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Friday, March 19, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 40 - 42.


Gita series 60. Chapter IV. Verses 40 42.
Having described the benefits of faith in the Brahman and having discussed about
the benefits of attaining the highest knowledge, Krishna now reprimands the one
who does not have faith and says The one who is devoid of knowledge, dedication
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After having reprimanded the sceptical, Krishna continues to highlight the benefits
of karma yoga. The one who has surrendered the entire benefits of karma yoga in
favour of God and who does not foster any doubts because of his knowledge and
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keeps his mind under his control is not affected by his karmas. Therefore Arjuna,
trounce all your doubts bobbed up out of ignorance with the sword of knowledge. Establish yourself in
karma yoga and get ready for the battle.

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Having spoken at length about karma yoga and its benefits, Krishna reprimands those who are ignorant.
For spiritual evolution, knowledge, commitment and faith are necessary. Knowledge here means the
knowledge about the Spirit, the Brahman. Without understanding the Brahman, commitment and belief
are of no use. By ignorant Krishna refers to the effect of maya. It is due to the effect of maya, one is
afflicted with delusion that self (the gross body encompassing the soul) is different from the Self (the
Brahman). Knowledge of the Brahman is the basic necessity for spirituality. If this knowledge is not
attained, one continues to dwell in ritualistic worships thereby wasting major part of this human birth.
Knowledge alone leads to spiritual quest. Only this quest had made Buddha to renounce. Katha
Upanishad (I.iii.14) calls people thus Oh Men! Arise, awake! Learn about Self from men of knowledge.
Second aspect of divinity is perseverance. Spirituality is a gradual process and the results are not
attained immediately. One has to patiently wait for the day of his enlightenment. Body and mind have to
undergo gradual transformation, which becomes possible only by practicing meditation. Meditation is
not just relaxation. Relaxation of mind and body is the basic necessity for mediation. Meditation is a
process that leads to perpetual colligation between the Creator and the created. Dedicated practice of
meditation coupled with faith helps to achieve substantial progress in spirituality. Faith leads to positive
affirmations, which in turn lead to production of positive energy. Because of this, everything turns positive
for him. On the other hand, if one does not have faith, negative thoughts are generated leading to
negative energies. Negative vibrations do not allow positive things to happen to him. When one faces
only negative things in life, he becomes frustrated and happiness eludes him. Negative vibes induce him
to perform evil actions, the results of which get embedded in his soul that manifest in subsequent births.
Therefore, faith becomes an important factor in spirituality. Faith healing is based on this concept. The
one who does not pursue spiritual path to realize his Creator is considered as a brain dead man. He
continues to exist only physically.

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Krishna, having reprimanded the ignorant now proceeds to explain further benefits of karma yoga. The
one who surrenders the entire benefits arising out of his actions to the Brahman is not affected by karmic
effects arising out of his actions. His soul does not get embedded with karmic afflictions. The effects of
karmas are transferred to the soul, only if one has ego that takes credit for the fruits of actions.

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Surrendering the fruits of actions to the Brahman is not as simple as it is understood. Fruits of actions
can be surrendered only by firm thought process. This happens only if one has acquired enough
knowledge about the Brahman. This supreme knowledge clears all his spiritual doubts. When one
makes substantial progress spiritually, he gets too many doubts many of them could be trivial. Gurus
necessity is required here. This kind of knowledge can be attained not by reading and understanding
scriptures, but by internal exploration and looking within. Ultimately, the internal exploration alone can
lead to Self-realization. If the mind is trained to explore within, it automatically disconnects itself from the
extraneous matters. Now the mind comes under his control. When the mind is influenced by senses, it is
not willing to obey his master, as it derives great pleasure in getting associated with the objects causing
sensory attractions. Krishna concludes this chapter by saying that gaining knowledge is the only way to
get rid of ignorance. Knowledge drives away all evil forces because knowledge enables the mind to
discriminate between good and bad. Ignorance is to be destroyed with a sharp edged sword called
knowledge. Doubts arise because of ignorance. Having explained in detail about the benefits of
pursuing the karma yoga, Krishna asks Arjuna to follow the principles of karma yoga and take part in the
battle.
Chapter IV concluded. The next chapter deals with yoga of action and knowledge called karmasanyasa-yoga.

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Tuesday, March 16, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 35 - 39.


Gita series 59. Chapter IV verses 35-39

Having thus obtained the supreme knowledge, you will not again be subjected to
delusion. When you have attained that kind of knowledge, first you will see the
entire universe within you and then in Me. Even if you are the worst sinner, yet you
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will be able to cross the sea of sin by using that Knowledge as boat. Arjuna! Like
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heart by persistent practice of karma yoga automatically realizes the Self (within)
in course of time. The one who has mastered his senses by devoted to his
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Knowledge in absolute faith, attains that Knowledge. Having thus known the Truth,
he immediately attains supreme peace (Self realization).

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In the previous verses (Gita series 58), Krishna stressed the importance of Supreme knowledge that is
required to realize the Self. Only a living master can lead one into the right spiritual path. Voracious
reading could lead to confusion and misapprehension. The master or guru teaches his disciple about the
Brahman. If a guru himself continues to dwell on rituals, how can he lead his disciple to Self-realization?
Therefore, the role of guru assumes significance. If one is able to attain the true knowledge, he becomes
devoid of delusion. What is true knowledge? True knowledge is that knowledge which makes one
realise that what is perceived is all Brahman. Delusion leads to duality. Duality means comprehending a
second, apart from the Brahman. Truth or Knowledge is non-duality which advocates omnipresence
nature of God and at last he realizes that Self is not different from self (God is not different from the self).
If one is afflicted with delusion or maya, because he had not attained the necessary knowledge to realize
the Brahman, he is subjected to pleasure and pain. Delusion makes one feel the dichotomies.
Dichotomies, though continue to exist, a Self-realized person does not take cognisance of the
opposites. It is the Supreme knowledge that makes to him to believe that everything is God given and
pre-determined. He knows that whatever happens to him is due to his karmic afflictions. Isha Upanishad
verse 7 explains this thus When a person knows that he himself has become everything and he knows
the oneness of things, how can he hate or love anything? Seeing the universe within you means the
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UNDERSTANDING
MEDITATION.
PART 5.
VIJNANA BHAIRAVA
- PART 8.
KARMA AND SOUL.
PART I

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Self-realization within. Krishna further says and then in Me indicating that He is that Brahman. Selfrealisation happens in two stages. First, looking within for the source of creation and the second stage is
the affirmation that the Brahman, the original source is within. Self-realisation happens decisively and the
process is not reversed.
Even if one is the worst sinner, if he has realized the Self within, then he is absolved of his entire sins.
Assuming that the sins committed by him are the size of a sea, he can easily cross the sea of sins using
his knowledge as the ship. But without acquiring the necessary knowledge, he continues to dwell on his
karmas and the emancipation evades him. He feels the dualities or opposites such as pleasure and
pain. Dualities drag a person further down from the path of spirituality and make him suffer from
attachments, desires, sensory afflictions, etc. Unfortunately if such a situation unfolds, he can never get
away from the effects of karmas and is born again and again. But, if one acquires the necessary
knowledge to realize the Brahman, all his actions are obliterated, like logs put into a fire turning into ash.
From the ash, the burnt object cannot be retrieved. Once the effects of karmas are burnt, they can never
resurrect. Karmas of past and present are burnt, leaving nothing in karmic account. Unless karmic
account becomes zero, future births can never be avoided. The Brahman has no role to play in removing
ones karmas. They are not removed by prayers and rituals. They can be removed only by unconditional
surrender to Him. The thought of unconditional surrender arises only if one attains the Supreme
Knowledge. Only meditation helps, nothing else. That is why Krishna says that Knowledge is the best
purifier. Krishna refers to mental or internal purification. Spirituality does not bother about exterior. When
the mind gets rid of desires and attachments, mind becomes purified. If one is able to get rid of ones
ego, rest of the process of realisation happens automatically. No more efforts are needed and no
practice is required. Ego-less thought, processes the balance. The mind can be purified only by
following the principles of karma yoga, discussed in the earlier chapters. Karma yoga means
continuously performing prescribed actions without attachments to the fruits of such actions. A typical
example of karma yogi is the nature of a person helping a poor student to pursue his education by
sacrificing his week end parties. Week end party surely is a luxury for him, than helping a poor boy to
pursue his studies. For him, Self-realization happens automatically, without any additional efforts.
Such a situation arises only for a person who has mastered his senses. Mastering senses does not
mean getting rid of everything or staying away from everything. Conquering senses is a misnomer.
Senses can never be conquered. They can be mastered. If somebody shouts, we hear that shout. Unless
ones hearing is impaired, one hears that shout. Mastering the senses means that one is not distracted
by that shout. He will still hear that shout, but the sound does not distract him. For him sound and silence

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LALITHA
SAHASRANAMA
M 663 - 667.
AN EXCELLENT
QUESTION ON
KARMA
UNDERSTANDING
MEDITATION.
PART 4.
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHPATER V. 1-3.
VIJNANA BHAIRAVA
- PART 7.
UNDERSTANDING
MEDITATION.
PART 3.
UNDERSTANDING
MEDITATION.
PART 2.
LALITHA
SAHASRANAMA
M 657 - 662.
VIJNANA BHAIRAVA
- PART 6.
UNDERSTANDING
MEDITATION.
PART 1.
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IV. 40 42.
LALITHA
SAHASRANAMA
M 651-656.
VIJNANA BHAIRAVA
- PART 5.
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IV. 35 39.
LALITHA
SAHASRANAMA
M 645- 650.
TWIN MENTAL
STATES - YOGA
VASISHTA

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(dualities or opposites) are the same. This is possible only if one has the highest form of knowledge that
has been discussed above. It is not enough if one has attained that kind of knowledge, but he has to
repose faith in that knowledge. He has to believe that his knowledge is the supreme and will lead to Selfrealization. Lack of faith is the greatest hindrance to spiritual progression. If all these combinations work
together, he attains the bliss and moves closer to the Brahman. Truth here means I am That or I am
Brahman. There is no second to the Brahman and all that pervades the universe are the reflection of the
Brahman, causing an affirmation that That Brahman is Me.
3 COMMENTS

VASISHTA
VIJNANA BHAIRAVA
- PART 4.
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IV. 31 34.
LALITHA
SAHASRANAMA
M 637 - 644.
THE PYRE OF
VIRTUES - a
scene from
Ramayana.
VIJNANA BHAIRAVA
- PART 3.
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IV. 26 30.
Clarification on
akathaha chakra
and janana
yantra...
The secrecy of
Shodasi mantra
LALITHA
SAHASRANAMA
M 631 - 636.
VIJNANA BHAIRAVA
- PART 2.
BHAGAVAD GITA.
CHAPTER IV. 22 25.

