9 views

Uploaded by Krishnaja Basireddy

Strabismus detection in MATLAB

- 23
- geometry section 1 1
- Xi-quarterly Time Table (1)
- Plane Geometry (Wentworth, 1899)
- Squint
- GCSEMathstest2B Answers
- 1-s2.0-S1091853116305560
- An Efficient Approach To Track Rbc And Detect Blood Disease Using Blood Samples
- Coordinate Geometry (AM)
- Polytechnic Entrance Mathematics
- SL.pdf
- GP E Getting Started Auto Meshing
- Ansys- Quick Reference
- Fem Ex14 Concatenate
- Strabismus 10
- Eureka.in Standared_06 Content List
- g8m6 study guide statistics
- Sample Alg 4
- jsi mid mm t5
- Academic Vocabulary High School Math

You are on page 1of 7

$

$^#~

$

manjubhargavi@griet.ac.in

basireddykrishnaja@gmail.com

#

ennawar.prajwala@gmail.com

~

manisha.sangem@gmail.com

untreated, can result in inability to attain binocular vision or

blindness in the affected eye. Early detection is critical for

successful treatment. Current methods for detection involve

going to an eye specialist or going to a lab with specialized

equipment and lighting setup. These options can be

expensive and thus aren't always available to all people. The

purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of a

software-only solution that could be deployed to photo

studios as a low-cost early screening mechanism. The

eventual goal is to be able to detect signs of strabismus from

a single high resolution portrait photograph of an infant.

Several existing computer vision algorithms for detecting

various eye features were investigated and the ones that

would handle the requirements best for implementation

were chosen. So far a good degree of detection accuracy

(roughly 80%) has been achieved and currently the eye

detection and corner detection routines are being fine-tuned

to improve detection accuracy even more. MATLAB

software is used as a tool to achieve the goal of this project.

MATLAB software is one of the most powerful software

using worldwide and it also consist a lot of image processing

library which can be use for object detection. For this

project, the program code is written using this software and

it shall be efficient to detect the objects, eliminate the

background image and detects the object.

Keywords

squint eye, gaze correction, strabismus, MATLAB,

Hough transform, eye recognition.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Strabismus which means misalignment of eyes. The incidence of

squint is approximately 1.5% to 2% of population worldwide.

Strabismus is an eye defect characterized by a lack of

coordination between the eyes, causing the eyes to look in

twodifferent directions and thus be unable to fixate on a single

image. If children with strabismus are left untreated, the brain

may learn to ignore the input from the weaker eye.

Consequently, the children may suffer permanent loss of vision

in the ignored eye. New born babies often appear cross eyed but

this does not mean that they have strabismus.

the first phase, the locations of cornea (i.e. centres and diameter)

of both eyes are detected for normal eyes. In the second phase,

we are finding the centre and diameter for normal eyes looking

in different directions (i.e. right, left, up, down directions). In the

third phase, we are finding the centre and diameter for normal

eyes moving horizontally with slight alignment. In the fourth

phase, we are finding the centre and diameter for strabismus

patients

Vladimir Vezhnevets & Anna Degtiareva[1] proposed a novel

robust technique, which combines stability and accuracy.

Suppose that rough eye regions are known. First, iris center and

radius is detected by looking for a circle separating dark irisand

bright sclera (the eye white). The iris center and radius detection

is performed in images red- channel, which emphasizes the iris

border. This is due to the fact, that iris usually exhibits low

values of red (both for dark and light eyes), while the

surrounding pixels (sclera and skin) have significantly higher

red values. Then, upper eyelid points are found using on the

observation that eye border pixels are significantly darker than

surrounding skin and sclera. The detected eye boundary points

are filtered to remove outliers and a polynomial curve is fitted to

the remaining boundary points. In order to reduce the effect of

image noise, the image is preprocessed with median filtering and

1D horizontal low-pass filtering. Finally, lower lid is estimated

from the known iris and eye corners.

