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Hysterisis loop for a ferromagnetic material (M-B curve)

Apparatus:
Two solenoid coils, S and C, ferromagnetic specimen rod, reversible key (R), ammeter,
magnetometer, battery, solenoid, rheostat.
Purpose of experiment: i)

To study the magnetization (M) of a ferromagnetic material in the presence of a


magnetic field B and to plot the hysterisis (M vs. B) curve.

ii)

To calculate the retentivity and coercivity of the material.

Basic methodology:
A ferromagnetic rod is magnetized by placing it in the magnetic field of a solenoid. The
magnetized rod causes a deflection ( ) in a magnetometer. The deflection is recorded as
the current in the solenoid (I ) is varied over a range of positive and negative values.
I.
I.1

Introduction
The magnetic field of a solenoid at a point on its axis is
B =onI

(1)

where o = 4107 N/A2 is the magnetic permeability of vacuum, n is the number of


turns per unit length in the solenoid and I is the current in the solenoid.
I.2

The specimen rod placed along the axis of the solenoid acquires a magnetization M
along its axis. (Magnetization is defined as the magnetic dipole moment per unit
volume). The magnetic dipole moment m of the rod is
m = M ( l)

(2)

where, l = length of the rod and =


crosssectional area of the rod.
I.3

The magnetic field produced by the


rod at the position of the magnetometer (r) is
BM =

o
2mr
4 2 l 2 2
r
4

(3)

Magnetometer

Rod
r
Fig. 1

I 4. The apparatus is aligned so that the horizontal component of the Earths magnetic field
BE, which is along North-South direction, is perpendicular to the axis of the rod (which

is along the East-West (E-W) direction). The magnetometer needle aligns along the
resultant magnetic field making an angle ,
with, BE as shown in Fig. 2. Clearly
tan =
I.5

BM
BM BE tan .
BE

(4)

Using Eqs. 2,3 and 4 we can write

4
M=
o ( 2l )

l2 4
BE tan .
r

(5)

Fig. 2

Hence M tan. Also from Eq.1, B I. Therefore a plot of tan vs. I reproduces the
features of a M vs. B curve.
Hysterisis loop:
A ferromagnet is a material whose atoms
behave like magnetic dipoles produced by the
spins of unpaired electrons. Domains form in
the interior of the material within which the
dipoles align in a given direction but the
domains themselves are randomly oriented.
(Fig. 3).

Domain walls

I.6

In the presence of an external magnetic field


the different domain moments tend to align
producing a net magnetization in the direction
of the magnetic field.

Fig. 3

The variation of the magnetization M as the


magnetic field B is varied gives rise to a
characteristic curve called the hysterisis loop.
Figure 4 shows a typical curve obtained. (The
axes are taken to be tan & I as is to be done

Ferromagnetic Domains
Fig. 3

in the experiment). As the magnetic field is increased the magnetization of the sample
increases as more and more domains align along the direction of the magnetic field.
With further increase in B, the magnetization M saturates to a maximum value (point b).
If the current I (field B) is decreased the magnetization M decreases.
When the current is made zero (point c) the magnetization M however does not fall to
zero. At this point the material has a residual magnetization and behaves like a
permanent magnet. To make the magnetization zero (point d) requires a non-zero current
in the reverse direction. As I is increased in the reverse direction M, saturates to a
maximum negative value (point e). Further increase in the current brings the

magnetization to zero (point g) and eventually to saturation (point b).

(Saturation)
(Permanent
Magnet)

(Permanent
Magnet)
(Saturation)
Fig 4
I.7

Retentivity & Coercivity


Retentivity (Mo) is the residual magnetization in the sample when the external magnetic
field is zero.
This is calculated as
Mo =
where tano =

o 2l

l2 4
r

BE tan o

(6)

cf
(points c & f refer to graph, Fig 4).
2

Coercivity Bo is the external magnetic field required to reduce the residual


magnetization in the sample to zero
dg
Io=
; Bo = onIo
(7)
2
(points d & g refers to the graph, Fig. 4).
II.

Set-up and Procedure


1.

Complete the wiring of the apparatus according to the circuit diagram, Fig.5.

2.

Alignment of apparatus:
Rotate the dial of the magnetometer until the 00-00 position is aligned with the axis
of the solenoid. Rotate the wooden arm, containing the solenoid, magnetometer and
compensating coil, until the magnetic pointer coincides with the 00-00 position. In
this position the wooden arm is along the E W position. The horizontal

component of Earths magnetic field BE (along N-S direction) is then perpendicular


to the wooden arm.
S = Solenoid
C = Compensating coil
N = magnetometer
Rh = Rheostat
R = Reversing key
A = Ammeter

Fig. 5
3.

Demagnetization of specimen rod: A simple way of demagnetizing the rod is by


hitting it against the ground a few times. This effectively randomizes the domains and
hence the magnetization is almost zero. Check that the magnetization is zero by
bringing it near the magnetometer. Zero or a very small deflection indicated that the
magnetization is very small.

4.

Positioning of the Compensating Coil:


Pass current (say 1A) through the coils S & C. Vary the position of C along the wooden
arm until the deflection of the needle is zero. The magnetic field of solenoid S is then
nullified (at the position of the magnetometer) by the magnetic field of C.

5.

Begin Measurement:
i)

To begin with, the current in the solenoid should be switched off.

ii)

Insert specimen rod so that its leading tip is at the edge of the solenoid.
Note: There should be no deflection of the needle at this point. If deflection is
observed repeat step 3 for demagnetizing rod.

(iii) Keep the reversing key R in a position so that current flows in a given direction.
The rheostat position should correspond to maximum resistance.
(iv) Switch on the voltage source so that a current flows through the circuit.

Caution: From now on the current variation sequence has to be followed strictly.
Any changes or back tracking of measurement will lead to incorrect results.
(v) Vary the current using the rheostat from 0A 1.5A and back 1.5A 0A in steps of
0.1A & note the deflections 1 & 2 for each setting of current.
Caution: To get strictly zero current you will have to switch off the battery.
(vi) Reverse the position of the reversible key R and vary the current in the reverse
direction 0A 1.5A & back, to 0A. Note the deflections 1 & 2.
(vii) Reverse the position of the key R and vary the current from 0 1.5A. Again note the
deflections 1 & 2.
References:
1.

Fundamentals of Physics, D. Halliday, R. Resnick and J. Walker, John Wiley &


Sons, New York, 2001.

2.

Physics, M. Alonso and E.J. Finn, Addison-Wesley 1992.

3.

Introduction to Electrodynamics, D.J. Griffins, PHI, 1998.