Thursday, March 11, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 31 - 34.

LALITHA
SAHASRANAMA
M 626 - 630.
VIJNANA BHAIRAVA
- PART I

Gita Series 58. Chapter IV 31 34.

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The End of Sorrow

Arjuna! By consuming the remnants of yajna, yogis attain the Brahman. When
this earthly life is not happy for those who do not perform sacrifices, how can they

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Eknath Easwaran

be happy in other worlds? Many sacrifices have been explained by Vedas. Know
them all as karmas. By knowing thus, you shall be liberated from karmic
afflictions. Making sacrifices through knowledge is superior to making sacrifices
through materials as the entire action without exceptions culminate in knowledge.
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Understand the true knowledge by approaching a Self-realized person, by paying
obeisance, by rendering service and by seeking clarification from him. Those seers will teach you that
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Remnants of yajna means left over oblation materials after completing a yajna. In this context, yajna
means a fire ritual where oblations are offered into the fire. Fire is said to be the carrier of oblations
offered to the gods and goddesses. Lalitha Sahasranamam 946 is pancha-yajna-priya meaning that
She is fond of five types of yajnas. Yajna should not always be interpreted as fire ritual. Yajna also means
selfless offerings. The offerings are made to gods, rishis, guests, fellow humans and animals. Whatever
one possesses should first be offered to gods. Though gods are not going to consume the offerings, the
formality is just to make us remember the Brahman, who is the cause for all that exists in this universe.
Therefore, the first offering is made to the Creator. The next offering is made to sages and saints who
guide us through the spiritual path. They do not have time to earn and they involve themselves for the
cause of spirituality. A person can be considered as a sage or saint only if he does not get associated
with material comforts. He should not share his knowledge for monetary gains. That is why they are to be
fed by the society. Spirituality should never be sold or bought. It is not a commercial entity. It is unstinted
love and concern for others. Scriptures are unanimous in saying that ones guest should be fed with
reverence and love. They are called atiti. Food that is available should be shared with fellow human
beings. Finally, the animals who cannot express their hunger are to be fed. The five types of yajnas have
their own significance. Therefore, yajna has broader implications and does not merely mean the fire
ritual that is normally construed. The sacrificial acts cause internal happiness. Opportunities for doing
such acts are available only in planet earth and internal happiness can be derived only during this birth. If
one fails to enlist this happiness, how can he taste such happiness after his death (by reaching the
heaven)? Human form is the only opportunity available to a soul to attain liberation.
Vedas discuss about many sacrifices. The significance of these sacrifices is not properly understood.
Vedas can be interpreted both in gross and subtle ways. Gross interpretations are for the not-solearned. Subtle interpretations are for the learned. Upanishads are the derivatives of Vedas.
Upanishads do not prescribe any external rituals. If Vedas have stressed the importance of external
rituals, Upanishads would not have hesitated to expatiate them. Since interpretations are made only on

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the gross side of Vedas, everyone is led to believe that Vedas preach only rituals. The fact is that we do
not have the necessary mental strength, moral courage, psychological perception and logical reasoning
to interpret the Vedic rituals as inner yajna. Inner yajna paves the way for cosmic interaction between the
Brahman and the soul through ones consciousness. Without this interaction, realization is just not
possible. Sacrifices therefore mean only our own actions without any concern for the end result. The end
result is not desired, but happens on its own about which one is not worried. Making sacrifice through
knowledge means performing a given action without concern for its fruits. Knowledge here means the
ability to discriminate between reality and illusion. Duality is illusion and non-duality is realism.
Understanding the reality (devoid of ego) and performing actions without any attachment either to their
cause or effect, do not cause karmic afflictions. If one remains attached only to external yajnas, he
continues to be taunted by karmas and liberation becomes a distant reality. Krishna attaches great
importance to knowledge because it forms the foundation for Self-realization. Every action causes an
experience, which leads to gaining of mundane knowledge. From the mundane knowledge one has to
learn to discriminate between the reality and illusion that leads to the higher level of knowledge. Krishna
refers only to this higher level of knowledge.
Gaining true knowledge is not going to be that easy. Apart from ones personal experience, one can also
seek the help of a Self-realized person (who is very rare to find). Only a Self-realized person alone can
guide his disciple in the right path. Guru-disciple relationship should never be by way of mass contacts.
A guru should have direct contact with his disciple. Disciple should have the absolute freedom to contact
his guru without any hindrance. Guru-disciple relationship is a sacred relationship. The knowledge of
Brahman cannot be imparted in an assembly or mass gatherings. It should be a one to one commune
between guru and disciple. What we are witnessing today is the exhibition of ones oratory skills. All one
has to do is to make a self-proclamation, grow beard and wear orange or red robes. They are not gurus
that Krishna is talking about. Writings like this (manblunder) can only be supplementary in nature and can
never transport the real knowledge. Krishna says that a true Self-realized person should be approached
with great reverence requesting for a share of his knowledge. The impartation of true knowledge
happens through hearts and not through minds.

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r...

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BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 26 -30.


Gita Seires 57. Chapter IV. 26-30.
Some offer as oblations, sensory perceptions like hearing etc into the fire of selfrestraint. Some other offer as oblations sensory perceptions like hearing etc into
the fire of senses. Some offer the entire functions of senses and the entire
functions of prana as oblations into the fire of yoga of self-restraint fuelled by
Bhagavad-Gita As It Is
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Some offer oblations in the form of knowledge through the study of scriptures.
Some offer exhalation as oblations into inhalation. Some offer inhalation as
oblations into exhalation. Some by regulating their diet and by practicing
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pranayama offer them as oblations into pranayama itself. All of them understand
the true nature of sacrificial worship and their sins are consumed.

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Fire consumes all that is not required when offered as oblations. Krishna has already said in IV.23 by
destroying his worldly attachments and bodily attachments, ever remaining in Paramatma and acts only
for the sake of yajna, his karmas are entirely destroyed. In the path of spirituality, self-restraint is
paramount. Senses are the main cause for distraction of awareness from the Supreme. Krishna has
already elaborated about sensory afflictions in Chapter II.60. Sense of hearing is cited as an example
here. Senses in general lead to desires, bondage and attachments. Senses influence the mind to
commit sins. Hence, Krishna says that sensory perceptions are offered as oblations into fire, the internal
fire that maintains the body temperature. Without this fire the body ceases to function. When sensory
perceptions are sacrificed into this fire, instead of the the flames that are visible in the external fire,
powerful energy is emanated from the physical body of that person from the inner fire. The inner fire is
the Brahman. Controlling of senses is different from self-restraint. Subduing of senses takes place while
controlling senses. One forcefully controls his senses, though his thoughts are still associated with
senses. But in the case of self-restraint, he disconnects his thoughts from his senses by means of his
self-will, that leads to free will. He is not bothered about his senses at all as he stands attuned with the
Brahman. Mind is the key factor both in controlling the senses by force and restraining the senses by
fixing his consciousness with the Brahman. If the senses are controlled forcefully, they egress with more
potency. Detaching senses from the mind is the ideal situation for progression in spirituality. This can
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Selvi Raj commented on Lalitha


Sahasranamam 9091: Shall I
chant only stotra, without
poorva bhagha? pls advice
Selvi Raj commented on Timing
For Recitation Of
Sahasranamam: Shall I chant
only the stotra without chanting
poorva bhagam and palasturti?
is there any specific
MANBLUNDER commented on
Sridevi Khadgamala Archana
Part 2: This is a very pertinent
point for discussion. This can be
interpreted in two ways. One,
from the
Lalitha Dasan commented on
Sridevi Khadgamala Archana
Part 2: GurujiKhadgamala
stotram is more of worshipping
gross form of Lalitha.Do we
really need to get the

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potency. Detaching senses from the mind is the ideal situation for progression in spirituality. This can
happen if one has a fixed goal of attainment. Krishna says every act of sentience is to be sacrificed in
the fire of senses. This alone paves way for the highest source of consciousness or sat-chit-ananda,
where physiological functions come to a halt. There is inner silence suspended in timelessness. When
the senses are no more useful to him, he willingly sacrifices them to the fire of senses themselves. The
question now arises why this sensory oblations have been referred to differently. In the former case he
forcibly controls his senses by engaging himself in religious activities (not spiritual activities) and in the
latter case he continues to be present as one amongst us. But he does not put into use his sensory
organs thereby keeping his mind focused on the Brahman alone. His senses do not influence his mind.
He goes to a movie, but his mind is not affected by the movie. The art of taming ones natural tendencies
is not in the application of futile brute force but in gradual psycho-physical (the branch of psychology
concerned with quantitative relations between physical stimuli and their psychological effects) steps.

