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Name:

Group Members:

Exploration 1-1a: Instantaneous Rate


of Change of a Function

Date:

Objective: Explore the instantaneous rate of change of a function.


Door

4. At time t H 1 s, does the door appear to be opening


or closing? How do you tell?

The diagram shows a door with an automatic closer. At


time t H 0 s, someone pushes the door. It swings open,
slows down, stops, starts closing, then slams shut at time
t H 7 s. As the door is in motion, the number of degrees, d,
it is from its closed position depends on t.
1. Sketch a reasonable graph of d versus t.

5. What is the average rate at which the door is moving


for the time interval [1, 1.1]? Based on your answer,
does the door seem to be opening or closing at time
t H 1? Explain.

2. Suppose that d is given by the equation


d H 200t 2Dt
Plot this graph on your grapher. Sketch the results
here.
6. By finding average rates using the time intervals
[1, 1.01], [1, 1.001], and so on, make a conjecture
about the instantaneous rate at which the door is
moving at time t H 1 s.

3. Make a table of values of d for each second from


t H 0 through t H 10. Round to the nearest 0.1.
t

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

7. In calculus you will learn by four methods:


algebraically,
numerically,
graphically,
verbally (talking and writing).
What did you learn as a result of doing this
Exploration that you did not know before?

8
9
10

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8. Read Section 1-1. What do you notice?

Exploration Masters / 51

Calc2_IR_EM_01-04_k2.qxd 10/26/06 5:22 PM Page 52

Name:

Group Members:

Exploration 1-2a: Graphs of Familiar Functions

Date:

Objective: Recall the graphs of familiar functions, and tell how fast the function is
changing at a particular value of x.
3. f(x) H x 2 C 2x D 2

For each function:


a. Without using your grapher, sketch the graph on the
axes provided.

f(x)

b. Confirm by grapher that your sketch is correct.


c. Tell whether the function is increasing, decreasing,
or not changing when x H 1. If it is increasing or
decreasing, tell whether the rate of change is slow
or fast.
x

1. f(x) H 3Dx

5
5

f (x)

5
x
5

4. f(x) H sec x
5

f(x)

5
x

2. f(x) H sin 2x

5
5

f (x)

5
x
5

1
5. f(x) H x
5

f(x)

5
x
5

52 / Exploration Masters

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Calc2_IR_EM_01-04_k2.qxd 10/26/06 5:22 PM Page 53

Name:

Group Members:

Exploration 1-3a: Introduction to Definite Integrals

Date:

Objective: Find out what a definite integral is by working a real-world problem


that involves the speed of a car.
As you drive on the highway you accelerate to 100 ft/s to
pass a truck. After you have passed, you slow down to a
more moderate 60 ft/s. The diagram shows the graph of
your velocity, v(t), as a function of the number of seconds,
t, since you started slowing.

4. How many feet does each small square on the graph


represent? How far, therefore, did you go in the time
interval [0, 20]?

v (t )
100

5. Problems 3 and 4 involve finding the product of the


x-value and the y-value for a function where y may
vary with x. Such a product is called the definite
integral of y with respect to x. Based on the units of
t and v(t), explain why the definite integral of v(t)
with respect to t in Problem 4 has feet for its units.

60

6. The graph shows the cross-sectional area, y, in in.2,


of a football as a function of the distance, x, in in.,
from one of its ends. Estimate the definite integral
of y with respect to x.
t
0

10

20

30

40

50

1. What does your velocity seem to be between t H 30


and t H 50 s? How far do you travel in the time
interval [30, 50]?

30

20

10

x
0

12

2. Explain why the answer to Problem 1 can be


represented as the area of a rectangular region of
the graph. Shade this region.

7. What are the units of the definite integral in


Problem 6? What, therefore, do you suppose the
definite integral represents?
3. The distance you travel between t H 0 and t H 20 can
also be represented as the area of a region bounded
by the (curved) graph. Count the number of squares
in this region. Estimate the area of parts of squares
to the nearest 0.1 square space. For instance, how
would you count this partial square?

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8. What did you learn as a result of doing this


Exploration that you did not know before?

