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LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.

Tessier

What kind of meaning in an affix?


My sister is very WARM

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

WARMing is fun!
Miswarm = warm incorrectly (V)

...unwarm

= not warm (A)

Prewarm = warm in advance (V)

warmish

= close to being warm


(A)

Unwarm = return to a not warm state (V)


warmable = able to be warmed (A)

warmness
warmly

= the property of being


warm (N)
= in a warm manner
(Adv)

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Affixes that add lexical meaning to


their bases and often change
their bases lexical category are
called:

warmer = someone/thing that warms (N)


warmant = something that makes things
warm (N)

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Root: adjective warm


unwarm (A)
warmish (A)

warmness (N)
warmly (Adv)

Root: verb warm

derivational affixes

miswarm (V)
prewarm (V)
unwarm (V)

warmable (A)
warmer (N)
warmant (N)

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Words with more than


one root:
compounds

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

With the same lexical category,


whats describing what?
Nouns

Adjs

Verbs

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

How do we get the meaning of a


compound?
First, whats the lexical category?
V N
N
V
jump suit
spoon feed
scrub nurse
nose dive
N A
A N
sky blue
blue bird
nation wide
yellow jacket

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

And its recursive,


and its productive:
V

Jump suit dance


fire engine red hot
dropkick
oil well
deep blue breakdance

A
N
A
Blue bird blue

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

In English root+ derivational affix


OR English root+root (compound):

the right-hand member


decides the lexical category
and the meaning.

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Tagalog:
tubig
water

ulan
rain

= rainwater

anak
child

araw
sun

= albino

Not in all languages, though.

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Some reasons we are really sure


there ARE compounds:
1) differences in phonology
2) differences in meaning

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

1.Compounds get special stress:


green HOUSE
GREENhouse

wet SUIT
WETsuit

YEllow jacket BLACK board


yellow JACket black BOARD

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

2. Compounds can get special


meaning:
To be a
black BOARD

BLACK board

stg must
be a board
that is black
be a surface
you can write
on with chalk

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Affixes that arent derivational:


Movies with Jimmy Stewart warm my heart
The Shop Around the Corner is a movie
that warmed hearts in the 1940s
Its a Wonderful Life warms my mother
heart every Christmas
Saw III is not warming hearts

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Compounds whose meanings are


not a version of their rightmost
member:
x exocentric
redhead

sabertooth

redneck

bigfoot

walkman

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Affixes that add grammaticalized


information are called inflectional
Grammatical info that inflection can add:
when a verb happens: warmed
how a verb happens:
warming
who does a verb:
he/she/it warms
how many nouns:
many hearts

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Past tense of compound verbs:


I dropped the ball
I kicked the ball
I drop kicked the ball
*I dropped kick the ball
*I dropped kicked the ball

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Plural of compound nouns:


In the US, the Bill of Rights allows
Canadians to be:
alien gun owners
*aliens gun owners
*alien guns owners
*aliens guns owners
even if you own many guns

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

This shirt is dry


This shirt was dried
This shirt was cleaned
This shirt was dry cleaned
*This shirt was dried cleaned
This batter always
hits fly balls
*Yesterday, this batter hit
several flew balls

LING101 LecA2 * *Lecture Slides from Nov 2 2006 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

And inflection treats exocentric


compounds as even more special:
wisdom teeth
saber tooths
maple leaves
Maple Leafs

(a kind of teeth)
(a kind of tiger)
(a kind of leaves)
(a kind of...
hockey team)

to the inflections:
compounds are just one word

LING101 LecB2 * *Lecture Slides from March 12-4 2007 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Other ways of adding inflection


Indonesian

ora0
ora0 ora0

anak
anak anak

man
all sorts of men
child
all sorts of children
mango

ma0Ia
ma0Ia ma0Ia ( you say it)

LING101 LecB2 * *Lecture Slides from March 12-4 2007 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

A different kind of affix


Tagalog
bili buy
basa read
sulat write

binili bought
binasa read(past)
sinulat wrote

tawag call
tumawag
sulat
sumulat
gradwet graduate grumwadet

LING101 LecB2 * *Lecture Slides from March 12-4 2007 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Adding inflection by copying part


or all of the basic form:

 reduplication
An English hint of reduplication:
Nothing soy. I just want MILK milk
Dont put any radicchio in it, I just
want SALAD salad.

LING101 LecB2 * *Lecture Slides from March 12-4 2007 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Affixes that occur within


another root:

 reduplication
What is the rule for where to put
these Tagalog infixes?

LING101 LecB2 * *Lecture Slides from March 12-4 2007 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Remember English expletive


infixation?

LING101 LecB2 * *Lecture Slides from March 12-4 2007 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier





fan-fucking-tastic ("Terms of Endearment", 1983)


guaran-damn-tee (Southwest American slang)
ri-goddamn-diculous (attributed to a drunken John

Wayne, in an address to some quondam graduating cadets)







Some evidence from Wikipedia,


(Home of the C+ term paper):

LING101 LecB2 * *Lecture Slides from March 12-4 2007 ** Unit 4: Morphology ** Instructor: A.M.Tessier

Completely replacing basic forms to


add inflection

 suppletion
Eng.
I:
am
you: are
she: is
they: are

French
suis
es
est
sont

hi-fucking-larious
abso-fraggin'-lutely (catch phrase of character John
Sheridan in the television show Babylon 5)
Ala-fucking-bama (My Cousin Vinny)
"You don't look like your average horti-fuckingculturalist" (Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels)
"The war in Viet-fucking-nam! (Forrest Gump)
"Cinder-fucking-rella (Pretty Woman)


abso-fucking-lutely
*ab-fucking-solutely
*absolut-fucking-ly

German
bin
bist
ist
sind




whats the rule?