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books needs to be read first for
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Krishna now introduces atma-samyama-yoga or yoga of self-control. This stage can be called as the
closest stage to trance. The next stage is Samadhi. Meditation is a process that culminates in
Samadhi. Meditation is a stage where the meditator, the meditation and the object of meditation exist
and in the stage of Samadhi the object of meditation alone exists. For attaining that stage, the supreme
knowledge is required. Only the highest knowledge can lead to the Brahman, as knowledge alone
makes a person to discriminate between the Brahman and maya. Krishna says fire of yoga of selfrestraint is fuelled by knowledge. The fire of self-restraint can be ignited only by knowledge, the
knowledge of discrimination. Into this fire of self-restraint, senses and breath are offered as oblations or
they are sacrificed and burnt into ashes. In the advanced stage of Samadhi called nir-vikalpa-samadhi,
where in pure mind all the tendencies are submerged and continue to remain in un-manifested state.
There is difference between sleep and trance. In sleep ignorance prevails and in trance knowledge
alone prevails. That is why Krishna says everything is sacrificed into fire of self-restraint, including ones
breath. Inhalation and exhalation cease during the peak of Samadhi. The breath happens within, as
everything happens only within during this stage. His physical body is still alive.
Krishna next talks about material sacrifices. Oblations and sacrifices convey the same meaning in this
context. Oblations offered in the fire rituals are only sacrifices as at the end of each oblation, the effect of
the oblation is sacrificed to the deity invoked in the fire. For example when an oblation is offered to
Krishna, then the mantras says Krishnayae svaha (Svaha for Krishna)! Krishnayae idam na mama!(this
is for Krishna, not for me). Anything that is not in the interest of self is considered as sacrifice. Anything
done for the welfare of the co-inhabitants is a sacrifice. Someone provides free education, then it is a
sacrifice. Education is not for his children but for someone else. No selfish motive is involved. Sacrifice

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does not mean fire oblations alone. This is known as yoga-yajna, the sacrifice done through the
practice of yoga. Yoga is a process by which cessation of the modifications of intellect is carried out.
This process is carried out by merging individual self with the Supreme Self. Brahma Sutra 2.1.3 says
that yoga is a necessity for liberation. Otherwise, Krishna would not have taken pains to explain about
yogas at length. He elaborates one yoga after another throughout Bhagavad Gita. Sacrifices are carried
out in different ways. Some perform ritual yajnas, someone else takes a vow, yet another study
scriptures and spread his knowledge across the earth for others to know. Whatsoever is the nature of
sacrifice, it has to be self-less. Then it is known as yajna. Favours should not be sought from the
Brahman. He decides only on the law of karma. Krishna says that pranayama can also be sacrificed as
the proper practice of breath control leads to Self-realization. (Breath control will be discussed in detail
in our discussions on vijnana Bhairava). Krishna refers to different types of oblations or sacrifices to
indicate that anything can be sacrificed. If such sacrifice is made, the entire actions of those who work
for the sake of sacrifice dissolve away. They are not afflicted by karmas, as the fruits of actions have
been sacrificed in favour of the Brahman. Krishna has thus far spoken about twelve types of yajna in this
chapter.
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Thursday, March 4, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 22 -25.


Gita series 56. Chapter IV. 22-24.
The one who performs an action without desire, deriving happiness in whatever he gets, without envy,
away from the of happiness and sorrow, with equanimity and not concerning with success or failure of
his actions is not bound by karmic afflictions. By destroying his worldly attachments and bodily
attachments, ever remaining in Paramatma and acts only for the sake of yajna, his karmas are
entirely destroyed. The vessels used in a yajna are Brahman. Materials used for oblations in a yajna
are Brahman. The one who does yajna is Brahman. The act of offering oblations in the fire is
Brahman. The fire itself is Brahman. The one whose consciousness is fixed in the Brahman gets
Brahman only.
Desiring for an object is different from getting an object, which is not desired. Desire is the process of
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mind. When one gets what he desires, he is happy. On the contrary, if one is not able to get a desired
object, his mind swings to the other end, the sadness. Desire has necessarily given rise to either
happiness or sorrow. If one is able to sustain with what comes to him on its own as destined, then he is
unaffected by the dyads of happiness and sorrow. Desire is one of the dreaded enemies of humanity. In
order to achieve a desired object one is willing to compromise all virtues. Desire can broadly be
classified into two groups. The first one is achievable desires and the second one is unachievable
desires. Unachievable desire gives rise envy. If one is not able to get the desired object, he turns
jealous. Jealousy leads to hatred and rivalry that cause serious afflictions on ones mind. His mind loses
peace ultimately causing health problems. Every living being is destined to get as per the karmas
embedded in the soul. Whether desired or not, karmic account makes a person to sustain thereby
providing necessities even without asking. One should be happy with what he is destined to get.
Krishna says that one should not be jealous. The other person could be richer, more intelligent, or more
handsome. The other person could be better placed in all respects. That is his destiny, which unfolds as
per the law of karma. Under such circumstances, one should never envy that person. Karma yogi is one
who gets away from the duality of rich and poor, learned and illiterate, happiness and sorrow. This is
called duality. They are opposite to each other. A person who is not affected by this is fixed in a middle
path, where none of the two extremes operates. Swinging to the two extremes is the cause for mental
modifications. Such wide swings are serious blockades to spirituality. If the mind is not stable, spirituality
cannot be pursued effectively. For such a person all actions end with a positive note. He does not face
any disruptions while discharging his duties. Even if he happens to face disruptions and his action
remaining incomplete, he is still unaffected, as he is not concerned with the fruits of his actions.
A gross body is the combination of mind and senses. Mind and senses interacting with each other
cause attachments and desires. The one, who withdraws his consciousness away from his body and
mind, is known as muktan. He is not concerned with the result of his actions, as he has already
surrendered the results to the Brahman. He is aware that Brahman is omnipresent and omnipotent. At
this stage, his free will is not active, as his consciousness is highly refined and stand attuned to the
highest cosmic source. Yajna means performing ones duties as prescribed by sastras. This is called as
yajnas because such actions are done for the sake of humanity without ego. Krishna now declares the
most important thing about karmas. Krishna says that for muktan all his past karmas are also burnt,
making his liberation happen during this birth. This is a very significant statement regarding the law of
the Lord. The theory of karma is the law of the Lord. This is the only situation where the Lord deviates
from the law of karmas. In all other situations, one has to undergo the pleasure and pain of karmic

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account.
Having explained thus, Krishna in verse 24 says that everything is Brahman. Chandogya Upanishad
III.xiv.1 explains this thus: All this is Brahman. Everything comes from Brahman, everything goes back to
Brahman and Brahman sustains everything. This leads to the perception that everything associated
while discharging ones duties become Brahman. If such a thought process is developed, he not only
considers himself as Brahman but everything and everybody around him is also considered as
Brahman. Such a man does not think about anything except Brahman. He cannot harm anyone, as this
could tantamount to self-harming. When this attitude is developed, not only he advances spiritually, but
universal brotherhood is also being established.
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Wednesday, February 24, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 19 - 21.


Gita series 55. Chapter IV.19 21.

The one whose acts are devoid of desires and determinations and whose entire karmas are burnt in
the fire of supreme knowledge, that great man is declared as a learned man even by the wise. The
one, who has no interest in karmas and its fruits, devoid of worldly attachments and always remains
satisfied in Paramatma, does not get himself involved in any actions, though he sincerely discharges
his duties. The one winning over his body comprising of mind and senses, by detaching himself from
sensory objects and functions merely to nourish his body is not affected by sins.

Every man is born with certain responsibilities based on his karmic account. A school teacher is born for
the purpose of educating children. He joins a school as a primary teacher with an ambition to become
the head of the school. The teacher has aspirations to advance professionally in order to make a better
living. Though his aspiration is not wrong, still it is called desire. He works towards the goal of getting
promotions. If the same school teacher takes up the job of teaching with the sole purpose of educating
children without aspiring for promotions, he is then called a man without desires and determinations. In
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the second situation, promotion will be thrust on him for his outstanding performance. Performance of the
teacher in the second situation is bound to be better as he has the sole aim of educating children that is
devoid of any personal gains. He discharges his karmas without any interest on the fruits of his karmas.
He follows the principle of work is worship. The teacher in the second situation could be considered as
incompetent by common men, but is considered as knowledgeable by learned men. The perceptions of
wise and ignorant are totally different. What is considered as good by the learned, appear bad for the
ignorant. The cause for difference in perception is the quality of knowledge. That is why knowledge is
considered as the most essential component for God realisation. When one makes spiritual progress,
he needs higher forms of knowledge to sustain his progress. Only the highest form of knowledge can
lead to Self-realisation. The highest form of knowledge can be explained in a nutshell as the knowledge
devoid of duality (duality - considering God and man as different. If this is considered, the question of
realising the Self in self does not arise), ego and attachments. Highest form of knowledge is compared
to fire and the one who attains such knowledge his karmas are offered as oblations and are burnt in the
fire of knowledge thus making his soul merge with the Brahman. When karmic account ceases to exist,
soul is not reborn. A person who is devoid of self-interest automatically works towards universal love.
Considering that Love is God he stands united with Divine and functions as His representative. He
does not differ from God in any way, as God is the embodiment of Love that is pure, eternal and devoid
of selfishness. When one remains in such a situation which means that he stands connected (not united.
Union is the merger of the self with the Self) to the Divine.
Krishna describes further qualities of that man. Such a selfless person is able to win over his bodily
afflictions. Body consists of mind and senses. The former is subtle and latter is gross. Though mind is
subtle in nature, its effect on the senses is powerful. Mind and senses are interdependent and like the
company of each other. If these are controlled (they need not be eliminated), the progress in spirituality
happens at a faster pace. Such a person may appear to be inactive and lethargic. In reality his individual
consciousness stays attuned with Supreme Consciousness, overflowing with love. This overflow is
reflected in the form of energy that can be felt and realized in all the places around him. Most of these
men can be identified from their energy level and not from their actions. Having born in this earth, it is
important that one should nourish his physical body as the body covers the Brahman within. None has
the right to punish his body on his own. If such a man remains inactive but continues to nourish his body,
it is not considered as a sin. He nourishes his body only for the sake of God within, with no desires
attached and un-stricken by senses. That man is considered as a man of knowledge even by the wise
men. Wise men are those who are Self-realized but to continue to live due to the balance in their karmic
accounts.