Exploration Masters / 53

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Exploration 1-4a: Definite Integrals


by Trapezoidal Rule

Date:

Objective: Estimate the definite integral of a function numerically rather than graphically
by counting squares.
Rocket Problem: Ella Vader (Darths daughter) is driving in
her rocket ship. At time t H 0 min, she fires her rocket
engine. The ship speeds up for a while, then slows down
as Alderaans gravity takes its effect. The graph of her
velocity, v(t), in miles per minute, is shown below.
v(t)

4. Divide the region under the graph from t H 0 to


t H 8, which represents the distance, into four
vertical strips of equal width. Draw four trapezoids
whose areas approximate the areas of these strips
and whose parallel sides extend from the x-axis to
the graph. By finding the areas of these trapezoids,
estimate the distance Ella goes. Does the answer
agree with the answer to Problem 2?

5. The technique in Problem 4 is the trapezoidal rule.


Put a program into your grapher to use this rule. The
function equation may be stored as y1. The input
should be the starting time, the ending time, and the
number of trapezoids. The output should be the
value of the definite integral. Test your program by
using it to answer Problem 4.

200

100

6. Use the program from Problem 5 to estimate the


definite integral using 20 trapezoids.

t
5

10

1. What mathematical concept would you use to


estimate the distance Ella goes between t H 0 and
t H 8?

7. The exact value of the definite integral is the limit


of the estimates by trapezoids as the width of each
trapezoid approaches zero. By using the program
from Problem 5, make a conjecture about the exact
value of the definite integral.

8. What is the fastest Ella went? At what time was that?


2. Estimate the distance in Problem 1 graphically.
9. Approximately what was Ellas rate of change of
velocity when t H 5? Was she speeding up or slowing
down at that time?
3. Ella figures that her velocity is given by
v(t) H t 3 D 21t 2 C 100t C 110
Plot this graph on your grapher. Does the graph
confirm or refute what Ella figures? Tell how you
arrive at your conclusion.

10. Based on the equation in Problem 3, there are


positive values of time t at which Ella is stopped.
What is the first such time? How did you find your
answer?

11. What did you learn as a result of doing this


Exploration that you did not know before?

54 / Exploration Masters

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Calc2_IR_SE_01-04_k2.qxd 10/26/06 5:47 PM Page 169

Solutions for the Explorations


6. Average rate for time interval [1, 1.01] 30/s.
Average rate for time interval [1, 1.001] 31/s.
Average rate for time interval [1, 1.0000001] 31/s.
The average rate seems to be approaching 30.68/s 31/s!

Chapter 1
Exploration 1-1a

7. Answers will vary.

1. Such a graph might look like this:


180

8. The example in Section 1-1 is the same as this Exploration!

Exploration 1-2a
1. a. f(x) H 3Dx :

90

f(x)
5
1

t
9 10

2. d H 200t 2Dt:
180

x
5

90

t
7

3. t

0.0

100.0

100.0

75.0

50.0

31.3

18.8

10.9

6.3

3.5

10

2.0

b. Grapher confirms sketch.


c. Decreasing slowly

2. a. f(x) H sin 2x:


f (x)
5

x
5

4. Door appears to be opening. The graph of d shows that d


was less than 100 before t H 1 s and greater than 100
after t H 1 s.
5. Average Rate H (change in value)/(Time)
H (200(1.1) 2D1.1 D 200(1) 2D1)/(1.1 D 1)
(102.6 D 100)/0.1 s
H 26/s
This number is greater than zero, which shows that the door
is still opening because d is increasing.

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b. Grapher confirms sketch.


c. Not changing

Solutions for the Explorations / 169

Calc2_IR_SE_01-04_k2.qxd 10/26/06 5:47 PM Page 170

3. a. f(x) H x 2 C 2x D 2:

b. Grapher confirms sketch.


c. Decreasing slowly

f(x)
5

Exploration 1-3a
1. From t H 30 and t H 50 s, the velocity seems to be about 60 ft/s.
Distance H rate time, so the distance traveled is about
60 ft/s (50 s D 30 s) H 1200 ft.
x

2. The rectangle on the graph with height H 60 and base from


t H 30 to t H 50 has area H base height H 1200.
3. The sample partial square has about 0.6 square space under
the curve. All the partial squares under the graph from t H 0
to t H 20 have area about 28.6 square spaces.
4. Each small space has base representing 5 s and height
representing 10 ft/s. So the area of each small square H
base height H 5 s 10 ft/s represents 50 ft. Therefore, the
distance was about 28.6 50 H 1430 ft. (Exact answer is
1431.3207... ft.)

b. Grapher confirms sketch.

