values of t shows the same v(t) values as on the graph.

f(x)

5

x

5

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Chapter 2

v (t)

Exploration 2-1a

1.

f(x)

200

100

234

238

110

170

78

t

5

10

1

(110 C 234) 2 H 344

2

1

(234 C 238) 2 H 472

2

1

(238 C 170) 2 H 408

2

1

(170 C 78) 2 H 248

2

Integral sum H 1472, which is reasonably close to the area

found in Problem 2.

x

3

27 D 63 C 51 D 15 0

H , an indeterminate form.

2. f(3) H

3D3

0

3. f(x) is very close to 2 when x is close to 3.

The limit is 2.

4. x

f(x)

Calculators section of the Instructors Resource Book.

2.5

1.25

2.6

1.36

2.7

1.49

1519.52 miles for 40 trapezoids

1519.9232 miles for 100 trapezoids

1519.999232 miles for 1000 trapezoids

The exact definite integral appears to be 1520 mi!

2.8

1.64

2.9

1.81

248 mi per minute at about t H 3 min. (Actual maximum was

124 C 934 437 mi, at t H 7 D 437 min.)

Velocity changed D6.998 ft/s in 0.2 s.

Rate of change D6.998/0.02 H D34.99.

So, Ella was slowing down at about 35 miles/minute per

minute.

10. Ella is first stopped at t H 11, because v(11) H 0. She stops

gradually at t H 11 because the graph gently levels off to

v(t) H 0 at that point.

11. Answers will vary.

3.0

?.??

3.1

2.21

3.2

2.44

3.3

2.69

3.4

2.96

3.5

3.25

5. f(x) stays between 1.25 and 3.25 if x is between 2.5 and 3.5

(and x 3).

x 3 D 7x 2 C 17x D 15

6. f(x) H

H x 2 D 4x C 5, x 3.

xD3

Set x 2 D 4x C 5 H 1.99 and solve algebraically or numerically.

Repeat with x 2 D 4x C 5 H 2.01.

If 2.99498743... < x < 3.00498756..., then f(x) will be between

1.99 and 2.01. (Also if x is between 0.9950... and 1.0050..., but

this is not the interval of interest!)

7. On the left, keep x within 0.0050125... unit of 3.

On the right, keep x within 0.0049875... unit of 3.

8. 0.0049875...

9. L H 2, c H 3, H 0.01, H 0.0049....

10. Answers will vary.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

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