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Saturday, February 20, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 16 - 18.


Gita Series 54. Chapter IV 16 18.

Even the wise find it difficult to differentiate between action (karma) and inaction (a-karma). Now, I am
going to teach you about the principles of karma and after knowing of which you will be freed from all
karmic afflictions. Nature of both karmas and a-karmas (action and inaction) should be understood. In
the same way the forbidden actions should also be understood, because the depth of karma is deep.
The one who beholds action in action and inaction in action, he is considered as wise among men.
That yogi is said to be involved in all actions.
Sastras explain the concept of karma in detail. Wise men would have attained enough knowledge to be
called as wise. They also stand confused in interpreting karmas, as there are too many theories on
karmas. One normally gets confused as they are not sure whether staying away from actions, in other
words, being inactive is the right karma or surrendering the fruits of karmas to the Creator is the right
karma or carrying out actions laid down by sastras is the right karma. These are the confusions about
karmas even for the learned. However, Krishna has already said that being inactive is a sin and
therefore inaction is to be excluded. For example one needs to have some sleep. Sleeping is karma or
action. If one does not sleep he is affected biologically. Therefore, one has to sleep to keep his physical
body fit that sheaths the Brahman within. If one tends to oversleep, more than the bodily requirement
then, it tantamount to inertia that causes karmic affliction. Krishna is about to explain what is causing
karmic affliction and what is not.
Krishna says that the concept of karma should be understood first. Karmic afflictions arise while
performing karmas. Realising that actions cause karmas, if one tends to remain inactive, that also cause
karmic afflictions. Karmic afflictions are embedded in a soul that unfold when the soul attains a form
(birth) when it gets associated with prakriti. Krishna says that depth of karma is very deep because it

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has too many interpretations and repercussions. Karmic theory is not that easy to understand.
Performing actions, not performing actions and performing actions that are prohibited, not performing
prescribed actions, wrong performance of prescribed actions and the list is endless. In general Krishna
says that a person who considers action and inaction on the same footing is considered as wise. When
one understands this theory, he is not attached either to positive nor to negative results of an action. Any
action is capable of providing both positive and negative results. Only when one chooses to surrender
the end result of his action to the Brahman, he is not afflicted by karmas. When one is not interested in
the end result of an action, he is then considered as a yogi (one who mastered his mind) since active
and inactive stages are the same for him. He continues to dwell in the stage of deep sleep condition
even during his waking condition. He is called karma yogi.
Having explained in detail about karma yoga in the previous chapters, Krishna chooses to elucidate
again about karma. This clearly explains the role played by karma in ones life. It is improper to say that
karmas lead to pain or pleasure. Karmas also lead to salvation. But if an action is performed with ego,
then it leads to pain. Wrong actions are those not approved by sastras. Sastras say that one should love
fellow men and on the contrary if one chooses to cause trouble to fellow men, then he stands afflicted by
evil effects of karmas. Yogi is a person who has developed mental ability to see the Brahman in
everything. He becomes a master of advaita philosophy. This is possible only through self exploration,
the process of realising the Brahman within. For a yogi, action and inaction are the same. Due to his
mental modification, he is able to see actions in all inactions and inactions in all actions. Human birth is
the gift of God as human mind is endowed with the capacity to discriminate, the discrimination between
the Creator and the created.
Karmas are of three types. They are sanchita, prarabdha and agamya. Sanchita karmas are the total
sum of karmas accumulated over past births. Prarabdha karmas is that part of sanchita karma that gets
unfolded during this birth. Agamya karma is the sum total of sanchita karma +/- prarabdha karma. Let us
take an example. At the time death a person has a total of 60 in sanchita karma. Out of this 60 let us
assume that 20 out of 60 is to be realized in his next birth. During the next birth he has two options. The
first one is to nullify this figure 20 by performing only good actions. If the sum total of good karmas is
more than 20 then it gets adjusted in his sanchita karma and at the end of this birth his sanchita karma
could become 50. On the other hand the sum total of karmas accumulated in this birth is more than 20,
then his sanchita karma account becomes more than 60, let us say 70. Until the sanchita karma
becomes 0 one has to undergo the process of births and deaths.

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Thursday, February 18, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 13 -15.


Gita Series 53. Chapter IV 13 15

Taking into consideration attributes and karmas, I created four socio-religious divisions in the
society. Though I am the creator of such divisions, know me as immutable and not the cause for such
divisions. I have no desire in the fruits of karmas. Karmas do not afflict me. The one who knows my
nature thus, is not implicated by karmas. Knowing this, the wise during the ancient period, sought after
liberation and performed their karmas. Therefore, following the footsteps of your ancestors, perform
your actions dutifully.
The division of humanity is based on socio-religious factors. The cause for such factors is ones karmas
and attributes (gunas). A portion of the accumulated karmas unfold during the present birth. At the time
of birth the three gunas satvic, rajas and tamas are found in equal proportions. When karmas start
unfolding fully, one of these gunas predominantly prevails. Therefore ones karma and attributes decide
the quality of a person. Though Krishna is the cause for such divisions, He does not become responsible
for the quality of such divisions. Brahman is only a witness and does not partake in actions. He is the
cause in his capacity as the Brahman, the Creator. He does not become responsible for such divisions
because it is ones thoughts and actions alone determine the attribute of that person. Unfortunately,
these divisions are now being classified as castes and creeds that is determined by hereditary, which is
against the will of the Divine. Divine is the cause of creation and surely is not the cause for the quality of
His creations. Quality of creation is determined only by the self. Each of the divisions has certain duties
to perform. One division is assigned with the job of providing knowledge about the Brahman that
ultimately leads to enlightenment. The second division belongs to the class of warriors. Third division
belongs to the business community and the fourth division belongs to the class of labourers. One division
alone cannot survive without the support of the other three and therefore these divisions are highly
interdependent. A labourer can move to the first division by acquiring knowledge and a man from the first
division can also come to the fourth division by lack of knowledge. Ultimately ones quality of knowledge

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determines his attributes. When one is imparted with sufficient knowledge, he will not like to do evil
actions as the knowledge acquired by him would have taught him about the consequences of evil
actions. Thus Creation alone is God made and ones attribute is manmade.
The Brahman has no desires and no karma can ever affect Him. Desires and karmas are associated
with materialistic world and not with the eternity. Creation is a process that was set rolling by the
Brahman with several checks and counter checks, balances and counter balances. For example the
presence of a soul alone cannot cause a creation. The soul has to depend upon prakriti and the
elements such as akash, air, fire, water and nature to manifest as a living species. Such a living being
cannot grow in whatever way it likes. Its actions are determined by its karmas. The very fact that the
Brahman is immutable is an authentic proof that karmas do not affect Him. What Krishna talks here is
about His nirguna form or the Brahman without attributes. The Brahman without attributes can only be
realized and not be seen. He can be realized in the form of self-illuminating light within. Attempts to know
Him elsewhere do not yield any tangible results. There are certain men who seek final liberation. Even
the desire for such liberation arises out of ego since I seek liberation includes I the ego factor. What
Krishna says is that one has to perform his karmas dutifully and the final liberation will follow. Sought
after liberation means discharging duties without the end results of actions in mind. Only those persons
who are interested in final salvation will not attach significance to the fruits of karmas and at the same
time they never shirk their responsibilities. Therefore, Krishna asks Arjuna to perform his prescribed
karmas (fighting his enemies) without any desire on the fruits of his actions. Possibly we can conclude by
saying that even during Krishnas period, the true seekers of divinity had started dwindling leading to
Krishna avatar.