5. The x-value is in seconds, and the y-value is in feet/second,


so their product (i.e., the definite integral) is in
seconds feet/second H feet.

c. Increasing quickly
4. a. f(x) H sec x:

6. The squares and partial squares under the curve have about
45.2 square spaces of area. Each square space has base
representing 1 and height representing 5. So one square
space represents 5 units of definite integral, and the total
definite integral is about 226 units. (Exact answer is
226.1946....)

f(x)
5

x
5

7. The x-units are in inches, and the y-units are in square


inches. So their product, the definite integral, is in cubic
inches. The definite integral seems to represent the volume
of the football.
8. Answers will vary.

Exploration 1-4a
1. The graph shows time on the x-axis and velocity on
the y-axis. A definite integral can be used to find
time velocity H distance.

2. There are about 60.8 square spaces under the graph. Each
square represents about 25 miles, so the total distance is
about 1520 miles.

b. Grapher confirms sketch.


c. Increasing quickly
1
5. a. f(x) H x:

3. v(t) H t 3 D 21t 2 C 100t C 110


The graph confirms Ellas conclusion. Tracing to integer
values of t shows the same v(t) values as on the graph.

f(x)
5

x
5

170 / Solutions for the Explorations

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Calc2_IR_SE_01-04_k2.qxd 10/26/06 5:47 PM Page 171

4. Divide the graph into trapezoids of width H 2.

Chapter 2

v (t)

Exploration 2-1a
1.
f(x)

200

100

234

238

110

170
78

t
5

10

Areas of trapezoids are


1
(110 C 234) 2 H 344
2
1
(234 C 238) 2 H 472
2
1
(238 C 170) 2 H 408
2
1
(170 C 78) 2 H 248
2
Integral sum H 1472, which is reasonably close to the area
found in Problem 2.

x
3

27 D 63 C 51 D 15 0
 H , an indeterminate form.
2. f(3) H 
3D3
0
3. f(x) is very close to 2 when x is close to 3.
The limit is 2.
4. x

f(x)

5. See program TRAPRULE in the Programs for Graphing


Calculators section of the Instructors Resource Book.

2.5

1.25

2.6

1.36

6. Using 20 trapezoids, the definite integral is about 1518.08 mi.

2.7

1.49

7. The approximate definite integral is


1519.52 miles for 40 trapezoids
1519.9232 miles for 100 trapezoids
1519.999232 miles for 1000 trapezoids
The exact definite integral appears to be 1520 mi!

2.8

1.64

2.9

1.81

8. According to the graph, Ellas greatest velocity was about


248 mi per minute at about t H 3 min. (Actual maximum was
124 C 934 437 mi, at t H 7 D 437 min.)





9. v(4.9) H 213.439, and v(5.1) H 206.441.


Velocity changed D6.998 ft/s in 0.2 s.
Rate of change D6.998/0.02 H D34.99.
So, Ella was slowing down at about 35 miles/minute per
minute.
10. Ella is first stopped at t H 11, because v(11) H 0. She stops
gradually at t H 11 because the graph gently levels off to
v(t) H 0 at that point.
11. Answers will vary.

3.0

?.??

3.1

2.21

3.2

2.44

3.3

2.69

3.4

2.96

3.5

3.25

5. f(x) stays between 1.25 and 3.25 if x is between 2.5 and 3.5
(and x 3).
x 3 D 7x 2 C 17x D 15
6. f(x) H 
H x 2 D 4x C 5, x 3.
xD3
Set x 2 D 4x C 5 H 1.99 and solve algebraically or numerically.
Repeat with x 2 D 4x C 5 H 2.01.
If 2.99498743... < x < 3.00498756..., then f(x) will be between
1.99 and 2.01. (Also if x is between 0.9950... and 1.0050..., but
this is not the interval of interest!)
7. On the left, keep x within 0.0050125... unit of 3.
On the right, keep x within 0.0049875... unit of 3.
8. 0.0049875...
9. L H 2, c H 3, H 0.01, H 0.0049....
10. Answers will vary.

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Solutions for the Explorations / 171