WORK

transformation for detecting circle of unknown radius. The

circular Hough transform rst generates two dimensional

parameter space (xc,yc) using the gradient of grayscale. The

gradient is calculated from the facial image and draws a line

segment to gradient direction from each edge point in the

images. The radius of circle r is determined for each local

maximum in the (xc; yc) space. The advantage of this approach is

that the circle with unknown radius can be detected more

efciently than ordinal three dimensional Hough transform

detection step of proposed method rstly detects possible eye

center by the circular Hough transform. Then it extracts

histogram of gradient from rectangular window centered at each

eye center. Likelihood of eye of the extracted feature vector is

evaluated and pairs of eyes satisfying predened conditions are

generated and ordered by sum of the likelihood of both eyes

Hough Transform

The Hough Transform is a method for finding shapes in an

image. The Circle Hough has been implemented here, which is

used to find circles within an image.

Theory:

The HT can be described as a transformation of a point in a 2

dimensional region to a parameter space, dependent on the shape

of the objects to be identified. The basic functionality of the HT

is to detect straight lines. A straight line in the x,y-plane is

described by:

y = m*x + b

(1)

This line is represented in the Cartesian coordinate system by its

parameters b and m where m is the slope and b is the intercept.

Due to the fact that perpendicular lines to the x-axis can give

unbounded values for parameters m and b (b and m rises to

infinity), lines are parameterized in terms of theta and r such

that:

r= x*cos () + y*sin (), for [0, p]

Flowchart

Start

(2)

Load the cropped

image

Where r is the distance between the line and the origin, is the

angle. Thus, given x and y, every line passing through point (x,

y) can uniquely be represented by (, r). Both and r have finite

sizes. The distance r will have the maximum value of two times

the diagonal of the image.

An edge detector is commonly used to provide a set of points

that represents the boundaries in the image space. Equation (1)

corresponds to a sinusoid curve in the (r, ) plane unique to that

point. If several points are located on the same line, they

produce sinusoids crossing at the parameters for that line.

found using Hough

Transform

outputcircles

Stop

Phase-1

The first phase in the classification process is to take the picture

of normal person eyes, looking in forward direction and finding

the diameter of cornea using imdistline function, which is shown

in figure 2

Phase-2

Apply the same above procedure to the another image in which

the eyes are looking towards left side. This is shown in the

figure 4

imdistline

Next applying the viscircles command to the image then the

circles are drawn on the cornea. The center and radius are also

shown in the figure 3

center, radius.

Phase-4

Pre-operative

The fourth phase in the classification process is to take the

picture of a squint eye person, looking in forward direction and

finding the diameter of cornea using imdistline function, this is

shown in figure 5

center, radius.

Post-operative

Apply the same above procedure to the another image in which

the eyes are looking in forward direction. This is shown in the

figure 7

center, radius

Apply the same above procedure to the another image in which

the eyes are looking in upward direction. This is shown in the

figure 6

center, radius

Apply the same above procedure to the another image in which

the eyes are looking in left side direction. This is shown in the

figure 8

upright

up

Upleft

Center(left)

429

209.3

493.1

185.8

521.2

201.6

Center(right)

136.6

217.5

176.1

193.1

184.2

197.4

Radius(left)

35.5

39.1

36.9

Radius(right)

33.4

41.5

40.9

right

centre

left

Center(left)

401.1

222.2

471.1

219.9

524.9

214.3

Center(right)

75.3

240.9

158.8

221.7

215.1

221.9

Radius(left)

39.5

34.4

41.4

Radius(right)

39.5

33.4

38.6

Table 2 post-operative

3 CONCLUSION

Figure 8 Coordinates of eyes looking in upward direction and

center, radius

Pre-operative

upright

up

Center(left)

420.9

223.8

460.8

Center(right)

151.3

234

171.3

Upleft

220.

5

225.

3

506.3

220.8

211.4

213.1

Radius(left)

35.5

36

32.4

Radius(right)

32.5

35.4

39.9

right

left

Radius(left)

34.2

centre

227.

492.7

5

232.