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Saturday, February 13, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 10 - 12


Gita Series 52. Chapter IV 10 - 12 A number of people have attained my preternatural form by means
of knowledge, disinterested in other activities and surrendering unto me by sacrificing desire, fear and
anger. Arjuna! I approach my devotees in the same way they worship me. Entire humanity in all
respects pursues my path. In this earth, those (materialistic persons) who seek the fruits of karmas
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worship (various) gods; because, by doing so they are able to attain the fruits of their karmas easily.
The Divine or the Brahman has no form and due to maya all that we see around us is only the reflection
of the Brahman. It is like seeing objects in a mirror. For realising this truth, the highest form of intellect is
necessary says Krishna. This process is known as intellection where ones thought transcends the
materialistic world, unafflicted by sensory influence. This is also known as thought process, where
thoughts get highly refined leading to the stage of thoughtlessness, void and stillness. Only during this
stage, the Brahman is realized. Brahman can neither be realized nor seen through biological eyes. He
can be realized only through the third eye which gets automatically activated during true spiritual
progress. Spiritual progress does not mean the time spent on reading scriptures or performing rituals.
Ecstasy is not the advanced stage of spirituality but the bliss is. Such progress can be attained only
through supreme intellect that makes a person to explore within. Only during the advanced stage of
internal exploration, one tends to disassociate from the materialistic world where one is able to get rid of
desire, fear and anger as this stage can be reached only if one is able to disassociate his
consciousness from the power of sensory influence. The perpetual integration of self consciousness and
Supreme consciousness leads to unconscious and thoughtless stage, where the Brahman is realized in
absolute stillness. This is the stage that Krishna refers to as attaining His preternatural form (nirguna
Brahman). Brahman cannot be worshipped and can only be realized. Various forms of the Brahman are
worshipped, depending upon ones ability to visualise. The attributes of the Brahman (saguna Brahman)
have been depicted in the forms of different gods and goddesses. Brahman is Supreme and all alone.
Due to ignorance (avidya) the Brahman is visualized in different forms. But the fact remains that none
can realize the Brahman overnight. The realization happens through a series of processes beginning
with ritual worship, mantras, recitations, study of Vedanta, meditation, perpetual meditation leading to a
stage where all materialistic worships cease and final emancipation takes place. Based upon the
concept of the omnipresent nature of the Brahman, various forms of gods and goddesses are
appeased. Those who do not possess supreme knowledge that is required to realise the Brahman,
worship such forms. The practitioner during the process of such worship gets some miraculous powers
known as siddhis. Those who want to make further progress with intent to realize the Brahman get rid of
those siddhis that are considered inferior and distracting. Krishna never leaves these propitiators alone,
though He does not consider them as jnanis or yogis. Krishna surely fulfils their desires, provided they
are performed with dedication and devotion. Attachment to material prosperity is the root cause of such
worships as ritual worships yield results much faster. But this does not lead to salvation, which is
possible only through the process of self-realisation. Irrespective of the path one chooses, he still
pursues karma yoga elucidated by Krishna in the earlier chapters, as no man can remain idle without
performing requisite karmas. Non-performance of prescribed karmas is a greater sin than performing

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karmas seeking fruits of actions. Krishna can be attained by any of the means taught by Him, karma
yoga, jnana yoga, sanyasa yoga, inner yajna, bakthi yoga, etc. Every soul that gets manifested has to
necessarily follow any one of the above paths. Liberation of the soul or otherwise purely depends upon
the path one chooses. If the right path is not chosen to attain Him, the soul bound by karmic afflictions is
born again. But the soul finally gets liberated only if the Brahman is realized.
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Wednesday, February 10, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 7 - 9.


Gita Series 51. Chapter IV.7-9. Bharata (Arjuna)! Whenever virtues (dharma) decline and immorality
(adharma) looms, I embody as an avatar. To sustain the pious, to eliminate the sinners and to protect
dharma I incarnate in every yug. Arjuna! My avatar and actions are divine. The one who understands
this principle is not born again and reaches me when he dies. Free will is the gift of God that works
through mind making the mind instrumental in performing either virtuous or immoral acts. When such
God given freedom is misused frequently by majority of the population, Krishna incarnates in various
corporal forms. This concept is known as philosophy of incarnation. When more and more people are
involved in virtuous acts, dharma prevails leading to all round prosperity. Improper utilization of free will
leads to a situation where immoral acts prevail over virtuous acts casting all round poverty and gloom.
The theory of the survival of the fittest takes over universal brotherhood. Mindset of spiritually advanced
people does not change with times. They can exist peacefully during the times of universal brotherhood
and suffers for survival as they attempt to become physically fit. The pious men eat not to survive, but to
exhaust their karmas. Adharma rules when the fittest among all resorts to immoral acts. He has huge
following fearing for his might and they are induced to indulge in sinful acts leading to all round
melancholy. This situation can be solved my two means. The first is total annihilation of the universe,
which happens once in several billions of years. The second possibility is that God incarnates in
embodied forms to destroy evil and to restore virtues. In Hindu epics depicts such evils as demons. In
every incarnation, demons are destroyed and virtues are restored by such incarnated forms. This is what
Krishna says here. By such incarnations, the pious are protected by eliminating the sinners. The divine
avatars and actions are beyond human comprehension. Though many such incarnations are in human
forms, there are certain incarnations whose forms are incomprehensible. Narasimha avatar is one such
form. Rama and Krishna avatars are in human forms for setting examples for the humanity to follow the
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virtuous paths. Krishna Himself repeatedly emphasises this in Bhagavad Gita. Avatars though in human
forms, their power are infinite. This is what Krishna means by saying divine. No one can predict the
timing of such incarnations. Now a contradiction arises with regard to God. God is described as the one
without form and attributes known as the Brahman. But then, how can He incarnate in a form? The
answer is in The Holy Bible (Mathew 19:17) Why callest thou me good? There is none good but one,
that is God. God or the Brahman has infinite power to sustain this universe. Every act unfolds according
to His will, the Divine Will, juxtaposed to free will which is human. The Divine Will is not unilateral but
bound by the Law of Karmas, the divine law. God never overrides His own laws that are eternal and not
amended according to convenience. The divine incarnations are of two types. In the first type the
incarnated form is made visible to a community and in the second one, the incarnated form is made
visible only to those who eternally stay connected with Him. This situation is known as Krishna
consciousness, where ones consciousness stays tuned to higher frequencies where two way
communes are established. For them the Brahman appears in a visualised form of their choice,
remaining invisible to others. There is a lot of difference between manifested and visualised forms of the
Brahman. Rama and Krishna avatars are meant not only to annihilate the sinners but also to liberate
many of Their devotees. But the visualized form is made known to select few with the exclusive purpose
of liberating select souls. That is why the incarnations are said to be beyond human comprehension and
expectation. The one who understands this principle of the Divine is liberated, not to be reborn. The
divine principle ensures the continuance of the universe in terms of the Divine law. Divine law explicitly
says that none should take credit for their actions as these actions are decided by the Divine. Neither the
actions nor their fruits belong to the practitioner, but should be surrendered unto Him.
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Thursday, February 4, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 3-6


Gita series 50 - Chapter IV.3-6 Krishna continues. You are my devotee and friend as well. Hence, this
ancient yoga that is superior and secretive in nature was taught to you by me. Arjuna asks Krishna
Vishvat was born much ahead of your birth. How can I comprehend that you had taught this yoga to
him in the beginning. Krishna replies. Destroyer of enemies (Arjuna)! You and I experienced many
births. You cannot recollect any of them whereas I know them all. Though I am eternal, indestructible
and Lord of all living beings, abiding in my prakriti, I manifest due to my yoga maya. Arjuna is not only
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Krishnas disciple, but also His good friend. Generally yoga is taught through guru-disciple relationship
as certain technicalities are to be learnt directly from a master. Intricacy of karma yoga is considered
secretive in nature as proper learning of this yoga leads to self-realization. It frees a person to from the
evil effects of bondage and leading him to feel the eternal bliss. Such secretive yoga according to
Krishna is not to be shared with those who are not interested in God-realization. The efforts of a master
should not go waste in teaching this yoga to unworthy people. Karma yoga path is pursued by saints and
sages who had attained liberation, from time immemorial and therefore Krishna calls this as ancient
yoga. Krishna chooses Arjuna to teach this yoga because Arjuna has totally surrendered to Him and also
has keen desire to advance spiritually. Divine directly imparts (divine commune) supreme knowledge, if
one is making steady spiritual progress. Arjuna knows that Krishna is not an ordinary human but an
avatar. There is no reason for Arjuna to know about Krishnas teaching to Vishvat, who is known as sun
god. But Arjuna wanted to listen to Krishna (divine commune) on karma yoga. Krishna is eternal and
omnipresent. He existed in the beginning and will continue to exist forever even after annihilation. Divine
is nothing but the Supreme Cosmic consciousness, from which souls are released to associate with
prakriti causing creation. When this self illuminating cosmic consciousness is realised within during the
process of mediation, it is called self-realization. Soul does not have the capacity to remember its
previous incarnations. If it is vested with the capacity for such remembrance, it would have led to a
chaotic situation in the universe. Such souls have only two options before them. One is to reborn again
and again and to undergo the associated miseries. Every one born in this universe, however good he
might be has to certainly undergo sufferings, miseries and pains at some point of time during his living.
The second option is to merge with the Brahman and the individual identity of the soul would be lost
forever. Karma yoga is taught by Krishna enabling Arjuna to resort to the second option. Since karma
yoga expounds on rebirths, it is considered as secretive in nature. If one is to learn the secrets of karma
yoga, his karmic account should permit the same. Krishna teaches Arjuna not in His capacity as the God
head, but as Arjunas guru. That is why He says that He was also born before. Before Krishna avatar
Vishnu incarnated through other forms (ten avatars). He not only assumed different forms at different
times, but also taught the secrets of karma yoga during those incarnations. In Krishna avatar, His
teachings were in the form of conversation, whereas in His other avatars He had set examples by His
actions. Krishna being the Brahman (saguna Brahman) is fully aware of His previous incarnations and
Arjuna being a mortal is not aware of his previous births. Soul of Arjuna remains covered by perishable
sensory organs. Having incarnated in this universe, Krishna follows the principles laid down for others.
He does not want Him to be known as God head, though He says that He is eternal, indestructible and
Ishvara (supreme head) of the universe. Prakriti is Nature. A soul interacts with prakriti and attains a form
to undergo the karmas embedded in it. But Krishna is not bound by karmic account. He controls prakriti,

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which is a product of mulaprakriti known as avyakta. But still He says that He abides in prakriti which is
His own creation. He sets an example for karma yoga by following all prescribed rituals. His True nature
is veiled by the effects of yoga maya known as worldly illusion. Everything in this universe is a mere
reflection of God and only due to the influence of maya one is not able to realize the Truth. Krishna
becomes both the cause and effect.
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Monday, January 25, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IV. 1,2.