172.2

6

38.7

Radius(right)

38.5

35.2

Center(left)

441.6

230.8

Center(right)

130.7

235.1

Table 1 pre-operative

Post-operative

525

238.3

197.4

231.8

32.3

which Hough Transform segmentation stage is based on

accuracy and higher efficiency rate. Hough was found to be the

better method for the segmentation process. So the entire

process was carried out using Hough Transform. Properly

detecting the inner and outer boundaries of cornea texture is

important for all Strabismus screening systems. An automatic

segmentation algorithm was presented, which would localize the

cornea region from an eye image and isolate eyelid, eyelash and

reflection areas. Threshold was also employed for isolating

eyelashes and reflections of the image. Next, using Hough

Transform the segmented iris region was normalized to

eliminate the present dimensional inconsistencies between iris

regions. The results of the work are very favourable in that they

are reasonably accurate across a wide range of test cases and run

acceptably fast. This gives reason for optimism about the

success of the overall project. It seems that a pure software

solution for the detection of strabismus is quite possible, and

will merely require additional effort to produce the accuracy and

consistency needed to make

4 REFERENCES

35.6

[1] Robust and accurate eye contour extraction Vladimir

Vezhnevets, Anna Degtiareva 2003 In Graphicon.

http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?

doi=10.1.1.189.2314

[2] Object Detection using Circular Hough Transform. Introduction

to the Hough Transform by Fatoumata Dembele.

http://lockdog.ru/files/pdf_lib/uav_ip/Object%20Detection

%20using%20Circular%20Hough%20Transform.pdf

Computer Technology (IJECCT) Volume 2 Issue 3 (May 2012)

A Study on Human Eye Detection in a Color Image Based on

Harris Corner Detector and Sobel Edge Operator ISSN: 22497838

[4] FENG, G. C., AND YUEN, P. C. 2001. Multi-cues eye detection

on gray intensity image. Pattern Recognition 34, 5, 10331046.

[5] FISCHLER, M. A., AND BOLLE, R. C. 1981. Random sample

consensus: A paradigm for model fitting with applications to

image analysis and automated cartography. Communication of

the Association of Computer Machinery 24, 5, 381395.

[6] KAMPMANN, M., AND ZHANG, L. 1998. Estimation of eye,

eyebrow and nose features in videophone sequences. In

International Workshop on Very Low Bitrate Video Coding

(VLBV 98), Urbana, USA, 101104.

[7] LAM, K.-M., AND YAN, H. 1996. Locating and extracting the

covered eye in human face images. Pattern Recognition 29, 5,

771779.

[8] RADEVA, P., AND MARTI, E. 1995. Facial features

segmentation by model-based snakes. In International

Conference on Computing Analysis and Image Processing,

Prague.

[9] STEWART, C. V. 1999. Robust parameter estimation in

computer vision. SIAM Review 41, 3, 513537.

[10] TIAN, Y., KANADE, T., AND COHN, J. 2000. Dual-state

parametric eye tracking. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE

International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture

Recognition (FG00), 110115.

- 23Uploaded byPrem
- geometry section 1 1Uploaded byapi-262621710
- Xi-quarterly Time Table (1)Uploaded byInblood
- Plane Geometry (Wentworth, 1899)Uploaded byriley_yuan
- SquintUploaded byAbhinandan Sharma
- GCSEMathstest2B AnswersUploaded byDanDezideriuIacob
- 1-s2.0-S1091853116305560Uploaded byLili Anty
- An Efficient Approach To Track Rbc And Detect Blood Disease Using Blood SamplesUploaded byIJSTE
- Coordinate Geometry (AM)Uploaded bySiti Aiscyah
- Polytechnic Entrance MathematicsUploaded byvenkathari45
- SL.pdfUploaded bySaransh Sharma
- GP E Getting Started Auto MeshingUploaded bydeedee050690
- Ansys- Quick ReferenceUploaded byindusampath
- Fem Ex14 ConcatenateUploaded byNoe Mayor
- Strabismus 10Uploaded byNisa
- Eureka.in Standared_06 Content ListUploaded byVanessa Davis
- g8m6 study guide statisticsUploaded byapi-276774049
- Sample Alg 4Uploaded byAnonymous Y8qKUy
- jsi mid mm t5Uploaded byFarah Wahida Isa
- Academic Vocabulary High School MathUploaded bylvminhtriet
- EN(611)Uploaded byreacharunk
- 423-demoanalitica.pdfUploaded byTATHAGATA MACHERLA
- Linear FunctionsUploaded byBoris
- Enabling the Next Generation of Particle Physics Experiments: GPUs for Online Track ReconstructionUploaded byandiherten
- Regular Evaluation Test IV Maths VI AUploaded byB.L. Indo Anglian Public School, Aurngabad, Bihar
- Excel Exercises Chapter 2Uploaded byTarig Gibreel
- 9 5 Lines and PlanesUploaded byEbookcraze
- ty cad course notesUploaded byapi-189878770
- SapGS08Uploaded byAnonymous KbGMTmgOLJ
- 6197080Uploaded byAml Aml