Gita Series IV. Verses 1-2 The fourth chapter of Bhagavad Gita is known as jnana-karma-sanyasa-yoga.
This chapter deals with higher level of knowledge. This chapter contains 42 verses. Jnana here means
the knowledge about the Brahman which is known as the supreme knowledge. In this chapter, Krishna
continues to dwell on karma yoga and further elaborates on sankhya yoga and renunciation. Krishna
teaches sanyasa yoga in the last of chapter of Bhagavad Gita, as renunciation requires intellect of the
highest order. In this chapter, Krishna declares the secret of His avatar. Krishna continues. I imparted
this perpetual yoga to Sun. Sun imparted to his son Vaivasvat manu and he imparted this to his son
Ikshvahu. Arjuna! This yoga that was taught through family line is known to Raja Rishis. With the
passage of time, this yoga seems to have been lost. In the second chapter, Krishna discussed about
karma yoga. He proceeded to discuss elaborately about karma yoga in chapter III. Krishna begins this
chapter by saying perpetual yoga, by which He means karma yoga combined with devotion and
renunciation. The word perpetual signifies the continuity of karmas as otherwise the world cannot exist if
everyone is sedentary. Karma yoga is the only yoga that has been taught by Krishna through the last
three chapters. To substantiate that karma yoga is meant for all, He makes a reference Sun god and his
dynasty, by making it amply clear that karma yoga is to be followed not only by sanyasis, but household
as well. Without functioning of house hold, sanyasis cannot exist, yet another incidence of
interdependence. The entire creation thrives on the principle of interdependence. The logical end to
yoga is the merger of soul with the Brahman. If anyone practices yoga without this in mind, it only leads
him to obscurity. Raja rishis mean those sages who ruled kingdoms. For example, king Janaka is
considered as one of the best known Raja rishis. The kind of spiritual knowledge he possessed was
inconceivable. Sage Vishwamitra is also known as raja rishi and his yogic powers are well known.
Krishna uses the term raja rishi because Arjuna also belonged to the dynasty of kings. In the ancient
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times, kings evinced keen interest in learning the moral and ethical values of administration through the
means of yoga. Their primary interest was only the welfare of their citizens. There could be another
reason for Krishna to take sun as an example. Sun derives its light from the self-illuminating Atman. A
fully realised person establishes perpetual contact with the Brahman that is reflected in the form of
powerful vibratory radiance around him. He draws light from Him and distributes. The sun does not
require anything in return for His duty of illuminating and sustaining the earth. He performs his duties
without any deviation and distraction. Sun is a typical example of karma yogi. Krishna proceeds to say
that this yoga got dissipated with the passage of time. For reaching the Brahman, one can choose any
of the paths such as karma yoga (action), bhakti yoga (devotion), jnana yoga (knowledge). The
combination of all the three yogas makes a person to advance in spirituality with unfaltering ease.
Krishna expresses his concern for dissipating nature of yoga, as He thinks that this yoga should never
get ruined with time. As long as the earth exists, this karma yoga cannot vanish in its entirety as, it is
perdurable. Karmas have to performed for the existence of earth, but they are not performed in the way
Krishna wanted this to be. Krishna highlights the difference between performing karma and renouncing
its fruits. Without performing karmas the earth cannot exist therefore, it is a necessity. But renouncing the
effects of karma is yoga which Krishna says is dissipated. This is the reason of lesser number of selfrealized persons now.
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Wednesday, January 13, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER III. 40-43.


Gita series 47. III. 40 - 43. It is said that lust dwells in the senses, mind and intellect and obliterates
the wisdom making the soul passionate. Therefore Arjuna, first control your senses and annihilate that
dreadful lust that is capable of destroying wisdom and realization. It is said that senses are superior (to
the gross body). Mind is superior to senses, intelligence is superior is mind and atman (the Self) is
more superior to intelligence. Arjuna! Thus knowing that the superior atman (the Self) is subtle and
powerful than intelligence, containing your mind through intelligence, annihilate the unconquerable
enemy known as lust. Krishna highlights the importance of sensory afflictions. When senses are
allowed to wander, it becomes uncontrollable even by its superiors authorities like mind and intellect.
When there is no counteracting force to check the senses, they act according to their wishes thereby
causing bad karmas that ultimately smite the soul. The soul becomes habituated to lust. The soul
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afflicted by the evil influences of the senses, is born repeatedly to undergo sufferings and miseries.
When a soul is born again and again, it remains un-liberated. Such an afflicted and habituated soul
becomes too powerful to conquer thereby affecting ones intelligence. When sensory influence is
predominant, mind goes after seeking sensual pleasures and does not have time for inner search and
ultimate self-realisation. Sensory influences can be arrested only through a tamed mind. Intellect is a
refined product of the mind and higher in stature than mind. Mind always consults intellect if it is not able
to decide on its own. The superiority of mind and intellect is emphasized because they are the available
tools by which senses can be controlled. Controlling depends upon ones ability to utilize them. This is
well explained in Katha Upanishad (I.iii.3-7). Atman is seated in a chariot, drawn by horses known as
sensory organs or indriyams. Mind is compared to the reins and the driver of the chariot is intellect.
Atman as the owner of the chariot commands the driver. Driver, the intellect obeys the commands of his
master, atman. Driver carries out the commands of his master, atman by controlling the reins. Reins in
turn control the horses. But the question is when atman is veiled by the afflictions of sensory influences,
how it can make commands. The uniqueness of the intellect is its capacity to discriminate between good
and bad. Only this singular quality makes the intellect superior to mind. Horses or the indriyams are of no
importance in self-realisation. In fact, they have to be desolated if they misbehave by not listening to the
commandments of the owner or the atman, the highest in spirituality. Such a command can be realized
by the sensory organs only if they realize the ataman inside. Krishna advocates annihilation of lusty
desires. It is better to annihilate them instead of controlling them. If they are controlled, at some time it will
be back with more power. It is also advocated that self control should commence from gross objects to
subtle subject for lasting solution. One should realize that intellect is veiled by ignorance. The level of
intellect does not vary from person to person. It is only the individual capacity to remove the veil of
ignorance that varies from person to person making some one more intelligent than another. The ways
and means of implementing His teachings is dealt with in subsequent chapters. The point that we should
know at this stage is that atman is extremely powerful and it can destroy the afflictions of senses,
provided one is able to realize its presence. But atman is not active unless and until He is realised by the
mind and intellect, as the atman remains veiled by maya or illusion. Only the intellect is capable of
removing the veil of maya. This process is called self-realisation. But why intellect alone is capable of
accomplishing this? Intellect not only aware of perceptions, it goes well beyond the levels or perception
known as intuition. Potentially this could be due to the power of intellect to discriminate. Intellect knows
for sure that lust is a stumbling block in the journey to realising the Self. That is why Krishna advises
Arjuna to annihilate lust. Chapter III concluded.
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Monday, January 11, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER III. 37-39.


Gita series 46. III. 37 39. Arjuna now asks Krishna: Oh! Vasrshneya! Though against his will as if
he is induced, by which a man is compelled to commit sinful acts. Vasrshneya means Krishna. This
indicates the descendant of Varishni dynasty of Yadavas. Since Krishna hails from this dynasty, Arjuna
addresses Krishna like this. Nobody is born to commit sins. Sins are committed during the course of
mans existence. The main cause for committing sins is impulsive desires. Desire for status, desire for
money, desire for competition, it could be anything. Sins are sometimes committed for survival. If such
desires cannot be achieved through fair means, sinful means are adopted. Normally such means are
adopted to satiate ones mental and physical desires. If one is able to overcome the vicious yearnings
and holding on to his mind connected to higher level of spirituality, he could escape the clutches of sins.
Sins badly affect ones karmic account, the effect of which is felt at a later date. Repeated indulgence in
such sinful acts make a person habituated to committing only sins, thereby making him a man of
unsound character. The significance of committing sins is not realised instantaneously but realised only
at a later date. It is the impulsive desires that make a man to indulge in sinful acts. When such desires
arise, even ones will power is drubbed. Arjuna wants to know the cause for such desires. Arjuna is
about to commit sinful act, by not participating in the battle against kurus. Krishna now answers Arjuna:
Lust, arising out of rajo guna transmutes into anger. Know this insatiate craving as the worst enemy
and the most immoral sin. Like smoke making the fire obscure, a mirror covered by dust, a fetus
covered by womb, in the same way the intellect is covered by the lust. Arjuna! Un-satiated lust is like
fire and an enemy to wise man and his intellect stands veiled by this lust. Rajo guna is one of the three
gunas viz. satwic, rajo and tamo. Rajo guna means mobility, the cause for various actions. Actions as
such are not prohibited by Krishna. Krishna says that one should not refrain from discharging his duties.
Duties are to be performed only for sustenance of all the living beings, by performing pancha yajna, the
five types of duties viz. duties to Gods, departed souls (pitrs), fellow human beings, all other living beings
and duties to the wise. On the contrary, if a person indulges in insatiable craving for lascivious acts, he
fails to perform other prescribed duties. Such a situation gives rise to replicating sins. First, indulging in
illicit sex and second, failing to perform specified duties, the former leading to the latter. Craving for
lascivious acts is like smoke that makes the fire, the cause for the smoke obscure. The truth of the Self
gets veiled by the influence of maya. In the same way, such desires obscure ones intelligence and
wisdom. This is the case even with jnanis. Jnanis are wise men and closer to final emancipation. They

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can understand and discriminate between good and bad. Lust is such a powerful destroyer; even such
wise men are not spared from its clutches. Krishna says that lust is the worst amongst all the desires.
Therefore, proper and adequate restraint is necessary for sensual gratification. Otherwise, it leads to
annihilation of the person concerned and the society he lives in. A person who overleaps his selfrestraint with strong sensual desires is ultimately consumed by the flames of that desire.
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Friday, January 8, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER III. 33 - 36.


Gita series - 45. III. 33 35 All living beings act according to their nature. The jnani (wise man) also
acts according to his nature. Then what is the purpose of quelling? Likes and dislikes are obscured in
all the sensory objects. One should not get entangled into the vicious adversities of these two, as they
cause impediment s while progressing in the path of realisation. It is better to act as per ones own
nature irrespective of any inadequacy, than following the path of others though it may remain superior.
It is better to die by following up on ones own nature than by engaging the path of others that cause
fear. Every living being acts according to its inherent nature. For example, activities of an elephant are
different from that of a rat. Their inherent qualities cannot be changed, even by application of force.
Inherent quality is determined by the law of Nature and the individual quality is decided by the law of
karma. The inequalities amongst men, is due to the law of karma. A man is born to carry out certain
duties in this world. Nothing can change the activities of mankind as they are decided by the law of
Nature. A jnani (wise man), though a realised man has to follow the law of Nature as long he exists in
human form. He is also bound by the adversities of senses such as likes and dislikes as the entire living
beings act due to the sensory influences. There is no purpose of exercising external influence to control
the effects of sensory perceptions, as the law of Nature is bound to defeat any such move. But, the law of
karma can make a person immune to perceptions. The law karma is a powerful force to reckon with as
the karmic account is built over several births and the influences (vasana) of the earlier births are
adhered, to cast significant effects during this birth. Even in the case of jnani, he has to undergo the
effects of karma. But the difference between a jnani and an ordinary man is that jnani is aware that he is
not responsible for his actions, whereas an ordinary man is influenced by ego takes credit for his
actions, thereby accumulating further karmas. It must be remembered that both good karmas and bad
karmas cause rebirths. The difference between the two is that the one with good karmas does not suffer
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and the one with bad karmas undergoes sufferings and miseries. But none of them merge with the
Brahman. The merger with the Brahman bechances only if one is able to surrender the effects of all his
actions to the Brahman. In the case of a jnani, he is not concerned about his pleasure and pain, as they
are one and the same for him. He acts according the prescribed sastras or righteousness, thereby sets
an example for others to follow. Krishna calls likes and dislikes as the impediments to ones spiritual
quest. It is better to follow the laid down principles of righteous path that is to be followed with
determination irrespective of the impediments. While pursuing any good cause, there are bound to be
impediments. Fearing for these impediments, one should not stop his spiritual pursuits. This concept
can be further explained. Let us take the example of a jnani and an ordinary man. A jnani does not
involve with rituals like pujas, visiting temples, etc as he always stands connected to the Brahman. By
taking him as an example, the ordinary man should not refrain from performing prescribed rituals, as the
ordinary man can develop his cosmic connection only by performing such rituals. The jnani always
remains with the Brahman, though he physically remains in this world. Therefore, irrespective of the
inadequacies in these rituals, everyone should follow the well laid down principles. In Sanskrit, this is
known as swadharma and paradharma. Swadharma means ones own righteousness and
paradharma means the righteousness of others. It is better to die by following ones prescribed dharmas
than following the righteousness of others. This could be superior to his swadharma, but not meant for
him and hence causes unfounded fear. Unfounded fear stimulates death like situation thereby making it
impossible for him to perform the prescribed duties.
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Saturday, January 2, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER III. 30-32.


Gita series - 45. III. 30 32 Surrender all your actions unto me, the inner soul; enter the battle without
desire, ego and worries. Those who follow this injunction of mine faithfully without looking for demerits,
become free of their karmas. But those who do not follow this by denouncing my doctrine know them
as ignorant, deluded by true knowledge and remain totally desolated. These three verses are very
significant from the point of view of self-realization. Why should we surrender all our karmas to the
Brahman? The concept of surrendering is a very interesting doctrine. The initial step of surrender is the
faith in the Brahman. This faith is difficult to repose as the Brahman is not visible and has to be only
perceived. Based on this fact, the theory of self-realization is prophesied, looking for the source of
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creation within. This is based on the principle that what exists externally exists inwardly as well because
the unique nature of the Brahman is omnipresence. The cause and effects of all actions originate from
the Brahman and it is wrong to say that we do perform this action. We are merely tools of the Brahman to
unfold His actions based upon the karma of individual souls. Someone is extremely good and someone
else is extremely bad. Such individual actions depend upon ones karmic account. If we choose to
surrender the fruits of all our actions to the Creator, the karmic account is not disturbed irrespective of
the nature of such actions either good or bad. Self-realization does not merely mean realizing God
within, but to understand His unequalled quality of ubiquitousness. The lineaments of the Brahman can
be realized only if we renounce our ego. Ego always leads to illusionary pride; illusion because of the
fact that we are in no way a cause for an action or its effect. The ego is caused by maya. Ego leads to
other deceptive components such as desire and accompanied worries. If we do not have desires, we do
not germinate worries. When Krishna says inner soul (adyatma chetasa), He means the existence of
the Brahman in the form of a soul in all the creatures. Souls in fact are not the replication of the Brahman.
If we confine the Brahman only in the soul, His omnipresence nature would be lost. Soul is yet another
cause of creation, which manifests in conjunction with prakriti. Krishna elucidates the eternal fact in such
a lucid manner that even the ignorant men understand His logic. If someone chooses to ignore this
sermon by finding some fault or other, then there is no salvation for him. It does not mean that Krishnas
teachings have faults, but it is the mind that tries to misconstrue the facts making to appear the fact as
faulty. The minds of only the nescient indulge in such misconceptions and there are no remedies for
them. This is due to the fact that they are not interested in acquiring true knowledge and instead dwell in
worthless arguments and useless analysis. Brahman is beyond elucidation and at the most He can be
explained by means of negative statements such as not this, not that. The next available opportunity to
explain Brahman is by drawing known examples. It is the normal practice to compare sun to the
Brahman as we know sun is responsible for every action that unfolds in this universe. The ignorant, by
their stupefied interpretation and deluding true knowledge, are cause of their total desolation. This leads
to their rebirths and associated miseries, losing the opportunity give by Him to attain progress in
salvation. This is progress, as the process of salvation happens over several births.
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Wednesday, December 30, 2009

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER III. 27 - 29.


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Gita series - 44. III. 27 29 In all respects, all actions unfold due to the attributes (gunas) of prakriti
(primordial nature). But the ignorant, deluded by ego thinks I am the doer. Oh! The mighty armed
(Arjuna)! The one who is aware of the truth about the divisions of gunas and karmas, realising that all
the gunas (sensory attributes) operate only in guans (sensory objects) remain unattached to them.
But, the wise men should not influence those who are overwhelmed by the gunas arising out of prakriti
and indulging in gunas (sensory attributes) and karmas. The three gunas are satwic, rajo and tamo.
The whole universe remains in a potential state within prakriti so long as the three gunas remain in
equilibrium. When the equilibrium of the gunas is disturbed, metaphysical creation starts unfolding. The
gunas can be generally explained as the inherent qualities of the nature or prakriti. These three gunas
give rise to 23 tatwas or attributes. These tatwas are five basic elements five jnanendriyas (organs of
perception) five cognitive faculties (knowledge) five karmendriyas (organs of action) five action
faculties along with mind, intellect and ego. Prakriti can be explained as follows: The soul or purusha can
manifest only if it interacts with prakriti, which is also known as the nature or creative self-unfolding act. It
is only the prakriti that unfolds the act of creation. The prakriti is potentially a powerful tool that binds the
soul to manifest in the form of bodies, just to unfold the karmas embedded in the soul. When the soul is
under the influence of prakriti, the soul that is part of the Supreme Brahman forgets its own nature, and
identifies itself with ego. The deceptive and illusionary nature of prakriti engulfs the soul with all sorts of
addiction, affliction and confusion and makes the soul totally bewildered. The pure soul now stands
veiled by the effects of prakriti called maya or illusion. Those persons who are afflicted by maya or
illusion are called ignorant. Such ignorant men, deceived by ego think that they are responsible for the
acts of prakriti. The ego makes them to think I am the doer. Ego is the pernicious enemy while pursuing
the path of spirituality. A man acting through his unique free will creates his own karmas that unfold
through the three gunas acting through prakriti. `Unaware of this fact, an ignorant man thinks that he is
responsible for all the actions that unfold through him. This egotism gives rise to attachments towards his
senses. Senses excogitate their influence through their dimensions on sensory objects thereby making a
man attached to such objects. But a man of knowledge, possibly a yogi understands the truth behind this
reality. He is not bewildered by the effects of maya. He understands that the three gunas acting in
different proportions is responsible for all the karmas that unfold around him. Since he understands this
truth, he remains unattached to sensory objects or sensory attributes. He is fully aware that his body is
perishable like sensory objects. His consciousness would be with the eternal Brahman. Krishna says
that such realized persons should not influence the ignorant men. This can be looked at from two
different angles. From the perspective of the first angle, such ignorant men as long as they do not indulge
in unlawful activities, are a necessity for carrying out other actions for human sustenance. If everyone is
involved in pursuing spiritual activity, there will be none left for carrying out other activities, though this is

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a remote possibility. Krishna has already said that irrespective ones advancement in spiritual pursuit
everyone has to perform the prescribed actions. From the second point of view, if such materialistic
persons are initiated by realised persons, there is a possibility of misapprehending the path of
spirituality. Such sort of initiation should be gradual and final initiation could be done only if such
materialistic persons become receptive to the knowledge of the Brahman. If an active materialistic
person is told that the existence of the universe is illusory, his alert mental state could transform into
mental inertia. Most of the men during the course of their evolution and after going different experiences
begin their search for eternal truth. That could be an appropriate time for proper initiation. Meanwhile, the
realised person should continue his efforts to progress further in self-realisation. The end to the road of
spirituality is like a mirage. Only persistent practice (meditation) alone helps to make substantial spiritual
progress. For further reading: E-book titled principles of creation to be published shortly through
Google books which can be checked under e-books in the side bar of this site.
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Monday, December 28, 2009

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER III. 25-26.