- es labUploaded byKrishnaja Basireddy
- es labUploaded byKrishnaja Basireddy
- Vbil Record 2Uploaded byKrishnaja Basireddy
- Design of Microcontroller Based Temperature Controller AbstractUploaded byKrishnaja Basireddy
- Circle DetectionUploaded byQuang Nguyễn
- Engineering PhysicsUploaded byKrishnaja Basireddy
- Set Fire to the Rain(1)Uploaded byFrancisco González
- Set Fire to the Rain(1)Uploaded byFrancisco González
- Set Fire to the Rain(1)Uploaded byFrancisco González

- Lumber FormWork Design_ Lateral Pressures for Formwork Design_ACI_347Uploaded bylazem.360
- Physics ReviewerUploaded byHazir Haslefttheroom
- Beams, Bending, And Boundary Conditions_ Boundary ConditionsUploaded bymeda012
- Econometrics Chapter 11 PPT slidesUploaded byIsabelleDwight
- On Solving Fuzzy Rough Linear Fractional Programming ProblemUploaded byIRJET Journal
- The Scientific Method (Grade 10)Uploaded bysmoabayomi3575
- Wiggins_1979Uploaded byIkin Nora
- Engineering Design Using Genetic AlgorithmsUploaded byhamidrahmanyfard
- 246534946-MATHEMATICS-THEORY-BOOK-for-IIT-JEE.pdfUploaded bypsingh2701
- TemperatureUploaded byidayu111
- cvUploaded byapi-267294680
- GeotechnicalUploaded bycustomerx
- Distribution TheoryUploaded byapi-26870484
- STRATEGIES FOR SOLAR SAIL MISSION DESIGN IN THE CIRCULAR RESTRICTED THREE-BODY PROBLEMUploaded bySean
- Lectures on Theoretical Mechanics - 8 [Rigid body Rotation]Uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Super Magnet BrakE SYSTEMUploaded byhidai
- BEST_SQL_PLSQL_material.rtfUploaded byRavisankar Periasamy
- iep for susieUploaded byapi-273216977
- 01 Set language and notation.pdfUploaded byHexen Ong Chang Zhuang
- Analytic Model of Ieee 802.15.4 Unslotted CsmacaUploaded byMUHAMMAD RIFQI SETYAZAMANI
- Measurement and Scaling BRM Session 3.1Uploaded byKashyap Krishnan Ramaswami
- Metodologías de MuestreoUploaded byGabrielSantelices
- add subt rational final LG.pdfUploaded byRicardo B. Vigan
- I K Rana: Technology and Math Education - What? Why? How?Uploaded byAmber Habib
- Csc104 Calculus MicrosyllabusUploaded bykamalshrish
- Performance Optimization of Clustering On GPUUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- 1 Prelab SolutionsUploaded byJoe Rowley
- Engaging ComplexityUploaded byGys Loubser
- Horizontal CurvesUploaded byMuhammad Hafizi Yazid
- Poisson's RatioUploaded byksheikh777