Gita series - 43. III. 25 26 Oh! Descendent of Bharata! As ignorant are attached to the reward of their
actions, so the men of knowledge who remain unattached to their actions, should act to lead the
people in the right path. Such self-realized men should not confuse those who perform such actions
with dedication and sincerity as prescribed by sastras, undermining the importance of such actions.
Instead, the ignorant should be encouraged to perform the prescribed actions. Krishna addresses
even minute details in expounding karma yoga, to which this chapter is dedicated. Ignorant are those
who are bound by desires and attachments, which springs up while performing actions expecting
something in return. For example, let us take a person who continues to perform rituals for a longer time.
He performs those rituals with a desire to attain material prosperity. While performing such rituals, his
concentration may not be on the invoked deity to whom such rituals are performed and instead he might
concentrate on the procedural formalities. At the same time, the necessity and importance of performing
such rituals are not to be subverted, based on the fact that rituals have been prescribed in sastras and
scriptures. External rituals are not given importance by the learned people. They would like to spend their
time by purifying their consciousness, leaving behind all desires for material prosperity. At the same
time, such a stage can be attained only by dedication and sincere practice of performing such rituals in
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the initial stages of pursuing the path of spirituality. The transition in spirituality should be steady and
gradual. Overnight renunciation does not help in enlightenment. Krishna calls those who continue to
perform only rituals for a longer time as ignorant. Men of knowledge are those who have progressed
from the ignorant stage to the higher stages of realisation. They have gained their wisdom by performing
such rituals initially and over a period of time, they have conglomerated knowledge by understanding that
the Brahman can be better realized by mind control and exploring within, pursuing the path of meditation.
Such men of knowledge and wisdom should continue to perform their prescribed duties, though they are
not necessary for them. But they should continue to do their prescribed duties so that the ignorant are
guided by them to perform prescribed actions in right earnest. Instead of not performing any actions, it is
better to perform actions, though with attachments. Krishna cites the same reasons for His own actions
in verse 22 of this chapter. Such men of knowledge should encourage the ignorant to perform actions
irrespective of their attachments to fruits of such actions. Krishna had already said that everyone should
be active and remaining inactive and docile is not acceptable for spiritual progress.
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Friday, December 25, 2009

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER III. 22 - 24.


Gita series - 42. III. 22 24. Partha! There is no is no work for me to do in all the three worlds, nor there
is anything that I have to acquire. Yet, I am engaged in discharging my duties. In case I do not
perform my duties consciously, all men would follow me. In case I do not discharge my duties
properly, the universe will be annihilated. Further, I become the cause for such annihilation and
destroyer of the humanity. The Brahman is the cause for every activity that unfolds in this universe.
Krishnas words there is no work for me to do require a detailed study. Krishna says these words as the
Brahman without attributes. Brahman without attributes is eternally pure and does not get involved in any
causative acts. There is another side of the Brahman which is known as the Brahman with attributes and
is the cause of all acts that unfolds in this universe. As per Saiva siddhanta principle, the Brahman
without attributes is called Shiva and the Brahman with attributes is called Shakthi. They are considered
as two different components of the Brahman, the static and kinetic energies respectively, the former
giving rise to the latter. Though Krishna does not speak about this differentiation here, but it is entailed.
When Krishna says there is no work for me to do, he refers to the Brahman without attributes. When He
says, yet I am engaged in discharging my duties He refers to the Brahman with attributes. It is but
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natural that Brahman need not acquire anything as everything is sourced from Him only. The three worlds
Krishna refers to are the three vyahrits of Gayathri mantra Bhuhu, Bhuvaha, Suvaha. The vyahritis of
Gayatri mantra are nothing but the modifications of consciousness. They could also mean gross, subtle
and casual bodies. Out of these three types of bodies, only the first one is visible. The three states of
consciousness awake, dream and deep sleep manifest in the three bodies respectively. The second
part of His statement explains that if the Brahman with attributes stops functioning, the impact on the
universe would be devastating. This stage of the Brahman can be compared to our biological heart. If it
ceases to function for a moment, the gross body ceases to exist. Krishna though an incarnation,
comports like a normal human being, which prompted him to say that all men would follow him. Krishna
was respected and revered for his altruistic actions. Krishna makes this statement in his capacity as an
unfeigned guru. Comprehending the results if attributes of the Brahman cease to function is difficult. We
have discussed in several earlier articles that the law of the Lord is law of karma. Brahman acts mainly
through law of karma. There has to be a place in which the karma of a soul has to unfold and this place is
known as the gross body. If the Brahman chooses to ignore the law of karma for a moment, the whole
universe will be exterminated into nothingness. If God Himself fails in His duty, the faith we repose in Him
would become misplaced. God is comprehended beyond indolence, an embodiment of auspiciousness,
justice and permissiveness. Therefore, Krishna being the godhead would not like to be the cause for
destroying the humanity by not discharging His duties, which places immense faith in Him for its very
survival.
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Friday, December 18, 2009

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER III. 19 - 21.


Gita series - 41. III. 19 21. . Therefore, perform your duties well, without associating with the fruits of
such actions. By performing duties without attachment, one reaches the Paramatma. Kings like
Janakar attained perfection only by performing their prescribed duties. You have to do your duties, at
least for the purpose of guiding others. Whatever the actions done by great men are followed by
common men. Whatever standards set by such great men are simply being followed by all other
men. Krishna stresses the importance of performing ones prescribed duties. Shirking from
responsibilities and thereby avoiding work has already been disapproved by Krishna. Krishna
reemphasizes the fact that one should not be concerned about the end result of an action. Whether good
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or bad, the fruits of all actions should be surrendered to God. If someone thinks that he is responsible for
the achievement arising out of his actions, I ness dominates, which is otherwise known as ego. Only
materialistic actions give rise to ego, thereby creating a huge distance from God. If the same action is
performed spiritually, the doer of the action moves towards the God. The action being the same, it is only
the mind that differentiates between material and spiritual. Material actions are done with the sole
purpose of ones own benefits, whereas spiritual actions are done for the welfare of the humanity. King
Janakar, a noble king of his times was a highly realised person. By remaining as a king, he remained
unattached to the material comforts, at the same time not causing any disrepute to his status. He is a
typical example of a realized person. No one teaches that one should not enjoy the available and
affordable material comforts. If ones karma is good, he is bound to enjoy such material comforts. The
point driven home by Krishna is that one should not get attached to such comforts. It should be
understood, that the comforts made available are all given by Him, probably in appreciation of good
karmas done by him in his previous births. Such comforts do not belong to the enjoyer but belong to the
supreme giver, the Brahman. By performing noble actions such material prosperity can be retained are
increased. But, by not performing any actions, either to protect or to increase the wealth and on the
contrary without doing any work and make a living out of such wealth does not mean anything and
tantamount to committing sin. This is sin because the prescribed duty has not been done. This is a
situation where an idle mind becomes a devils paradise prompting to do evil actions. By associating
with evil actions, ones karmic account swells, resulting in further births and colligated miseries and
sufferings. Thus, neglecting ones duties lead to chain reactions that can easily be averted by performing
the prescribed actions at the right time. Based on these factors, Krishna draws Janakar as a typical
comparison who never permitted his commune with God to interfere in his state duties and vice versa.
Krishna repeatedly emphasizes the importance of not shirking ones responsibilities. By going to forest
and remaining all alone and doing nothing except sitting cross legged (padmasana), spiritual knowledge
cannot be attained. God is omnipresence in nature and therefore it is not necessary to seek in an
isolated place. There is yet another point that Krishna emphasizes. A spiritually evolved person like
Arjuna should set an example to others by performing prescribed rituals, though such rituals may not be
necessary for a yogi like Arjuna. That is why, rishis, saints, sages and yogis perform their daily rituals,
though they do not derive any additional spiritual benefits out of such actions. Such great men act merely
to set an example. It is like a school student takes his teacher as an example. Nobody can become
spiritually evolved without first performing rituals. Spiritual progress is an evolution by itself. Starting with
rituals, one has to gradually transform to internal exploration. Mantras, pujas, fire rituals, meditation, etc
are only the intermediary processes. Epics teach only these principles. It is difficult to locate a person
like Janakar today. Still, we can know the qualities of Janakar and other great men like him through

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scriptures. It is irrelevant to discuss if such things happened in the past. What is important is to
understand the subtle spiritual messages conveyed through them. Involved study of such scriptures
provides us with a lot of knowledge and wisdom, which is otherwise not possible today.
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